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DOWN TO A.D. 325. 













I R E N iE U S. 












BOOK IV. (continued.) 


31. We should not hastily impute as crimes to the men of old 
time those actions which the Scripture has not con- 
demned, but should rather seek in them types of things 
to come : an example of this in the incest committed 
by Lot, ...... 1 

o2. That one God was the author of both testaments, is con- 
firmed by the authority of a presbyter who had been 
taught by the apostles, .... 4 

oo. Whosoever confesses that one God is the author of both 
testaments, and diligently reads the Scriptures in com- 
pany with the presbyters of the church, is a true 
spiritual disciple ; and he will rightly understand and 
interpret all that the prophets have declared respecting 
Christ and the liberty of the new testament, . . 6 

34. Proof against the Marcionites, that the prophets referred in 

aU their predictions to our Christ, ... 18 

35. A refutation of those who allege that the prophets uttered 

some predictions under the inspiration of the Highest, 
others from the Demiurge. Disagreements of the 
Valentinians among themselves with regard to these 
same predictions, ..... 22 

36. The prophets were sent from one and the same Father from 

whom the Son was sent, .... 26 

37. Men are possessed of free-wUl, and endowed with the faculty 

of making a choice. It is not true, therefore, that some 

are by nature good, and others bad, . . . 36 

38. Why man was not made j)erfect from the beginning, . 42 


39. Man is endowed with the faculty of distinguishing good and 

evil ; so that, without compulsion, he has the power, 
by his own will and choice, to perform God's command- 
ments, by doing which he avoids the evils prepared for 
the rebellious, ...... 45 

40. One and the same God the Father inflicts punishment on 

the reprobate, and bestows rewards on the elect, . 48 

41. Those persons who do not believe in God, but who are dis- 

obedient, are angels and sons of the devil, not indeed 
by nature, but by imitation. Close of this book, and 
scope of the succeeding one, .... 60 


Preface, ....... 64 

1. Christ alone is able to teach divine things, and to redeem 

us : He, the same, took flesh of the Virgin ^lary, not 
merely in appearance, but actually, by the operation 
of the Holy Spirit, in order to renovate us. Strictures 
on the conceits of Valentinus and Ebion, . . 65 

2. When Christ visited us in His grace, He did not come to 

what did not belong to Him : also, by shedding His 
true blood for us, and exhibiting to us His true flesh in 
the Eucharist, He conferred upon our flesh the capa- 
city of salvation, ..... 68 

3. The power and glory of God shine forth in the weakness of 

human flesh, as He will render our body a participator 
of the resurrection and of immortality, although He 
N has formed it from the dust of the earth ; He will also 
bestow upon it the enjoyment of immortality, just as 
He grants it this short life in common with the soul, . 61 

4. Those persons are deceived who feign another God the Father 

besides the Creator of the world ; for he must have been 
feeble and useless, or else malignant and full of envy, 
if he be either unable or unwilling to extend eternal 
life to our bodies, ..... 64 

5. The prolonged life of the ancients, the translation of Elijah 

and of Enoch in their own bodies, as well as the pre- 
servation of Jonah, of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed- 
nego, in the midst of extreme peril, are clear demon- 
strations that God can raise up our bodies to life eternal, 65 



6. God will bestow salvation upon the whole nature of man, 

consisting of body and soul in close union, since the 
Word took it upon Him, and adorned it with the gifts 
of the Holy Spirit, of whom our bodies are, and are 
termed, the temples, ..... 67 

7. Inasmuch as Christ did rise in our flesh, it follows that 

we shall be also raised in the same ; since the re- 
^>>^ surrection promised to us should not be referred to 

spirits naturally immortal, but to bodies in themselves 
mortal, ...... 70 

8. The gifts of the Holy Spirit which we receive prepare us for 

incorruption, render us spiritual, and separate us from 
carnal men. These two classes are signified by the 
clean and unclean animals in the legal dispensation, . 72 

9. Showing how that passage of the apostle which the heretics 

pervert, should be understood : viz., " Flesh and blood 

shall not possess the kingdom of God," . . 75 

10. By a comparison drawn from the wild olive-tree, whose 

quality but not whose nature is changed by grafting, 
he proves more important things ; he points out also 
that man without the Spirit is not capable of bringing 
forth fruit, or of inheriting the kingdom of God, . 78 

11. Treats upon the actions of carnal and of spiritual persons ; 

also, that the spiritual cleansing is not to be referred 
to the substance of our bodies, but to the manner of 
our former life, ..... 80 

12. Of the difference between life and death; of the breath of 

life and the vivifying Spirit : also how it is that the 
substance of flesh revives which once was dead, . 82 

13. In the dead who were raised by Christ we possess the highest 

proof of the resurrection ; and our hearts are shown to 
be cai3able of life eternal, because they can now re- 
ceive the Spirit of God, .... 87 

14. Unless the flesh were to be saved, the Word would not have 
\ taken upon Him flesh of the same substance as ours : 

' from this it would follow that neither should we have 

been reconciled by Him, . . . .91 

15. Proofs of the resurrection from Isaiah and Ezekiel; the same 

God who created us wiU also raise us up, . . 9 i 

16. Since our bodies return to the earth, it follows that they 
have their substance from it ; also, by the advent of 
the Word, the image of God in us appeared in a clearer 
light, .98 


viii . CONTENTS. 


17. There is but one Lord and one God, the Father and Creator 

of all things, who has loved us in Christ, given us com- 
\j maudments, and remitted our sins ; whose Son and 
Word Christ proved Himself to be, when He forgave 
our sins, ...... 100 

18. God the Father and His Word have formed all created things 

(which they use) by their own power and wisdom, not 
out of defect or ignorance. The Son of God, who re- 
ceived all power from the Father, would otherwise never 
have taken flesh upon Him, .... 10.3 

19. A comparison is instituted between the disobedient and sin- 

ning Eve and the Virgin Mary, her patroness. Various 

and discordant heresies are mentioned, . . 106 

20. Those pastors are to be heard to whom the apostles com- 

mitted the churches, possessing one and the same doc- 
triue of salvation ; the heretics, on the other hand, are 
to be avoided. We must think soberly with regard to 
the mysteries of the faith, .... 108 

21. Christ is the Head of all tliiugs already mentioned. . It was 

fitting that He should be sent by the Father, the Crea- 
>. tor of all things, to assume human nature, and should 

be tempted by Satan, that He might fulfil tlie pro- 
mises, and carry off a glorious and perfect victory, . 110 
22 The true Lord and the one God is declared by the law, and 
manifested by Cln-ist His Son in the gospel ; whom 
alone we should adore, and from Him we must look 
for all good things, not from Satan, . . . 114 

23. The devil is well practised in falsehood, by wliich Adam 

having been led astray, sinned on the sixth day of the 
creation, in which day also he has been renewed by 
Christ, ...... 116 

24. Of the constant falsehood of the devil, and of the powers and 

governments of the world, which we ought to obey, 
inasmuch as they are appointed of Gorl, not of the 
devil, ....... 119 

26. The fraud, pride, and tyrannical kingdom of Antichrist, as 

described by Daniel and Paul, .... 121 
-26. John and Daniel have predicted the dissolution and desola- 
tion of the Roman Empire, which shall precede the end 
of the world and the eternal kingdom of Christ. The 
Gnostics are refuted, those tools of Satan, who invent 
another Father different from the Creator, . . 125 

27. The future judgment by Christ. Communion with and 


separation from the Diviue Being. The eternal punish- 
ment of unbelievers, . . . . .128 

28. The distinction to be made between the righteous and the 

■wicked. The future apostasy in the time of Antichrist, 

and the end of the world, . . . .130 

29. All things have been created for the service of man. The 

deceits, wickedness, and apostate power of Antichrist. 
This was prefigured at the deluge, as afterwards by the 
persecution of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, . 133 

30. Although certain as to the number of the name of Anti- 

christ, yet we should come to no rash conclusions as to 
the name itself, because this number is capable of being 
fitted to many names. Reasons for this point being- 
reserved by the Holy Spirit. Antichrist's reign and 
death, ....... 135 

31. The preservation of our bodies is confirmed by the resurrec- 

tion and ascension of Christ : the souls of the saints 
during the intermediate period are in a state of expec- 
tation of that time when they shall receive their perfect 
and consummated glory, .... 139 

32. In that flesh in which the saints have suffered so many 

afflictions, they shall receive the fruits of their labours ; 
especially since all creation waits for this, and God 
promises it to Abraham and his seed, . . .141 

83. Further proofs of the same proposition, drawn from the pro- 
mises made by Christ, when He declared that He would 
drink of the fruit of the vine with His disciples in His 
Father's kingdom, while at the same time He promised 
to reward them an hundred-fold, and to make them 
partake of banquets. The blessing pronounced by 
Jacob had pointed out this already, as Papias and the 
elders have interpreted it, . . . . 143 

34. He fortifies his opinions with regard to the temporal and 

earthly kingdom of the saints after their resurrection, 
by the various testimonies of Isaiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, 
and Daniel ; also by the parable of the servants watch- 
ing, to whom the Lord promised that He would 
minister, ...... 147 

35. He contends that these testimonies already alleged cannot be 

understood allegorically of celestial blessings, but that 
they shall have their fulfilment after the coming of 
Antichrist, and the resurrection, in the terrestrial Jeru- 
salem. To the former prophecies he subjoins others 



drawn from Isaiali, Jeremiah, and the Apocalypse of 

John, ....... 151 

36. Men shall be actually raised : the world shall not be anni- 
hilated; but there shall be various mansions for the 
saints, according to the rank allotted to each individual. 
All things shall be subject to God the Father, and so 
shall He be aU in all, ..... 155 


Index of Texts, . . . . . . .189 

Index of Principal Subjects, ..... 200 




Chap. xxxi. — We should not hastily impute as crimes to the 
men of old time those actions xvliich the Scripture has not 
condemned, hut should rather seek in them types of things 
to come : an example of this in the incest committed by 


HEl^ recounting certain matters of this kind 
respecting them of old time, the presbyter 
[before mentioned] was in the habit of in- 
structing us, and saying : " With respect to 
those misdeeds for which the Scriptures themselves blame 
the patriarchs and prophets, we ought not to inveigh against 
them, nor become like Ham, who ridiculed the shame of his 
father, and so fell under a curse ; but we should [rather] 
give thanks to God in their behalf, inasmuch as their sins 
have been forgiven them through the advent of our Lord ; 
for He said that they gave thanks [for us], and gloried in 
our salvation. With respect to those actions, again, on 
which the Scriptures pass no censure, but which are simply 
set down [as having occurred], we ought not to become the 
accusers [of those who committed them], for we are not more 
exact than God, nor can we be superior to our Master ; but 
we should search for a type [in them]. For not one of those 
things which have been set down in Scripture without being 
condemned is without significance." An example is found 
in the case of Lot, who led forth his daughters from Sodom, 



and these then conceived by their own father ; and who left 
behind him within the confines [of the land] his wife, [who 
remains] a pillar of salt unto this day. For Lot, not acting 
under the impulse of his own will, nor at the prompting of 
carnal concupiscence, nor having any knowledge or thought 
of anything of the kind, did [in fact] work out a type [of 
future events]. As says the Scripture : " And that night 
the elder went in and lay with her father ; and Lot knew 
not when she lay down, nor when she arose." ^ And the same 
thing took place in the case of the younger : " And he knew 
not," it is said, " when she slept with him, nor when she 
arose." ^ Since, therefore. Lot knew not [what he did], nor 
was a slave to lust [in his actions], the arrangement [designed 
by God] was carried out, by which the two daughters (that 
is, the two churches^), who gave birth to children begotten of 
one and the same father, were pointed out, apart from [the 
influence of] the lust of the flesh. For there was no other 
person, [as they supposed], who could impart to them quick- 
ening seed, and the means of their giving birth to children, 
as it is written : " And the elder said unto the younger. And 
there is not a man on the earth to enter in unto us after 
the manner of all the earth : come, let us make our father 
drunk with wine, and let us lie Avith him, and raise up seed 
from our father."* 

2. Thus, after their simplicity and innocence, did these 
daughters [of Lot] so speak, imagining that all mankind had 
perished, even as the Sodomites had done, and that the 
anger of God had come down upon the whole earth. Where- 
fore also they are to be held excusable, since they supposed 
that they only, along with their father, were left for the 
preservation of the human race ; and for this reason it was 
that they deceived their father. Moreover, by the words 
they used this fact was pointed out — that there is no other 
one who can confer upon the elder and younger church the 

1 Gen. xix. 33. - Gen. xix. 35. 

3 " Id est duse synagogse," referring to the Jews and Gentiles. Some 
regard the words as a marginal gloss which has crept into the test 
* Gen. xix. 31, 32. 


[po\Yer of] giving birth to children, besides our Father. 
Now the father of the human race is the Word of God, as 
Moses points out when he says, " Is not He thy father 
who hath obtained thee [by generation], and formed thee, 
and created thee?"^ At what time, then, did He pour out 
upon the human race the hfe-giving seed — that is, the Spirit 
of the remission of sins, through means of whom we are 
quickened ? Was it not then, when He was eating with 
men, and drinking wine upon the earth ? For it is said, 
"The Son of man came eating and drinking;"^ and when 
He had lain down. He fell asleep, and took repose. As He 
does Himself say in David, "I slept, and took repose."^ 
And because He used thus to act while He dwelt and lived 
among us, He says again, " And my sleep became sweet 
unto me." ^ Now this whole matter was indicated through 
Lot, that the seed of the Father of all — that is, of the Spirit 
of God, by whom all things were made — was commingled 
and united with flesh — that is, with His own workmanship ; 
by which commixture and unity the two synagogues — that is, 
the two churches — produced from their own father living- 
sons to the living God. 

3. And while these things were taking place, his wife 
remained in [the territory of] Sodom, no longer corruptible 
flesh, but a pillar of salt which endures for ever ; ^ and by 
those natural processes ^ which appertain to the human race, 
indicating that the church also, which is the salt of the earth,^ 
has been left behind within the confines of the earth, and 
subject to human sufferings ; and while entire members are 

1 Dcut. xxxii. 6, LXX. 2 ^att. xi. 19. 

2 Ps. iii. 6. 4 Jer. xxxi. 26. 

5 Comp. Clem. Rom. chap. xi. Josephus {Antiq. i. 11, 4) testifies that 
he had himself seen this pillar. 

^ The Latin is "per naturalia," which -words, according to Harvey, 
correspond to B/' i^f.(,yivoppoioig. There is a poem entitled Sodoma pre- 
served among the works of Tertullian and Cyprian which contains the 
following lines : 

" Dicitur et vivens, alio jam corpore, sexus 
Munificos solito dispungere sanguine menses." 
7 Matt. v. 13. 


often taken away from it, the pillar of salt still endures,^ thus 
typifying the foundation of the faith which maketh strong, 
and sends forward, children to their Father. 

Chap, xxxii. — That one God ivas the author of both testa- 
ments, is confirmed hy the authority, of a presbyter xvho 
had been taught by the apostles. 

1. After this fashion also did a presbyter," a disciple of 
the apostles, reason with respect to the two testaments, 
proving that both were truly from one and the same God. 
For [he maintained] that there was no other God besides 
Him who made and fashioned us, and that the discourse of 
those men has no foundation who affirm that this world of 
ours was made either by angels, or by any other power what- 
soever, or by another God. For if a man be once moved 
away from the Creator of all things, and if he grant that 
this creation to which we belong was formed by any other 
or through any other [than the one God], he must of neces- 
sity fall into much inconsistency, and many contradictions of 
this sort ; to which he will [be able to] furnish no explana- 
tions which can be regarded as either probable or true. And, 
for this reason, those who introduce other doctrines conceal 
from us the opinion which they themselves hold respecting 
God, because they are aware of the untenable^ and absurd 
nature of their doctrine, and are afraid lest, should they be 
vanquished, they should have some difficulty in making good 

^ The poem just referred to also says in reference to this pillar : 

" Ipsaque imago sibi formam sine corporc servans 
Durat adhuc, et eniin nuda statione sub sethram 
Nee pluviis dilapsa situ, nee diruta ventis. 
Quin ctiam si qiiis mutilavcrit advena formam, 
Protinus ex sese suggestu vulnera complet." 

2 Harvey remarks here, that this can hardly be the same presbyter 
mentioned before, " who was only a heai'er of those Avho had heard the 
apostles. IreuBcus may here mean the venerable martyr Polycarp, 
bishop of Smyrna." 

3 " Quassum et futile." The text varies much in the liss. 


their escape. But if any one believes in [only] one God, 
uho also made all things by the Word, as Moses likewise 
says, " God said, Let there be light : and there was light ;"^ 
and as we read in the Gospel, " All things were made by 
Him ; and without Him was nothing made ;"^ and the Apostle 
Paul [says] in like manner, " There is one Lord, one faith, 
one baptism, one God and Father, who is above all, and 
through all, and in lis all"'^ — this man Avill first of all "hold 
the head, from which the whole body is compacted and bound 
together, and, through means of every joint according to the 
measure of the ministration of each several part, maketh 
increase of the body to the edification of itself in love."^ 
And then shall every word also seem consistent to him,'' if 
he for his part diligently read the Scriptures in company 
with those who are presbyters in the church, among whom 
is the apostolic doctrine, as I have pointed out. 

2. For all the apostles taught that there were indeed two 
testaments among the two peoples ; but that it was one and 
the same God who appointed both for the advantage of those 
men (for whose ® sakes the testaments were given) who were 
to believe in God, I have proved in the third book from the 
very teaching of the apostles; and that the first testament 
was not given without reason, or to no purpose, or in an 
accidental sort of manner; but that it subdued' those to 
whom it was given to the service of God, for their benefit 
(for God needs no service from men), and exhibited a type 
of heavenly things, inasmuch as man was not yet able to see 
the things of God through means of immediate vision ;^ and 
foreshadowed the images of those things which [now actually] 
exist in the church, in order that our faith might be firmly 
established ; and contained a prophecy of things to come, in 

^ Gen. i. 3. ^ John i. 3. ^ Eph. iv. 5, 6. 

-* Eph. iv. 16 ; Col. ii. 19. ^ " Constabit ei." 

** We here read " secundum quos'''' with Massuet, instead of the usual 
"secundum quod.'''' 

' " Concurvans," corresponding to av/x.a.i^'Trruv, -n-hich, saj's Harvey, 
" would be expressive of those who were brought under the law, as the 
neck of the steer is bent to the yoke." 

^ The Latin is, " per proprium visum." 


order that man might learn that God has foreknowledge of 
all things. 

Chap, xxxiii. — Wlwsoever confesses that one God is the 
author of both testaments, and diligently reads the Scrip- 
tures in company with the presbyters of the church, is a 
true spiritual disciple ; and he will rightly understand 
and interpret all that the prophets have declared respect- 
ing Christ and the liberty of the new testament. 

1. A spiritual disciple of this sort truly receiving the Spirit 
of God, who was from the beginning, in all the dispensations 
of God, present with mankind, and announced things future, 
revealed things present, and narrated things past — [such a 
man] does indeed judge all men, but is himself judged by 
no man.^ For he judges the Gentiles, " who serve the 
creature more than the Creator,"^ and with a reprobate mind 
spend all their labour on vanity. And he also judges the 
Jews, who do not accept of the word of liberty, nor are willing 
to go forth free, although they have a Deliverer present 
[with them] ; but they pretend, at a time unsuitable [for 
such conduct], to serve, [with observances] beyond [those 
required by] the law, God who stands in need of nothing, 
and do not recognise the advent of Christ, which He accom- 
plished for the salvation of men, nor are willing to under- 
stand that all the prophets announced His two advents : the 
one, indeed, in which He became a man subject to stripes, 
and knowing what it is to bear infirmity,^ and sat upon the 
foal of an ass,* and was a stone rejected by the builders,^ and 
was led as a sheep to the slaughter,*' and by the stretching 
forth of His hands destroyed Amalek ; ^ while He gathered 
from the ends of the earth into His Father's fold the chil- 
dren who were scattered abroad,^ and remembered His own 
dead ones who had formerly fallen asleep,^ and came down to 
them that He might deliver them : but the second in which 

1 1 Cor. ii. 15. 2 Ko^ i. 2I. ^ Isa. liii. 3. 

■* Zech. ix. 9. « Ps. cxviii. 22. ^ Isa. liii. 7. 

^ Ex. xvii. 11. 8 Isa. xi. 12. » Comp. book iii. 20, 4. 


He will come on the clouds/ bringing on the day which 
burns as a furnace,^ and smiting the earth with the word of 
His mouth," and slaying the impious with the breath of His 
lips, and having a fan in His hands, and cleansing His floor, 
and gathering the wheat indeed into His barn, but burning 
the chaff with unquenchable fire.* 

2. Moreover, he shall also examine the doctrine of Marcion, 
[inquiring] how he holds that there are two gods, separated 
from each other by an infinite distance.'^ Or how can he be 
good who draws away men that do not belong to him from 
him who made them, and calls them into his own kingdom? 
And why is his goodness, which does not save all [thus], 
defective? Also, why does he, indeed, seem to be good as 
respects men, but most unjust with regard to him who made 
men, inasmuch as he deprives him of his possessions? More- 
over, how could the Lord, with any justice, if He belonged 
to another father, have acknowledged the bread to be His 
body, while He took it from that creation to which we belong, 
and affirmed the mixed cup to be His blood ? ^ And why 
did He acknowledge Himself to be the Son of man, if He 
had not gone through that birth which belongs to a human 
being ? How, too, could He forgive us those sins for which 
we are answerable to our JMaker and God? And how, again, 
supposing that He was not flesh, but was a man merely in 
appearance, could He have been crucifled, and could blood 
and water have issued from His pierced side ? ^ What body, 
moreover, was it that those who buried Him consigned to the 
tomb ? And what was that which rose again from the dead ? 

3. [This spiritual man] shall also judge all the followers of 
Valentinus, because they do indeed confess with the tongue 
one God the Father, and that all things derive their existence 

1 Dan. vii. 13. 2 Mai. iv. 1. 

3 Isa. xi. 4. •* Matt. iii. 12 ; Luke iii. 17. 

* Harvey points tlai^ sentence interrogatively. 

^ " Temper amentum calicis:" on which Harvey remarks that "the 
mixtiire of water with the wine in the holy Eucharist was the universal 
practice of antiquity . . . the wine signifying the mystical Head of the 
church, the water the body." 

^ John xix. 34. 


from Him, but do at the same time maintain that He who 
formed all things is the fruit of an apostasy or defect. [He 
shall judge them, too, because] they do in like manner con- 
fess with the tongue one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, 
but assign in their [system of] doctrine a production of his 
own to the Only-begotten, one of his own also to the Word, 
another to Christ, and yet another to the Saviour ; so that, 
according to them, all these beings are indeed said [in Scrip- 
ture to be], as it were, one ; [while they maintain], notwith- 
standing, that each one of them should be understood [to exist] 
separately [from the rest], and to have [had] his own special 
origin, according to his peculiar conjunction. [It appears], 
then,^ that their tongues alone, forsooth, have conceded the 
imity [of God], while their [real] opinion and their understand- 
ing (by their habit of investigating profundities) have fallen 
away from [this doctrine of] unity, and taken up the notion 
of manifold deities, — [this, I say, must appear] when they 
shall be examined by Christ as to the points [of doctrine] 
which they have invented. Him, too, they affirm to have 
been born at a later period than the Pleroma of the ^ons, 
and that His production took place after [the occurrence of] 
a degeneracy or apostasy ; and they maintain that, on account 
of the passion which was experienced by Sophia, they them- 
selves were brought to the birth. But their own special 
prophet Homer, listening to whom they have invented such 
doctrines, shall himself reprove them, when he expresses 
himself as follows : 

" Hateful to me that man as Hades' gates, 
^Vlio one tiling thinks, while he another states." - 

[This spiritual man] shall also judge the vain speeches of the 
perverse Gnostics, by showing that they are the disciples of 
Simon Magus. 

4. He will judge also the Ebionltes ; [for] how can they 
be saved unless it was God who wrought out their salvation 
upon earth? Or how shall man pass into God, unless God 
has [first] passed into man ? And how shall he (man) escape 

^ Tliis sentence is very obscure in the Latin text. 
2 Iliad, ix. 312, 313. 


from the generation subject to death, if not by means ^ of a 
new generation, given in a wonderful and unexpected manner 
(but as a sign of salvation) by God — [I mean] that regenera- 
tion which flows from the virgin through faith ? ^ Or how 
shall they receive adoption from God if they remain in this 
[kind of] generation, which is naturally possessed by man in 
this world ? And how could He (Christ) have been greater 
than Solomon,'' or greater than Jonah, or have been the Lord 
of David,^ who was of the same substance as they were % 
How, too, could He have subdued '^ him who was stronger 
than men,*^ who had not only overcome man, but also retained 
him viuder his power, and conquered him who had conquered, 
while he set free mankind who had been conquered, unless He 
had been greater than man who had thus been vanquished ? 
But who else is superior to, and more eminent than, that man 
who was formed after the likeness of God, except the Son of 
God, after whose image man was created ? And for this 
reason He did in these last days^ exhibit the similitude ; ^ 
[for] the Son of God was made man, assuming the ancient 
production [of His hands] into His own nature,*' as I have 
shown in the immediately preceding book. 

5. He shall also judge those who describe Christ as [having 
become man] only in [human] opinion. For how can they 
imagine that they do themselves carry on a real discussion, 
when their Master was a mere imaginary being ? Or how can 
they receive anything stedfast from Him, if He was a merely 
imagined being, and not a verity ? And how can these men 
really be partakers of salvation, if He in whom they profess 
to believe, manifested Himself as a merely imaginary being % 
Everything, therefore, connected with these men is unreal, and 

^ The text is obscure, and the construction doubtful. 

2 The Latin here is, " quse est ex virgine per fidem regenerationem.'' 
According to Massuet, "virgine" here i-efers not to Mary, but to the 
church. Grabe suspects that some words have been lost. 

" Matt. xii. 41, 42. * Matt. xxii. 43. 

5 Matt. xxii. 29 ; Luke xi. 21, 22. 

® Literally, " who was strong against men." 

^ In fine : lit. "in the end." 

® In semetipsuin : lit. "imto Himself." 


nothing [possessed of the character of] truth ; and, in these 
circumstances, it may be made a question whether (since, 
perchance, they themselves in like manner are not men, but 
mere dumb animals) they do not present,^ in most cases, 
simply a shado^Y of humanity. 

6. He shall also judge false prophets, who, without having 
received the gift of prophecy from God, and not possessed of 
the fear of God, but either for the sake of vainglory, or with 
a view to some personal advantage, or acting in some other 
way under the influence of a wicked spirit, pretend to utter 
prophecies, while all the time they lie against God. 

7. He shall also judge those who give rise to schisms, who 
are destitute of the love of God, and who look to their own 
special advantage rather than to the unity of the church ; and 
who for trifling reasons, or any kind of reason which occurs 
to them, cut in pieces and divide the great and glorious body 
of Christ, and so far as in them lies, [positively] destroy it, — 
men who prate of peace while they give rise to war, and do 
in truth strain out a gnat, but swallow a camel.^ For no 
reformation of so great importance can be effected by them, 
as will compensate for the mischief arising from their schism. 
Pie shall also judge all those who are beyond the pale of the 
truth, that is, who are outside the church ; but he himself 
shall be judged by no one. For to him all things are con- 
sistent : he has a full faith in one God Almighty, of whom 
are all things ; and in the Son of God, Jesus Christ our 
Lord, by whom are all things, and in the dispensations con- 
nected with Him, by means of which the Son of God became 
man ; and a firm belief in the Spirit of God, who furnishes 
us with a knowledge of the truth, and has set forth the dis- 
pensations of tlie Father and the Son, in virtue of which He 
dwells with every generation of men,^' according to the will 
of the Father. 

1 TVe here follow the reading " proferaut :" the passage is diflBcult aud 
obscure, but the meaning is as above. 

2 Matt, xxiii. 24. 

3 The Greek text here is ax.Tnvo(ia.Tovu (lit. "to tabernacle:" comp. 
iax,'/)vaaiv, John i. 14) x,xff ix-uaTYi» yiviuv iv rolg oivSpuvoig ; the Latin is, 


8. True knowledge^ is [that which consists in] the doctrine 
of the apostles, and the ancient constitution^ of the church 
throughout all the world, and the distinctive manifestation of 
the body^ of Christ according to the successions of the bishops, 
by which they have handed down that church which exists 
in every place, and has come even unto us, being guarded 
and preserved,^ without any forging of Scriptures, by a veiy 
complete system^ of doctrine, and neither receiving addition 
nor [suffering] curtailment [in the truths which she believes] ; 
and [it consists in] reading [the word of God] without falsi- 
fication, and a lawful and diligent exposition in harmony with 
the Scriptures, both without danger and without blasphemy ; 
and [above all, it consists in] the pre-eminent gift of love,^ 
which is more precious than knowledge, more glorious than 
prophecy, and which excels all the other gifts [of God]. 

9. Wherefore the church does in every place, because of 
that love which she cherishes towards God, send forward, 
throughout all time, a multitude of martyrs to the Father ; 
while all others^ not only have nothing of this kind to point 
to among themselves, but even maintain that such witness- 
bearing is not at all necessary, for that their system of doc- 
trines is the true witness [for Christ], with the exception, 
perhaps, that one or two among them, during the whole time 

" Secundum quas (dispositiones) aderat generi humane." We have en- 
deavoured to express the meaning of both. 

^ The following section is an important one, but very difficult to trans- 
late with undoubted accuracy. The editors differ considerably both as 
to the construction and the interpretation. We have done our best to 
represent the meaning in English, but may not have been altogether 

2 The Greek is avaryi/xce, ; the Latin text has " status." 

2 The Latin is, " character corporis." 

* The text here is, " custodita sine fictione scripturarum ; " some prefer 
joining " scripturarum" to the following words. 

^ We follow Harvey's text, " tractatione ; " others read " tractatio." 
According to Harvey, the creed of the church is denoted by " tracta- 
tione;" but Massuet renders the clause thus : ["True knowledge con- 
sists in] a very complete tractatio of the Scriptures, which has come 
down to us by being preserved (' custoditione ' being read instead of 
' custodita ') without falsification." 

^ Comp. 2 Cor. viii. 1 ; 1 Cor. xiii. ^ i.e. the heretics. 


wliicli has elapsed since the Lord appeared on earth, have 
occasionally, along with our martyrs, borne the reproach of 
the name (as if he too [the heretic] had obtained mercy), 
and have been led forth with them [to death], being, as it 
were, a sort of retinue granted unto them. For the church 
alone sustains with purity the reproach of those who suffer 
persecution for righteousness' sake, and endure all sorts of 
punishments, and are put to death because of the love which 
they bear to God, and their confession of His Son ; often 
weakened indeed, yet immediately increasing her members, 
and becoming whole again, after the same manner as her 
t3^pe,-^ Lot's wife, who became a pillar of salt. Thus, too, [she 
passes through an experience] similar to that of the ancient 
prophets, as the Lord declares, " For so persecuted they the 
prophets who were before you;"^ inasmuch as she does in- 
deed, in a new fashion, suffer persecution from those who do 
not receive the word of God, while the self-same spirit rests 
upon her^ [as upon these ancient prophets]. 

10. And indeed the prophets, along with other things which 
they predicted, also foretold this, that all those on whom the 
Spirit of God should rest, and who would obey the w^ord of 
the Father, and serve Him according to their ability, should 
suffer persecution, and be stoned and slain. For the prophets 
prefigured in themselves all these things, because of their love 
to God, and on account of His word. For since they them- 
selves were members of Christ, each one of them in his place 
as a member did, in accordance with this, set forth the pro- 
phecy [assigned him] ; all of them, although many, prefiguring 
only one, and proclaiming the things which pertain to one. 
For just as the working of the whole body is exhibited through 
means of our members, while the figure of a complete man 
is not displayed by one member, but through means of all 
taken together, so also did all the prophets prefigure the one 
[Christ] ; while every one of them, in his special place as a 
member, did, in accordance with this, fill up the [established] 
dispensation, and shadowed forth beforehand that particular 
working of Christ which was connected with that member. 

^ Comp. above, xxxi. 2. ^ Matt. v. 12. « Comp. 1 Pet. iv. 14. 


11. For some of them, Leliokling Ilim in gloiy, saw His 
glorious life (conversationem) at the Father's right liand;^ 
others beheld Him coming on the clouds as the Son of man ;" 
and those who declared regarding Him, " They shall look on 
Him whom they have pierced,"^ indicated His [second] ad- 
vent, concerning which He Himself says, " Thinkest thou 
that when the Son of man cometh. He shall find faith on the 
earth?"* Paul also refers to this event when he says, "If, 
however, it is a righteous thing with God to recompense 
tribulation to them that trouble you, and to you that are 
troubled rest with us, at the revelation of the Lord Jesus 
from heaven, with His mighty angels, and in a flame of 
fire."^ Others again, speaking of Him as a judge, and [re- 
ferring], as if it were a burning furnace, [to] the day of the 
Lord, who " gathers the wheat into His barn, but will burn 
up the chaff with unquenchable fire,'"^ were accustomed to 
threaten those who were unbelieving, concerning whom also 
the Lord Himself declares, " Depart from me, ye cursed, 
into everlasting fire, which my Father has prepared for the 
devil and his angels."^ And the apostle in like manner says 
[of them], " Who shall be punished with everlasting death 
from the face of the Lord, and from the glory of His power, 
when He shall come to be glorified in His saints, and to be 
admired in those who believe in Him."** There are also some 
[of them] who declare, " Thou art fairer than the children of 
men;"^ and, " God, Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil 
of gladness above Thy fellows;" ^° and, " Gird Thy sword upon 
Thy thigh, O most Mighty, with Thy beauty and Thy fairness, 
and go forward and proceed prosperously ; and rule Thou be- 
cause of truth, and meekness, and righteousness."^^ And what- 
ever other things of a like nature are spoken regarding Him, 
these indicated that beauty and splendour which exist in His 

^ Isa. vi. 1 ; Ps. ex. 1. ^ Dan. vii. 13. ^ Zech. xii. 10. 

* Luke xviii. 8. There is nothing to correspond with " putas" in the 
received text. 

•'> 2 Thess. i. 6-8. « Matt. iu. 12. ^ Matt. xxv. 41. 

8 2 Thess. i. 9, 10. ^ pg, ^ly, 2. i» Ps. xlv. 7. 

11 Ps. xlv. 3, 4. 


kingdom, along with the transcendent and pre-eminent exal- 
tation [belonging] to all who are under His sway, that those 
who hear might desire to be found there, doing such things 
as are pleasing to God. Again, there are those who say, 
"He is a man, and who shall know him?"^ and, "I came 
unto the prophetess, and she bare a son, and His name is 
called Wonderful, Counsellor, the Mighty God ;"^ and those 
[of them] who proclaimed Him as Immanuel, [born] of the 
Virgin, exhibited the union of the Word of God with His 
own workmanship, [declaring] that the Word should become 
flesh, and the Son of God the Son of man (the pure One 
opening purely that pure womb which regenerates men unto 
God, and which He Himself made pure) ; and having become 
this which we also are. He [nevertheless] is the Mighty God, 
and possesses a generation which cannot be declared. And 
there are also some of them who say, " The Lord hath spoken 
in Zion, and uttered His voice from Jerusalem;"' and, "In 
Judah is God known;"* — these indicated His advent which 
took place in Judea. Those, again, who declare that " God 
comes from the south, and from a mountain thick with 
foliage,"'^ announced His advent at Bethlehem, as I have 
pointed out in the preceding book.^ From that place, also, 
He who rules, and who feeds the people of His Father, has 
come. Those, again, who declare that at His coming " the 
lame man shall leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb 
shall [speak] plainly, and the eyes of the blind shall be 
opened, and the ears of the deaf shall hear,"^ and that " the 
hands which hang down, and the feeble knees, shall be 
strengthened," ^ and that " the dead which are in the grave 
shall arise,"" and that He Himself "shall take [upon Him] 
our weaknesses, and bear our sorrows," ^^ — [all these] pro- 

^ Jer. xvii. 9 (Sept.). Harvey here remarks : " The LXX read ti'ijsc 
instead of li'jjc. Thus, from a text that teaches us that the heart is de- 
ceitful above all things^ the fathers extract a proof of the manhood of 

2 Isa. viii. 3, ix. 6, vii. 14. ^ Joel ill. 16. •* Ps. Ixxvi. 1. 

" Hab. iii. 3. ^ See in. xx. 4. '' Isa. xxxv. 5, 6. 

8 Isa. XXXV. 3. 8 Isa. xxvi. 19. ^^ Isa. Uii. 4. 


claimed those works of healing which were accomj)Hshed by 

12. Some of them, moreover — [when they predicted that] 
as a weak and inglorious man, and as one who knew what it 
was to bear infirmity,^ and sitting upon the foal of an ass,^ 
He should come to Jerusalem ; and that He should give His 
back to stripes/ and His cheeks to palms [which struck Him] ; 
and that He should be led as a sheep to the slaughter ;^ and 
that He should have vinegar and gall given Him to drink ;^ 
and that He should be forsaken by His friends and those 
nearest to Him ;^ and that He should stretch forth His hands 
the whole day long;^ and that He should be mocked and 
maligned by those who looked upon Him ;^ and that His gar- 
ments should be parted, and lots cast upon His raiment ;^ and 
that He should be brought down to the dust of death,^*' with 
all [the other] things of a like nature — prophesied His coming 
in tlie character of a man as He entered Jerusalem, in which 
by His passion and crucifixion He endured all the things 
which have been mentioned. Others, again, when they said, 
" The holy Lord remembered His own dead ones who slept 
in the dust, and came down to them to raise them up, that 
He might save them,"^^ furnished us with the reason on ac- 
count of which He suffered all these things. Those, more- 
over, who said, "In that day, saith the Lord, the sun shall 
go down at noon, and there shall be darkness over the earth 
in the clear day ; and I will turn your feast days into mourn- 
ing, and all your songs into lamentation,"^^ plainly announced 
that obscuration of the sun which at the time of His cruci- 
fixion took place from the sixth hour onwards, and that after 
this event, those days which were their festivals according to 
the law, and their songs, should be changed into grief and 
lamentation when they were handed over to the Gentiles. 

1 Isa. liii. 3. 2 Zech. ix. 9. ^ jga. l. 6. 

* Isa. liii. 7. « Ps. Ixix. 21. '^ Ps. xxxviii. 11. 

7 Isa. Ixv. 2. 8 Ps. xxii. 7. ^ Ps. xxii. 18. 

" Ps. xxii. 15. 

^^ Compare vol. i. of our translation, pp. 350, 454. 
12 Amos viii. 9, 10. 

16 IRENjEUS against HERESIES. [Book iv. 

Jeremiah, too, makes this point still clearer, when lie thus 
speaks concerning Jerusalem : " She that hath born [seven] 
lano-uisheth ; her soul hath become weary ; her sun hath 
"•one clown while it was yet noon ; she hath been confounded, 
and suffered reproach : the remainder of them will I give to 
the sword in the sight of their enemies."^ 

13. Those of them, again, who spoke of His having slum- 
bered and taken sleep, and of His having risen again because 
the Lord sustained Him,^ and who enjoined the principalities 
of heaven to set open the everlasting doors, that the King of 
glorv mifrht go in,^ proclaimed beforehand His resurrection 
from the dead through the Father's power, and His reception 
into heaven. And when they expressed themselves thus, 
" His going forth is from the height of heaven, and His re- 
turning even to the highest heaven ; and there is no one who 
can hide himself from Plis heat,"* they announced that very 
truth of His being taken up again to the place from which 
He came down, and that there is no one who can escape His 
righteous judgment. And those who said, " The Lord hath 
rei'med ; let the people be enraged : [even] He who sitteth 
upon the cherubim; let the earth be moved," ^ were thus pre- 
dicting partly that wrath from all nations which after His 
ascension came upon those who believed in Him, with the 
movement of the whole earth against the church ; and partly 
the fact that, when He comes from heaven with His mighty 
angels, the whole earth shall be shaken, as He Himself de- 
clares, " There shall be a great earthquake, such as has not 
been from the beginning.'"' And again, when one says, 
" Whosoever is judged, let him stand opposite ; and whoso- 
ever is justified, let him draw near to the servant^ of God;"^ 
and, " Woe unto you, for ye shall all wax old as doth a gar- 
ment, and tlie moth shall eat you up;" and, "All flesh sliall 
be humbled, and the Lord alone shall be exalted in the 
liighest,"^ — it is thus indicated that, after His passion and 
ascension, God shall cast down under Plis feet all wdio were 

1 Jcr. XV. 9. '^ Ps. iii. 5. ' Ps. xxiv. 7. 

< Ps. xix. G. '• Ps. xcix. 1. '^ Matt. xxiv. 21. 

7 Or " son." 8 isa. 1. 8, 9 (loosely quoted). » Isa. ii. 17. 


opposed to Him, and He shall be exalted above all, and there 
shall be no one ayIio can be justified or compared to Him. 

14. And those of them who declare that God would make 
a new covenant^ with men, not such as that which He made 
with the fathers at Mount Horeb, and would give to men a 
new heart and a new spirit ;^ and again, " And remember ye 
not the things of old : behold, I make new things which shall 
now arise, and ye shall know it ; and I will make a way in 
the desert, and rivers in a dry land, to give drink to my chosen 
people, my people whom I have acquired, that they may show 
forth my praise," ^ — plainly announced that liberty which dis- 
tinguishes the new covenant, and the new wine which is put 
into, new bottles,'* [that is], the faith which is in Christ, by 
which He has proclaimed the way of righteousness sprung up 
in the desert, and the streams of the Holy Spirit in a dry 
land, to give water to the elect people of God, whom He has 
acquired, that they might show forth His praise, but not 
that they might blaspheme Him who made these things, that 
is, God. 

15. And all those other points whicli I have shown the 
prophets to have uttered by means of so long a series of 
Scriptures, he who is truly spiritual will interpret by pointing 
out, in regard to every one of the things which have been 
spoken, to what special point in the dispensation of the Lord 
it referred, and [by thus exhibiting] the entire system of the 
work of the Son of God, knowing always the same God, and 
always acknowledging the same Word of God, although He 
has [but] now been manifested to us ; acknowledging also at 
all times the same Spirit of God, although He has been 
poured out upon us after a new fashion in these last times, 
[knowing that He descends] even from the creation of the 
world to its end upon the human race simply as such, from 
whom those who believe God and follow His word receive 
that salvation which flows from Him. Those, on the otlier 
hand, who depart from Him, and despise His precepts, and 
by their deeds brhig dishonour on Him who made them, and 

^ Jer. xxxi. 31, 32. ^ Ezek. xxxvi. 26. 

3 Isa. xliii. 19-21. . ■* Matt. ix. 17. 

lEEN.-— VOL. II. B 


by their opinions blaspheme Him who nourishes them, heap 
up against themselves most righteous judgment.^ He there- 
fore {i.e. the spiritual man) sifts and tries them all, but he 
himself is tried by no man r' he neither blasphemes his Father, 
nor sets aside His dispensations, nor inveighs against the 
fathers, nor dishonours the prophets, by maintaining that 
they were [sent] from another God [than he worships], or 
again, that their prophecies were derived from different 

Chap, xxxiv. — Proof against the Marcionites, that the pro- 
phets referred in all their predictions to our Christ. 

1. Now I shall simply say, in opposition to all the heretics, 
and principally against the followers of Marcion, and against 
those who are like to these, in maintaining that the prophets 
were from another God [than He who is announced in the 
gospel], read with earnest care that gospel which has been 
conveyed to us by the apostles, and read with earnest care 
the prophets, and you will find that the whole conduct, and 
all the doctrine, and all the sufferings of our Lord, were pre- 
dicted through them. But if a thought of this kind should 
then suggest itself to you, to say. What then did the Lord 
bring to us by His advent? — know ye that He brought all 
[possible] novelty, by bringing Himself who had been an- 
nounced. For this very thing was proclaimed beforehand, 
that a novelty should come to renew and quicken mankind. 
For the advent of the King is previously announced by those 
servants who are sent [before Him], in order to the prepara- 
tion and equipment of those men who are to entertain their 
Lord. But when the King has actually come, and those who 
are His subjects have been filled with that joy which was 
proclaimed beforehand, and have attained to that liberty 
which He bestows, and share in the sight of Him, and have 
listened to His words, and have enjoyed the gifts which He 
confers, the question will not then be asked by any that are 

^ Rom. ii. 5. ^1 Cor. ii. 15. 

' " Ex aliaet alia substantia fuisse prophctias." 


possessed of sense what new thing the King has brought 
beyond [that proclaimed by] those who announced Kis com- 
ing. For He has brought Himself, and has bestowed ou 
men those good things which were announced beforehand, 
which things the angels desired to look into.^ 

2. But the servants would then have been proved false, 
and not sent by the Lord, if Christ on His advent, by being 
found exactly such as He was previously announced, had 
not fulfilled their words. Wherefore He said, " Think not 
that I have come to destroy the law or the prophets ; I came 
not to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you. Until 
heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall not 
pass from the law and the prophets till all come to pass."^ 
For by His advent He Himself fulfilled all things, and does 
still fulfil in the church the new covenant foretold by the 
law, onwards to the consummation [of all things]. To this 
eifect also Paul, His apostle, says in the Epistle to the 
Romans, " But now,'' without the law, has the righteousness 
of God been manifested, being witnessed by the law and the 
prophets ; for the just shall live by faith." ■* But this fact, 
that the just shall live by faith, had been previously an- 
nounced^ by the prophets. 

3. But whence could the prophets have had power to pre- 
dict the advent of the King, and to preach beforehand that 
liberty wdiich was bestowed by Him, and previously to an- 
nounce all things which were done by Christ, His words. His 
works, and His sufferings, and to predict the new covenant, 
if they had received prophetical inspiration from another 
God [than He who is revealed in the gospel], they being 
ignorant, as ye allege, of the ineffable Father, of His king- 
dom, and His dispensations, which the Son of God fulfilled 
when He came upon earth in these last times ? Neither are 
ye in a position to say that these things came to pass by a 
certain kind of chance, as if they were spoken by the prophets 
in regard to some other person, while like events happened to 

1 1 Pet. i. 12. 2 Matt. v. 17, 18. 

3 Rom. iii. 21. •• Rom. i. 17. 

« Hab. ii. 4. 


the Lord. For all the prophets prophesied these same things, 
but they never came to pass in the case of any one of the 
ancients. For if these things had happened to any man 
among them of old time, those [prophets] who lived subse- 
quently would certainly not have prophesied that these events 
should come to pass in the last times. Moreover, there is 
in fact none among the fathers, nor the prophets, nor the 
ancient kings, in whose case any one of these things properly 
and specifically took place. For all indeed prophesied as to 
the sufferings of Christ, but they themselves were far from 
enduring sufferings similar to what was predicted. And the 
points connected with the passion of the Lord, which were 
foretold, were realized in no other case. For neither did it 
happen at the death of any man among the ancients that the 
sun set at mid-day, nor was the veil of the temple rent, nor 
did the earth quake, nor were the rocks rent, nor did the dead 
rise up, nor was any one of these men [of old] raised up on 
the third day, nor received into heaven, nor at his assumption 
were the heavens opened, nor did the nations believe in the 
name of any other ; nor did any from among them, having 
been dead and rising again, lay open the new covenant of 
liberty. Therefore the prophets spake not of any one else 
but of the Lord, in whom all these aforesaid tokens concurred. 
4. If any one, however, advocating the cause of the Jews, 
do maintain that this new covenant consisted in the rearing 
of that temple which was built under Zerubbabel after the 
emigration to Babylon, and in the departure of the people 
from thence after the lapse of seventy years, let him know 
that the temple constructed of stones was indeed then rebuilt 
(for as yet that law was observed which had been made upon 
tables of stone), yet no new covenant was given, but they 
used the Mosaic law until the coming of the Lord ; but from 
the Lord's advent, the new covenant which brings back peace, 
and the law which gives life, has gone forth over the whole 
earth, as the prophets said : " For out of Zion shall go forth 
the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem ; and 
He shall rebuke many people ; and they shall break down 
their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning- 


hooks, and they shall no longer learn to fight." ^ If therefore 
another law and word, going forth from Jerusalem, brought 
in such a [reign of] peace among the Gentiles which received 
it (the word), and convinced, through them, many a nation 
of its folly, then [only] it appears that the prophets spake of 
some other person. But if the law of liberty, that is, the 
word of God, preached by the apostles (who went forth from 
Jerusalem) throughout all the earth, caused such a change in 
the state of things, that these [nations] did form the swords 
and war-lances into ploughshares, and changed them into 
pruning-hooks for reaping the corn, [that is], into instru- 
ments used for peaceful purposes, and that they are now un- 
accustomed to fighting, but when smitten, offer also the other 
cheek,^ then the prophets have not spoken these things of 
any other person, but of Him who effected them. This per- 
son is our Lord, and in Him is that declaration borne out ; 
since it is He Himself who has made the plough, and intro- 
duced the pruning-hook, that is, the first semination of man, 
which was the creation exhibited in Adam,^ and the gathering 
in of the produce in the last times by the Word ; and, for 
this reason, since He joined the beginning to the end, and is 
the Lord of both. He has finally displayed the plough, in 
that the wood has been joined on to the iron, and has thus 
cleansed His land ; because the Word, having been firmly 
united to flesh, and in its mechanism fixed with pins,^ has 
reclaimed the savage earth.' In the beginning. He figured 
forth the pruning-hook by means of Abel, pointing out that 
there should be a gathering in of a righteous race of men. 
He says, " For behold how the just man perishes, and no 
man considers it ; and righteous men are taken away, and no 
man layeth it to heart." ^ These things were acted before- 
hand in Abel, were also previously declared by the prophets, 

1 Isa. ii. 3, 4 ; Mic. iv. 2, 3, ^ jyi^tt. y. 39. ^ sfol. i. p. 40. 

* This is following Harvey's conjectural emendation of the text, viz. 
" taleis " for "talis." He considers the pins here as symbolical of the nails 
by which our Lord was fastened to the cross. The whole passage is 
almost hopelessly obscure, though the general meaning may be guessed. 

^ Isa. Ivii. 1. 


but were accomplished in the Lord's person ; and the same 
[is still true] with regard to us, the body following the ex- 
ample of the Head. 

5. Such are the arguments proper [to be used] in opposi- 
tion to those who maintain that the prophets [were inspired] 
by a different God, and that our Lord [came] from another 
Father, if perchance [these heretics] may at length desist 
from such extreme folly. This is my earnest object in ad- 
ducing these scriptural proofs, that confuting them, as far as 
in me lies, by these very passages, I may restrain them from 
such great blasphemy, and from insanely fabricating a multi- 
tude of gods. 

Chap. xxxv. — A refutation of those u-ho allege that the pro- 
2'>hets uttered some predictions under the inspiration of the 
Highest, others from the Demiurge. Disagreements of 
the Valentinians among themselves with regard to these 
same predictions. 

1. Then again, in opposition to the Valentinians, and the 
other Gnostics, falsely so called, who maintain that some 
parts of Scripture were spoken at one time from the Pleroma 
(« summitate) through means of the seed [derived] from that 
place, but at another time from the intermediate abode 
through means of the audacious mother Prunica, but that 
many are due to the Creator of the world, from whom also 
the prophets had their mission, we say that it is altogether 
irrational to bring down the Father of the universe to 
such straits, as that He should not be possessed of Plis own 
proper instruments, by which the things in the Pleroma 
might be perfectly proclaimed. For of whom was He afraid, 
so that He should not reveal His will after His own way and 
independently, freely, and without being involved with that 
spirit which came into being in a state of degeneracy and 
ignorance ? Was it that He feared that very many would 
be saved, when more should have listened to the unadulterated 
truth? Or, on the other hand, was He incapable of preparing 
for Himself those who should announce the Saviour's advent ? 

2. But if, when the Saviour came to this earth, He sent 


His apostles into the world to proclaim witli accuracy His 
advent, and to teach the Father's will, having nothing in 
common with the doctrine of the Gentiles or of the Jews, 
much more, while yet existing in the Pleroma, would He 
have appointed His own heralds to proclaim His future 
advent into this world, and having nothing in common with 
those prophecies originating from the Demiurge. But if, 
when within the Pleroma, He availed Himself of those pro- 
phets who were under the law, and declared His own matters 
through their instrumentality ; much more would He, upon 
His arrival hither, have made use of these same teachers, 
and have preached the gospel to us by their means. There- 
fore let them not any longer assert that Peter and Paul and 
the other apostles proclaimed the truth, but that it was the 
scribes and Pharisees, and the others, through wliom the law 
was propounded. But if, at His advent. He sent forth His 
own apostles in the spirit of truth, and not in that of error, 
He did the very same also in the case of the prophets ; for 
the Word of God was always the selfsame : and if the Spirit 
from the Pleroma was, according to these men's system, the 
Spirit of light, the Spirit of truth, the Spirit of perfection, 
and the Spirit of knowledge, while that from the Demiurge 
was the spirit of ignorance, degeneracy, and error, and the 
offspring of obscurity; how can it be, that in one and the 
same being there exist perfection and defect, knowledge and 
ignorance, error and truth, light and darkness ? But if it 
was impossible that such should happen in the case of the 
prophets, for they preached the word of the Lord from one 
God, and proclaimed the advent of His Son, much more 
would the Lord Himself never have uttered words, on one 
occasion from above, but on another from degeneracy below, 
thus becoming the teacher at once of knowledo;e and of i^no- 
ranee ; nor would He have ever glorified as Father at one 
time the Founder of the Avorld, and at another Him who is 
above this one, as He does Himself declare : " No man 
putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old one, nor do 
they put new wine into old bottles." ^ Let these men, there- 
^ Luke V. 36, 37. 


fore, either have nothing whatever to do with the prophets, 
as with those that are ancients, and allege no longer that 
these men, being sent beforehand by the Demiurge, spake 
certain things under that new influence which pertains to the 
Pleroma; or, on the other hand, let them be convinced by 
our Lord, when lie declares that new wine cannot be put 
into old bottles. 

3. But from what source could the offspring of their 
mother derive his knowledge of the mysteries within the 
Pleroma, and power to discourse regarding them ? Suppose 
that the mother, while beyond the Pleroma, did bring forth 
this very offspring; but what is beyond the Pleroma they 
represent as being beyond the pale of knowledge, that is, igno- 
rance. How, then, could that seed, which was conceived in 
ignorance, possess the power of declaring knowledge ? Or 
how did the mother herself, a shapeless and undefined being, 
one cast out of doors as an abortion, obtain knowledge of the 
mysteries within the Pleroma, she who was organized outside 
it and given a form there, and prohibited by Horos from 
entering within, and who remains outside the Pleroma till 
the consummation [of all things], that is, beyond the pale of 
knowledge? Then, again, when they say that the Lord's 
passion is a type of the extension of the Christ above, which 
he effected through Horos, and so imparted a form to their 
mother, they are refuted in the other particulars [of the 
Lord's passion], for they have no semblance of a type to 
show with regard to them. For when did the Christ above 
have vinegar and gall given him to drink ? Or Avhen Avas 
his raiment parted? Or when was he pierced, and blood and 
water came forth ? Or when did he sweat great drops of 
blood? And [the same may be demanded] as to the other 
particulars which happened to the Lord, of which the pro- 
phets have spoken. From whence, then, did the mother or 
her offspring divine the things which had not yet taken place, 
but which should occur afterwards? 

4. They affirm that certain things still, besides these, were 
spoken from the Pleroma, but are confuted by those which are 
referred to in the Scriptures as bearing on the advent of Christ. 


But what these are [that are spolcen from the Pleroma] they 
are not agreed, but give different answers regarding them. 
For if any one, wishing to test them, do question one by one 
with regard to any passage those who are their leading men, 
he shall find one of them referring the passage in question to 
the Propator — that is, to Bytlius ; another attributing it to 
Arche — that is, to the Only-begotten ; another to the Father 
of all — that is, to the Word ; while another, again, will say 
that it was spoken of that one ^on who was [formed from 
the joint contributions] of the -S^ons in the Pleroma ;^ others 
[will regard the passage] as referring to Christ, while another 
[will refer it] to tlie Saviour. One, again, more skilled than 
these,^ after a long protracted silence, declares that it was 
spoken of Horos ; another that it signifies the Sophia which 
is within the Pleroma ; another that it announces the mother 
outside the Pleroma; while another will mention the God who 
made the world (the Demiurge). Such are the variations 
existing among them with regard to one [passage], holding 
discordant opinions as to the same Scriptures ; and when the 
same identical passage is read out, they all begin to purse up 
their eyebrows, and to shake their heads, and they say that 
they might indeed utter a discourse transcendently lofty, but 
that all cannot comprehend the greatness of that thought 
which is implied in it ; and that, therefore, among the wise 
the chief thing is silence. For that Sige (silence) which is 
above must be typified by that silence which they preserve. 
Thus do they, as many as they are, all depart [from each 
other], holding so many opinions as to one thing, and bearing 
about their clever notions in secret within themselves. When, 
therefore, they shall have agreed among themselves as to the 
things predicted in the Scriptures, then also shall they be 
confuted by us. For, though holding wrong opinions, they do 
in the meanwhile, however, convict themselves, since they are 
not of one mind with regard to the same words. But as we 
follow for our teacher the one and only true God, and possess 
His words as the rule of truth, we do all speak alike with 

1 Vol. i. p. 11. 

2 Illorum ; following the Greek form of the comparative degree. 

26 IRENjEUS against HERESIES. [Book iv. 

refrard to the same tliin2;s, knowlnc; but one God, the Creator 
of this universe, who sent the prophets, who led forth the 
people from the land of Egypt, who in these last times 
manifested His own Son, that He might put the unbelievers 
to confusion, and search out the fruit of righteousness. 

CriAF. XXXVI. — The i^rophets were serd from one and the same 
Father from whom the Son was sent. 

1. Which [God] the Lord does not reject, nor does Ho 
say that the prophets [spake] from another god than His 
Father ; nor from any other essence, but from one and the 
same Father ; nor that any other being made the things in 
the world, except His own Father, when He speaks as 
follows in His teaching : " There was a certain householder, 
and he planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and 
digged in it a winepress, and built a tower, and let it out to 
husbandmen, and went into a far country : And when the 
time of the fruit drew near, he sent his servants unto the 
husbandmen, that they might receive the fruits of it. And 
the husbandmen took his servants : they cut one to pieces, 
stoned another, and killed another. Again he sent other 
servants more than the first : and they did unto them like- 
wise. But last of all he sent unto them his only son, saying, 
Perchance they will reverence my son. But Avhen the hus- 
bandmen saw the son, they said among themselves, This is 
the heir; come, let us kill him, and we shall possess his 
inheritance. And they caught him, and cast him out of the 
vineyard, and slew him. When, therefore, the lord of the 
vineyard shall come, what will he do unto these husbandmen? 
They say unto him. He will miserably destroy these wicked 
men, and will let out his vineyard to other husbandmen, who 
shall render him the fruits in their seasons."^ Again does 
the Lord say : " Have ye never read, The stone which the 
builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner : 
this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes? 
Therefore I say unto you, that the kingdom of God shall be 
1 Matt. xxi. 33-41. 


taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the 
fruits thereof,"^ By these words He clearly points out to 
His disciples one and the same Householder — that is, one 
God the Father, -vvho made all things by Himself ; while 
[He shows] that there are various husbandmen, some obsti- 
nate, and proud, and worthless, and slayers of the Lord, but 
others who render Him, with all obedience, the fruits in their 
seasons ; and that it is the same Householder who sends at 
one time His servants, at another His Son. From that 
Father, therefore, from whom the Son was sent to those 
husbandmen who slew Ilim, from Him also were the ser- 
vants [sent]. But the Son, as coming from the Father with 
supreme authority (princijyali auctorifate), used to express 
Himself thus : "But I say vmto you." ^ The servants, again, 
[who came] as from their Lord, spake after the manner of 
servants, [delivering a message] ; and they therefore used to 
say, " Thus saith the Lord." 

2. Whom these men did therefore preach to the unbelievers 
as Lord, Him did Christ teach to those who obey Plim ; and 
the God who had called those of the former dispensation, is 
the same as He who has received those of the latter. In other 
words, He who at first used that law which entails bondage, 
is also He who did in after times [call His people] by means 
of adoption. For God planted the vineyard of the human 
race when at the first He formed Adam and chose the 
fathers ; then He let it out to husbandmen when He estab- 
lished the Mosaic dispensation : He hedged it round about, 
that is. He gave particular instructions with regard to their 
worship : He built a tower, [that is], He chose Jerusalem : 
He digged a winepress, that is. He prepared a receptacle of 
the prophetic Spirit. And thus did He send prophets prior to 
the transmigration to Babylon, and after that event others 
again in greater number than the former, to seek the fruits, 
saying thus to them (the Jews) : " Thus saith the Lord, 
Cleanse your ways and your doings, execute just judgment, 
and look each one with pity and compassion on his brother : 
oppress not the widow nor the orphan, the proselyte nor the 
1 Matt. xxi. 42-44. 2 jyjatt. v. 22. 


poor, and let none of you treasure up evil against his brother 
in your hearts, and love not false swearing. Wash yon, make 
ye clean, put away evil from your hearts, learn to do well, 
seek judgment, protect the oppressed, judge the fatherless 
(pujjiUo), plead for the widow ; and come, let us reason 
together, saith the Lord." ^ And again : " Keep thy tongue 
from evil, and thy lips that they speak no guile ; depart from 
evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it."^ In preaching 
these things, the prophets sought the fruits of righteousness. 
But last of all He sent to those unbelievers His own Son, 
our Lord Jesus Christ, whom the wicked husbandmen cast 
out of the vineyard Avhen they had slain Him. Wherefore 
the Lord God did even give it up (no longer hedged around, 
but thrown open throughout all the world) to other husband- 
men, who render the fruits in their seasons, — the beautiful 
elect tower being also raised everywhere. For the illustrious 
church is [now] everywhere, and everywhere is the winepress 
digged : because those who do receive the Spirit are every- 
where. For inasmuch as the former have rejected the Son 
of God, and cast Him out of the vineyard when they slew 
Him, God has justly rejected them, and given to the Gentiles 
outside the vineyard the fruits of its cultivation. This is in 
accordance with what Jeremiah says, " The Lord hath re- 
jected and cast off the nation which does these things ; for 
the children of Judah have done evil in my sight, saith the 
Lord."^ And again in like manner does Jeremiah speak: 
" I set watchmen over you ; hearken to the sound of the 
trumpet ; and they said, We will not hearken. Therefore 
have the Gentiles heard, and they who feed the flocks in 
them."* It is therefore one and the same Father who planted 
the vineyard, who led forth the people, who sent the prophets, 
who sent His own Son, and who gave the vineyard to those 
other husbandmen that render the fruits in their season, 

3. And therefore did the Lord say to His disciples, to make 
us become good workmen : " Take heed to yourselves, and 
watch continually upon every occasion, lest at any time your 

1 Jer. vii. 3 ; Zech. vii. 9, 10, viii. 17 ; Isa. i. 17-19. 

2 Ps. xxxiv. 13, 14. 3 Jer. vii. 29, 30. * Jer. vi. 17, 18. 



hearts be overcharged with surfeiting and drunkenness, and 
cares of this life, and that day.shall come upon you unawares ; 
for as a snare shall it come upon all dwelling upon the face 
of the earth." ^ " Let your loins, therefore, be girded about, 
and your lights burning, and ye like to men who wait for 
their lord, when he shall return from the wedding." ^ " For 
as it was in the days of Noe, they did eat and drink, they 
bought and sold, they married and were given in marriage, 
and they knew not, until Noe entered into the ark, and the 
flood came and destroyed them all ; as also it was in the days 
of Lot, they did eat and drink, they bought and sold, they 
planted and builded, until the time that Lot went out of 
Sodom ; it rained fire from heaven, and destroyed them all : 
so shall it also be at the coming of the Son of man." ^ ''Watch 
ye therefore, for ye know not in what day your Lord shall 
come."* [In these passages] He declares one and the same 
Lord, who in the times of Noah brought the deluge because 
of men's disobedience, and who also in the days of Lot 
rained fire from heaven because of the multitude of sinners 
among the Sodomites, and who, on account of this same dis- 
obedience and similar sins, will bring on the day of judgment 
at the end of time (in novissimo) ; on which day He declares 
that it shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah than 
for that city and house which shall not receive the word of 
His apostles. " And thou, Capernaum," He said, " is it 
that thou shalt be exalted to heaven ?^ Thou shalt go down 
to hell. For if the mighty works which have been done in 
thee had been done in Sodom, it would have remained unto 
this day. Verily I say unto you, that it shall be more 
tolerable for Sodom in the day of judgment than for you." ® 
4. Since the Son of God is always one and the same, He 
gives to those who believe on Him a well of water^ [springing 

1 Luke xxi. 34, 35. 2 Lu]je xii. 35, 36. 

^ Luke xvii. 26, etc. ^ Matt. xxiv. 42. 

^ No other of the Greek fathers quotes this text as above ; from 
which fact Grabe infers that the old Latin translator, or his transcribers, 
altered the words of Irenaeus to suit the Latin versions. 

« Matt. xi. 23, 24. 7 JQ]^^ ^y^ 14^ 


up] to eternal life, but He causes the unfruitful fig-tree im- 
mediately to dry up ; and in the days of Noah He justly 
brought on the deluge for the purpose of extinguishing that 
most infamous race of men then existent, who could not 
bring forth fruit to God, since the angels that sinned had 
commingled with them, and [acted as He did] in order that 
He might put a check upon the sins of these men, but [that 
at the same time] He might preserve the archetype,^ the 
formation of Adam. And it was He who rained fire and 
brimstone from heaven, in the days of Lot, upon Sodom 
and Gomorrah, " an example of the righteous judgment of 
God,"" that all may know, "that every tree that bringeth not 
forth good fruit shall be cut down, and cast into the fire." ^ 
And it is He who uses [the words], that it will be more 
tolerable for Sodom in the general judgment than for those 
who beheld His Avonders, and did not believe on Him, nor 
receive His doctrine.^ For as He gave by His advent a 
greater privilege to those who believed on Him, and who do 
His will, so also did He point out that those who did not 
believe on Him should have a more severe punishment in the 
judgment ; thus extending equal justice to all, and being to 
exact more from those to whom He gives the more; the 
more, however, not because He reveals the knowledge of 
another Father, as I have shown so fully and so repeatedly, 
but because He has, by means of His advent, poured upon 
the human race the greater gift of paternal grace. 

5. If, however, what I have stated be insufficient to con- 
vince any one that the prophets were sent from one and the 
same Father, from whom also our Lord was sent, let such 
a one, opening the mouth of his heart, and calling upon the 
Master, Christ Jesus the Lord, listen to Him when He says, 

^ Tliis is Massuet's conjectural emendation of the text, viz. archetypnm 
for arcxlypum. Grabe would insert j)cr before arcx, and lie thinks the 
passage to have a reference to 1 Pet. iii. 20. Ireiiseus, in common with 
the other ancient fathers, believed that the fallen angels were the " sons 
of God " who commingled with " the daughters of men," and thus pro- 
duced a race of spurious men. 

2 Judc 7. 3 Matt. iu. 10. * Matt. xi. 24 ; Luke x. 12. 


" The kingdom of heaven is like unto a king who made a 
marriage for his son, and he sent forth his servants to call 
them who were bidden to the marriage." And when they 
would not obey, He goes on to say, " Again he sent other 
servants, saying, Tell them that are bidden. Come ye, I have 
prepared my dinner ; my oxen and all the f atlings are killed, 
and everything is ready ; come unto the wedding. But they 
made light of it, and went their way, some to their farm, 
and others to their merchandize ; but the remnant took his 
servants, and some they treated despitefully, while others 
they slew. But when the king heard this, he was wroth, 
and sent his armies and destroyed these murderers, and 
burned up their city, and said to his servants, The wedding 
is indeed ready, but they Avhich were bidden were not worthy. 
Go out therefore into the highways, and as many as ye shall 
find, gather in to the marriage. So the servants went out, 
and collected together as many as they found, bad and good, 
and the wedding was furnished with guests. But when the 
kinff came in to see the euests, he saw there a man not 
having on a wedding garment; and he said unto him. Friend, 
how camest thou hither, not having on a wedding garment? 
But he was speechless. Then said the king to his servants. 
Take him away, hand and foot, and cast him into outer 
darkness : there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. For 
many are called, but few are chosen."^ Now, by these words 
of His, does the Lord clearly show all [these points, viz.] 
that there is one King and Lord, the Father of all, of whom 
He had previously said, " Neither shalt thou swear by Jei'u- 
salem, for it is the city of the great King;"^ and that He 
had from the beginning prepared the marriage for His Son, 
and used, with the utmost kindness, to call, by the instru- 
mentality of His servants, the men of the former dispensation 
to the wedding feast ; and when they would not obey. He 
still invited them by sending out other servants, yet that 
even then they did not obey Him, but even stoned and slew 

^ Matt. xxii. 1, etc. 

2 Matt. V. 35. Instead of placing a period here, as the editors do, 
it seems to us preferable to carry on the construction. 


those who brought them the message of invitation. Pie 
accordingly sent forth His armies and destroyed them, and 
burned down their city ; but He called together from all the 
highways, that is, from all nations, [guests] to the marriage 
feast of His Son, as also He says by Jeremiah : " I have 
sent also unto you my servants the prophets to say, Return 
ye now, every man, from his very evil way, and amend your 
doings." ^ And again He says by the same prophet : " I 
have also sent unto you my servants the prophets throughout 
the day and before the light ; yet they did not obey me, nor 
incline their ears unto me. And thou shalt speak this word 
to them : This is a people that obeyeth not the voice of the 
Lord, nor receiveth correction ; faith has perished from their 
mouth." ^ The Lord, therefore, who has called us every- 
where by the apostles, is He who called those of old by the 
prophets, as appears by the words of the Lord ; and although 
they preached to various nations, the prophets were not from 
one God, and the apostles from another ; but, [proceeding] 
from one and the same, some of them announced the Lord, 
others preached the Father, and others again foretold the 
advent of the Son of God, while yet others declared Him as 
already present to those who then were afar off. 

6. Still further did He also make it manifest, that we ought, 
after our calling, to be also adorned with works of righteous- 
ness, so that the Spirit of God may rest upon us ; for this is 
the wedding garment, of which also the apostle speaks, " Not 
for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mor- 
tality might be swallowed up by immortality."^ But those 
who have indeed been called to God's supper, yet have not 
received the Holy Spirit, because of their wicked conduct 
" shall be," He declares, " cast into outer darkness."^ He 
thus clearly shows that the very same King who gathered 
from all quarters the faithful to the marriage of His Son, 
and who grants them the incorruptible banquet, [also] orders 
that man to be cast into outer darkness who has not on a 
wedding garment, that is, one who despises it. For as in 

1 Jer. XXXV. 15. ^ Jer. vii. 25, etc. 

3 2 Cor. V. 4. * Matt. xxii. 13. 


the former covenant, " with many of them was He not well 
pleased ;"^ so also is it the case here, that " many are called, 
but few chosen."^ It is not, then, one God who judges, and 
another Father who calls us together to salvation ; nor one, 
forsooth, who confers eternal light, but another who orders 
those who have not on the wedding garment to be sent into 
outer darkness. But it is one and the same God, the Father 
of our Lord, from whom also the prophets had their mission, 
who does indeed, through His infinite kindness, call the un- 
worthy ; but He examines those who are called, [to ascertain] 
if they have on the garment fit and proper for the marriage 
of His Son, because nothing unbecoming or evil pleases Him. 
This is in accordance with what the Lord said to the man 
who had been healed : " Behold, thou art made whole ; sin no 
more, lest a worse thing come unto thee." For He who is 
good, and righteous, and pure, and spotless, will endure no- 
thing evil, nor unjust, nor detestable in His wedding chamber. 
This is the Father of our Lord, by whose providence all 
things consist, and all are administered by His command ; 
and He confers His free gifts upon those who should [receive 
them] ; but the most righteous Retributor metes out [punish- 
ment] according to their deserts, most deservedly, to the un- 
grateful and to those that are insensible of His kindness ; and 
therefore does He say, " He sent His armies, and destroyed 
those murderers, and burned up their city."'* He says here, 
" His armies," because all men are the property of God. For 
" the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof ; the world, 
and all that dwell therein."^ Wherefore also the Apostle Paul 
says in the Epistle to the Romans, "For there is no power but 
of God ; the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever 
resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God ; and they 
that resist shall receive unto themselves condemnation. For 
rulers are not for a terror to a good work, but to an evil. 
Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power ? Do that which 
is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same ; for he is 
the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that 

1 1 Cor. X. 5. - Matt. xxii. 14. » John v. 14. 

^ Matt. xxii. 7. ^ Ps. xxiy. 1. 

IREN. — VOL. ir. C 


whicli is evil, be afraid ; for lie bearetli not the sword in vain : 
for he is the minister of God, tlie avenger for wrath upon him. 
that doeth evil. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not 
only for Avrath, but also for conscience sake. For this cause 
pay ye tribute also ; for they are God's ministers, attending 
continually upon this very thing." ^ Both the Lord, then, and 
the apostles announce as the one only God the Father, Him 
who gave the law, who sent the prophets, who made all things; 
and therefore does He say " He sent His armies," because 
every man, inasmuch as he is a man, is His workmanship, 
although he may be ignorant of his God. For He gives 
existence to all ; He, " who maketh His sun to rise upon the 
evil and the good, and sendeth rain upon the just and unjust."^ 

7. And not alone by what has been stated, but also by the 
parable of the two sons, the younger of whom consumed his 
substance by living luxuriously with harlots, did the Lord 
teach one and the same Father, who did not even allow a kid 
to his elder son ; but for him who had been lost, [namely] his 
younger son, he ordered the fatted calf to be killed, and he 
gave him the best robe.^ Also by the parable of the work- 
men who were sent into the vineyard at different periods of 
the day, one and the same God is declared* as having called 
some in the beginning, when the world was first created ; but 
others afterwards, and others during the intermediate period, 
others after a long lapse of time, and others again in the end 
of time ; so that there are many workmen in their generations, 
but only one householder who calls them together. For there 
is but one vineyard, since there is also but one righteousness, 
and one dispensator, for there is one Spirit of God who 
arranges all things ; and in like manner is there one hire, for 
they all received a penny each man, having [stamped upon 
it] the royal image and superscription, the knowledge of the 
Son of God, which is immortality. And therefore He began 
by giving the hire to those [who were engaged] last, because 
in the last times, when the Lord was revealed, He presented 
Himself to all [as their reward]. 

8. Then, in the case of the publican, who excelled the 
1 Rom. xiii. 1-7. ^ Matt. v. 45. ^ Luke xv. 11. * Matt. xx. 1, etc. 


Pharisee in prayer, [we find] that it was not because he 
worshipped another Father that he received testimony from 
the Lord that he was justified rather [than the othei-] ; but 
because witli great humility, apart from all boasting and 
pride, he made confession to the same God.'^ The parable of 
the two sons also : those who are sent into the vineyard, of 
whom one indeed opposed his father, but afterwards repented, 
when repentance profited him nothing ; the other, however, 
promised to go, at once assuring his father, but he did not go 
(for " every man is a liar ; "^ "to will is present with him, but 
he finds not means to perform"^), — [this parable, I say], points 
out one and the same Fathei*. Then, again, this truth was 
clearly shown forth by the parable of the fig-tree, of which the 
Lord says, " Behold, now these three years I come seeking 
fruit on this fig-tree, but I find none" ^ (pointing onwards, by 
the prophets, to His advent, by whom He came from time to 
time, seeking the fruit of righteousness from them, which he 
did not find), and also by the circumstance that, for the reason 
already mentioned, the fig-tree should be hewn down. And, 
without using a parable, the Lord said to Jerusalem, "O Jeru- 
salem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest 
those that are sent unto thee; how often would I have gathered 
thy children together, as a hen gatheretli her chickens under 
her wings, and ye would not ! Behold, your house shall be 
left unto you desolate."^ For that which had been said in 
the parable, " Behold, for three years I come seeking fruit," 
and in clear terms, again, [where Pie says], "How often 
would I have gathered thy children together," shall be 
[found] a falsehood, if we do not understand His advent, 
which is [announced] by the prophets — if, in fact, He came 
to them but once, and then for the first time. But since 
He who chose the patriarchs and those [who lived under the 
first covenant], is the same Word of God who did both visit 
them through the prophetic Spirit, and us also who have 
been called together from all quarters by His advent; in 
addition to what has been already said. He truly declared, 

^ Luke xviii. 10. - Ps. cxvi. 2. ^ Eom. vii. IS. 

^ Luke xiii. 6. ^ Luke xiii. 34 : Matt, xxiii. 37. 


" !Many shall come from the east and from the west, and 
shall recline jvith Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the 
kingdom of heaven. But the children of the kincjdom shall 
go into outer darkness ; there shall be weeping and gnashing 
of teeth." ^ If, then, those who do believe in Him through 
the preaching of His apostles throughout the east and west 
shall recline with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom 
of heaven, partaking with them of the [heavenly] banquet, one 
and the same God is set forth as He who did indeed choose 
the patriarchs, visited also the people, and called the Gentiles. 

Ch^^?. xxxvit. — Men are possessed of free tvill, and endowed 
loitli tlie faculty of making a choice. It is not true, there- 
fore, that some are hy nature good, and others had. 

1. This expression [of our Lord], " How often would I 
have gathered thy children together, and thou wouldest 
not," " set forth the ancient law of human liberty, because 
God made man a free [agent] from the beginning, possessing 
his own power, even as he does his own soul, to obey the 
behests (cid ntendwn sentential of God voluntarily, and not 
by compulsion of God. For there is no coercion with God, 
but a good will [towards us] is present with Him continually. 
And therefore does He give good counsel to all. And in 
man, as well as in angels, He has placed the power of choice 
(for angels are rational beings), so that those who had yielded 
obedience might justly possess what is good, given indeed 
by God, but preserved by themselves. On the other hand, 
they who have not obeyed shall, with justice, be not found 
in possession of the good, and shall receive condign punish- 
ment : for God did kindly bestow on them what was good; 
but they themselves did not diligently keep it, nor deem it 
something precious, but poured contempt upon His super- 
eminent goodness. Kejecting therefore the good, and as 
it were spuing it out, they shall all deservedly incur the just 
judgment of God, which also the Apostle Paul testifies in 
his Epistle to the Komans, where he says, " But dost thou 
despise the riches of His goodness, and patience, and long- 
1 Matt. viii. 11, 12. ^ Matt, xxiii. 37. 


sufferinir, being isnorant that the a;ooclness of God leadeth 
thee to repentance ? But according to thy hardness and 
impenitent heart, thou treasurest to thyself wrath against the 
day of wrath, and the revelation of the righteous judgment 
of God." " But glory and honour," he says, " to every one 
that doeth good." ^ God therefore has given that which is 
good, as the apostle tells us in this epistle, and they who 
work it shall receive glory and honour, because they have 
done that which is good when they had it in their power 
not to do it ; but those who do it not shall receive the just 
judgment of God, because they did not work good when they 
had it in their power so to do. 

2. But if some had been made by nature bad, and others 
good, these latter would not be deserving of praise for being 
good, for such were they created ; nor Avould the former be 
reprehensible, for thus they were made [originally]. But since 
all men are of the same nature, able both to hold fast and to do 
what is good ; and, on the other hand, having also the power 
to cast it from them and not to do it, — some do justly receive 
praise even among men who are under the control of good 
laws (and much more from God), and obtain deserved testi- 
mony of their choice of good in general, and of persevering 
therein ; but the others are blamed, and receive a just con- 
demnation, because of their rejection of what is fair and 
good. And therefore the prophets used to exhort men to 
what was good, to act justly and to woi'k righteousness, as I 
have so largely demonstrated, because it is in our power so to 
do, and because by excessive negligence we might become 
forgetful, and thus stand in need of that good counsel wdiich 
the good God has given us to know by means of the prophets. 

3. For this reason the Lord also said, " Let your light so 
shine before men, that they may see your good deeds, and 
glorify your Father who is in heaven." ^ And, " Take heed 
to yourselves, lest perchance your hearts be overcharged with 
surfeiting, and drunkenness, and worldly cares." ^ And, 
" Let your loins be girded about, and your lamps burning, 
and ye like unto men that wait for their Lord, when He 

^ Rom. ii. 4, 5, 7. ^ Matt. v. 16. ^ Luke xxi. 34, 


returns from the wedding, that when He cometh and knocketh, 
they may open to Him. Blessed is that servant whom his 
Lord, when He cometh, shall find so doing." ^ And again, 
" The servant who knows his Lord's will, and does it not, 
shall be beaten with many stripes." ^ And, " Why call ye 
me. Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say?" ^ And 
again, "Bat if the servant say in his heart, The Lord de- 
layeth, and begin to beat his fellow-servants, and to eat, and 
drink, and to be drunken, his Lord will come in a day on 
which he does not expect Him, and shall cut him in sunder, 
and appoint his portion with the hypocrites." ■* All such 
passages demonstrate the independent wilP of man, and at 
the same time the counsel which God conveys to him, by 
which He exhorts us to submit ourselves to Him, and seeks 
to turn us away from [the sin of] unbelief against Him, with- 
out, hoAvever, in any way coercing us. 

4. No doubt, if any one is unwilling to follow the gospel 
itself, it is in his power [to reject it], but it is not expedient. 
For it is in man's power to disobey God, and to forfeit what 
is good; but [such conduct] brings no small amount of injury 
and mischief. And on this account Paul says, " All things 
are lawful to me, but all things are not expedient;"*' referring 
both to the liberty of man, in which respect " all things are 
lawful," God exercising no compulsion in regard to him ; and 
[by the expression] " not expedient " pointing out that we 
" should not use our liberty as a cloak of maliciousness,"^ for 
this is not expedient. And again he says, " Speak ye every 
man truth with his neighbour."^ And, "Let no corrupt 
communication proceed out of your mouth, neither filthiness, 
nor foolish talking, nor scurrility, which are not convenient, 
but rather giving of thanks."^ And, "For ye were some- 
times darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord ; walk 
honestly as children of the light, not in rioting and drunken- 
ness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in anger and 

• 1 Luke xii. 35, 36. ^ L^te xii. 47. ^ l^i-^ yi. 46. 

*■ Luke xii. 45, 46 ; Matt. xxiv. 48-51. ^ to auTs&ovaiov. 

6 1 Cor. vi. 12. M Pet. ii. 16. « Eph. iv. 25. 

» Eph. iv. 29. 


jealousy. And such were some of you ; but ye have been 
washed, but ye have been sanctified in the name of our 
Lord."^ If then it were not in our power to do or not to do 
these things, what reason had the apostle, and much more the 
Lord Himself, to give us counsel to do some things, and to 
abstain from others ? But because man is possessed of free 
will from the beginning, and God is possessed of free will, in 
whose likeness man was created, advice is always given to 
him to keep fast the good, which thing is done by means of 
obedience to God. 

5. And not merely in works, but also in faith, has God 
preserved the will of man free and under his own control, 
saying, " According to thy faith be it unto thee ; " ^ thus 
showing that there is a faith specially belonging to man, since 
he has an opinion specially his own. And again, " All things 
are possible to him that believeth;"^ and, " Go thy way; and 
as thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee."* Now all such 
expressions demonstrate that man is in his own power with 
respect to faith. And for this reason, " he that believeth 
in Him has eternal life ; while he who believeth not the Son 
hath not eternal life, but the wrath of God shall remain upon 
him."^ In the same manner therefore the Lord, both showing 
His own goodness, and indicating that man is in his own free 
will and his own power, said to Jerusalem, " How often have 
I wished to gather thy children together, as a hen [gathereth] 
her chickens under her wings, and ye would not ! Where- 
fore your house shall be left unto you desolate."^ 

6. Those, again, who maintain the opposite to these [con- 
clusions], do themselves present the Lord as destitute of 
power, as if, forsooth. He were unable to accomplish what 
He willed ; or, on the other hand, as being ignorant that they 
were by nature "material," as these men express it, and 
such as cannot receive His immortality. "But He should 
not," say they, " have created angels of such a nature that 
they were capable of transgression, nor men who immedi- 
ately proved ungrateful towards Him ; for they were made 

1 1 Cor. vi. 11. 2 Matt. ix. 29. ^ Mark ix. 23. 

4 Matt. viii. 13. * John iii. 36. ^ Matt, xxiii. 37, 38. 


rational beings, endowed with the power of examining and 
judging, and were not [formed] as things irrational or of a 
[merely] animal nature, which can do nothing of their own 
will, but are drawn by necessity and compulsion to what is 
good, in which things there is one mind and one usage, work- 
ing mechanically in one groove {infiexibiles et sine judicio\ 
who are incapable of being anything else except just what 
they had been created." But upon this supposition, neither 
would what is good be grateful to them, nor communion with 
God be precious, nor would the good be very much to be 
sought after, which would present itself without their own 
proper endeavour, care, or study, but would be implanted of 
its own accord and without their concern. Thus it would 
come to pass, that their being good would be of no conse- 
quence, because they were so by nature rather than by will, 
and are possessors of good spontaneously, not by choice ; 
and for this reason they would not understand this fact, that 
good is a comely thing, nor would they take pleasure in it. 
For how can those who are ignorant of good enjoy it ? Or 
what credit is it to those who have not aimed at it % And 
what crown is it to those who have not followed in pursuit of 
it, like those victorious in the contest? 

7. On this account, too, did the Lord assert that the king- 
dom of heaven was the portion of "the violent;" and He 
says, " The violent take it by force ;"^ that is, those wlio by 
strength and earnest striving ai'e on the watch to snatch it 
away on the moment. On this account also-^Paul the Apostle 
says to the Corinthians, " Know ye not, that they who run 
in a racecourse, do all indeed run, but one receiveth the 
prize ? So run, that ye may obtain. Every one also who 
engages in the contest is temperate in all things : now these 
men [do it] that they may obtain a corruptible crown, but we 
an incorruptible. But I so run, not as uncertainly ; I fight, 
not as one beating the air ; but I make my body livid, and 
bring it into subjection, lest by any means, when preaching 
to others, I may myself be rendered a castaway."' This 
able wrestler, therefore, exhorts us to the struggle for im- 
1 Matt. xi. 12. 2 1 Cor. ix. 24-27. 


mortality, that we may be crowned, and may deem the crown 
precious, namely, that which is acquired by our struggle, but 
which does not encircle us of its own accord {sed non ultro 
coalitani). And the harder we strive, so much is it the more 
valuable; while so much the more valuable it is, so much 
the more should we esteem it. And indeed those things are 
not esteemed so highly which come spontaneously, as those 
which are reached by much anxious care. Since, then, this 
power has been conferred upon us, both the Lord has taught 
and the apostle has enjoined us the more to love God, that 
we may reach this [prize] for ourselves by striving after it. 
For otherwise, no doubt, this our good would be [virtually] 
irrational, because not the result of trial. Moreover, the 
faculty of seeing would not appear to be so desirable, unless 
we had known what a loss it were to be devoid of sight ; and 
health, too, is rendered all the more estimable by an acquaint- 
ance with disease ; light, also, by contrasting it with dark- 
ness ; and life with death. ' Just in the same way is the 
heavenly kingdom honourable to those who have known the 
earthly one. But in proportion as it is more honourable, so 
much the more do we prize it ; and if we have prized it more, 
we shall be the more glorious in the presence of God. The 
Lord has therefore endured all these things on our behalf, 
in order that we, having been instructed by means of them 
all, may be in all respects circumspect for the time to come, 
and that, having been rationally taught to love God, we may 
continue in His perfect love : for God has displayed long- 
suffering in the case of man's apostasy ; while man has been 
instructed by means of it, as also the prophet says, " Thine 
own apostasy shall heal thee;"^ God thus determining all 
things beforehand for the bringing of man to perfection, for 
his edification, and for the revelation of His dispensations, 
that goodness may both be made apparent, and righteousness 
perfected, and that the church may be fashioned after the 
image of His Son, and that man may finally be brought to 
maturity at some future time, becoming ripe through such 
privileges to see and comprehend God. 
1 Jer. ii. 19. 


Chap, xxxviii. — Wliy man loas not made perfect from the 

1. If, however, any one say, "What then? Could not 
God have exhibited man as perfect from the beginning?" let 
him know that, inasmuch as God is indeed always the same 
and unbegotten as respects Himself, all things are possible to 
Him. Bat created things must be inferior to Him who 
created them, from the very fact of their later origin ; for it 
was not possible for things recently created to have been 
uncreated. But inasmuch as they are not uncreated, for this 
very reason do they come short of the perfect. Because, as 
these things are of later date, so are they infantile ; so are 
they unaccustomed to, and unexercised in, perfect discipline. 
For as it certainly is in the power of a mother to give strong 
food to her infant, [but she does not do so], as the child is 
not yet able to receive more substantial nourishment ; so also 
it was possible for God Himself to have made man perfect 
from the first, but man could not receive this [perfection], 
being as yet an infant. And for this cause our Lord, in 
th^se last times, when He had summed up all things into 
Himself, came to us, not as He might have come, but as we 
were capable of beholding Him. He might easily have come 
to us in His immortal glory, but in that case we could never 
have endured the greatness of the glory ; and therefore it 
was that He, who was the perfect bread of the Father, offered 
Himself to us as milk, [because we were] as infants. Pie did 
this when He appeared as a man, that we, being nourished, as 
it were, from the breast of His flesh, and having, by such a 
course of milk-nourishment, become accustomed to eat and 
drink the Word of God, may be able also to contain in ourselves 
the Bread of immortality, which is the Spirit of the Father. 

2. And on this account does Paul declare to the Corin- 
thians, " I have fed you with milk, not with meat, for hitherto 
ye were not able to bear it."^ That is, ye have indeed learned 
the advent of our Lord as a man ; nevertheless, because of 
your infirmity, the Spirit of the Father has not as yet rested 
1 1 Cor. iii. 2. 


upon you. " For when envying and strife," he says, " and 
dissensions are among you, are ye not carnal, and walk as 
menl"-^ That is, that the Spirit of the Father was not yet 
with them, on account of their imperfection and the short- 
comings of their walk in life. As, therefore, the apostle had 
the power to give them strong meat — for those upon whom 
the apostles laid hands received the Holy Spirit, who is the 
food of life [eternal] — but they were not capable of receiving 
it, because they had the sentient faculties of the soul still 
feeble and undisciplined in the practice of things pertaining 
to God ; so, in like manner, God had power at the beginning 
to grant perfection to man; but as the latter was only recently 
created, he could not possibly have received it, or even if he 
had received it, could he have contained it, or containing it, 
could he have retained it. It was for this reason that the 
Son of God, although He was perfect, passed through the 
state of infancy in common with the rest of mankind, partak- 
ing of it thus not for His own benefit, but for that of the 
infantile stage of man's existence, in order that man might 
be able to receive Him. There was nothing, therefore, im- 
possible to and deficient in God, [implied in the fact] that 
man was not an uncreated being ; but this merely applied to 
\i\xn who was lately created, [namely] man. 

3. With God there are simultaneously exhibited power, 
wisdom, and goodness. His power and goodness [appear] in 
this, that of His own will He called into being and fashioned 
things having no previous existence ; His wisdom [is shown] 
in His having made created things parts of one harmonious 
and consistent whole ; and those things which, through His 
super-eminent kindness, receive growth and a long period of 
existence, do reflect the glory of the uncreated One, of that 
God who bestows what is good ungrudgingly. For from the 
very fact of these things having been created, [it follows] 
that they are not uncreated; but by their continuing in being 
throughout a long course of ages, they shall receive a faculty 
of the Uncreated, through the gratuitous bestowal of eternal 
existence upon them by God. And thus in 'all things God has 

1 1 Cor. iii. 3. 


the pre-eminence, who alone is uncreated, the first of all 
things, and the primary cause of the existence of all, Avhile 
all other things remain under God's subjection. But being 
in subjection to God is continuance in immortality, and im- 
mortality is the glory of the uncreated One. By this 
arrangement, therefore, and these harmonies, and a sequence 
of this nature, man, a created and organized being, is rendered 
after the image and likeness of the uncreated God, — the 
Father planning everything well and giving His commands, 
the Son carrying these into execution and performing the 
work of creating, and the Spirit nourishing and increasing 
[what is made], but man making progress day by day, and 
ascending towards the perfect, that is, approximating to the 
uncreated One. For the Uncreated is perfect, that is, God. 
Now it was necessary that man should in the first instance 
be created ; and having been created, should receive growth ; 
and having received growth, should be strengthened ; and 
having been strengthened, should abound ; and having 
abounded, should recover [from the disease of sin] ; and 
liaving recovered, should be glorified; and being glorified, 
should see his Lord. For God is He who is yet to be seen, 
and the beholding of God is productive of immortality, but 
immortality renders one nigh unto God. 

4. Irrational, therefore, in every respect, are they who 
await not the time of increase, but ascribe to God the infir- 
mity of their nature. Such persons know neither God nor 
themselves, being insatiable and ungrateful, unwilling to bo 
at the outset what they have also been created — men subject 
to passions; but go beyond the law of the human race, and 
before that they become men, they wish to be even now 
like God their Creator, and tlicy who are more destitute of 
reason than dumb animals [insist] that there is no distinc- 
tion between the uncreated God and man, a creature of to- 
day. For these, [the dumb animals], bring no charge against 
God for not having made them vci&\\\ but each one, just as 
he has been created, gives thanks that he has been created. 
For we cast blame upon Him, because we have not been 
made gods from the beginning, but at first merely men, 


then at length gods ; although God has adopted this course 
out of His pure benevolence, that no one may impute to Him 
invidiousness or grudgingness. He declares, " I have said, 
Ye are gods; and ye are all sons of the Highest."^ But 
since we could not sustain the power of divinity, He adds, 
" But ye shall die like men," setting forth both truths — the 
kindness of His free gift, and our weakness, and also that 
we were possessed of power over ourselves. For after His 
great kindness He graciously conferred good [upon us], and 
made men like to Himself, [that is] in their own power; 
while at the same time by His prescience He knew the infir- 
mity of human beings, and the consequences which would 
flow from it; but through [His] love and [His] power. He 
shall overcome the substance of created nature,' For it was 
necessary, at first, that nature should be exhibited; then, 
after that, that what was mortal should be conquered and 
swallowed up by immortality, and the corruptible by incor- 
ruptibility, and that man should be made after the image 
and likeness of God, having received the knowledge of good 
and evil. 

Chap. XXXIX. — Man is endowed with, the facxdly of distin- 
guishing good and evil; so that, loithout compulsion, he 
has the power, hy his oion tvill and choice, to perform 
God^s command) nents, hy doing ivhich he avoids the evils 
prepared for the rebellious. 

1. Man has received the knowledge of good and evil. It 
is good to obey God, and to believe in Him, and to keep His 
commandment, and this is the life of man ; as not to obey 
God is evil, and this is his death. Since God, therefore, 
gave [to man] such mental power (magnanimitatem), man 
knew both the good of obedience and the evil of disobedience, 
that the eye of the mind, receiving experience of both, may 
with judgment make choice of the better things ; and that 
he may never become indolent or neglectful of God's com- 

1 Ps. Ixxxii. 6, 7. 

- That is, that man's human nature should not prevent him from 
becoming a partaker of the divine. 


mand ; and learning by experience that it is an evil thing 
"which deprives him of life, that is, disobedience to God, may 
never attempt it at all, but that, knowing that what preserves 
his life, namely, obedience to God, is good, he may diligently 
keep it with all earnestness. Wherefore he has also had a 
twofold experience, possessing knowledge of both kinds, that 
with discipline he may make choice of the better things. 
But how, if he had no knowledge of the contrary, could he 
have had instruction in that which is good ? For there is 
thus a surer and an undoubted comprehension of matters sub- 
mitted to us than the mere surmise arising from an opinion 
regarding them. For just as the tongue receives experience 
of sweet and bitter by means of tasting, and the eye discri- 
minates between black and white by means of vision, and 
the ear recognises the distinctions of sounds by hearing ; so 
also does the mind, receiving through the experience of both 
the knowledge of what is good, become more tenacious of its 
preservation, by acting in obedience to God : in the first 
place, casting away, by means of repentance, disobedience, 
as being something disagreeable and nauseous ; and after- 
wards coming to understand what it really is, that it is con- 
trary to goodness and sweetness, so that the mind may never 
even attempt to taste disobedience to God. But if any one 
do shun the knowledge of both these kinds of things, and the 
twofold perception of knowledge, he unawares divests himself 
of the character of a human being. 

2. How, then, shall he be a God, who has not as yet been 
made a man ? Or how can he be perfect Avho was but lately 
created? How, again, can he be immortal, who in his 
mortal nature did not obey his Maker? For it must be that 
thou, at the outset, shouldest hold the rank of a man, and 
then afterwards partake of the glory of God. For thou 
dost not make God, but God thee. If, then, thou art God's 
workmanship, await the hand of thy Maker which creates 
everything in due time ; in due time as far as thou art con- 
cerned, whose creation is being carried out.^ Offer to Him thy 
heart in a soft and tractable state, and preserve the form in 

' Efficeris. 


which the Creator has fashioned thee, havincp moisture in 
thyself, lest, by becoming hardened, thou lose the impressions 
of His fingers. ' But by preserving the framework thou 
shalt ascend to that which is perfect, for the moist clay which 
is in thee is hidden [there] by the workmanship of God. His 
hand fashioned thy substance ; He will cover thee over [too] 
within and without with pure gold and silver, and He will 
adorn thee to such a degree, that even " the King Himself 
shall have pleasure in thy beauty."^ But if thou, being 
obstinately hardened, dost reject the operation of His skill, 
and show thyself ungrateful towards Him, because thou wert 
created a [mere] man, by becoming thus ungrateful to God, 
thou hast at once lost both His workmanship and life. For 
creation is an attribute of the goodness of God ; but to be 
created is that of human nature. If, then, thou shalt deliver 
up to Him what is thine, that is, faith towards Him and 
subjection, thou shalt receive His handiwork, and shalt be a 
perfect work of God. 

3. If, however, thou wilt not believe in Him, and wilt flee 
from His hands, the cause of imperfection shall be in thee 
who didst not obey, but not in Him who called [thee]. For 
He commissioned [messengers] to call people to the marriage, 
but they who did not obey Him deprived themselves of the 
royal supper.^ The skill of God, therefore, is not defective, 
for He has power of the stones to raise up children to 
Abraham ;^ but the man who does not obtain it, is the cause 
to himself of his own imperfection. Nor, [in like manner], 
does the light fail because of those who have blinded them- 
selves ; but while it remains the same as ever, those who are 
[thus] blinded are involved in darkness through their own 
fault. The light does never enslave any one by necessity; 
nor, again, does God exercise compulsion upon any one un- 
willing to accept the exercise of His skill. Those persons, 
therefore, who have apostatized from the light given by the 
Father, and transgressed the law of liberty, have done so 
through their own fault, since they have been created free 
agents, and possessed of power over themselves. 

1 Ps. xlv. 11. 2 jiatt. xxii. 3, etc. 3 Matt. iii. 9. 


4. But God, foreknowing all things, prepared fit habitations 
for both, kindly conferring that light which they desire on 
those who seek after the light of incorrnption, and resort to it ; 
but for the despisers and mockers who avoid and turn them- 
selves away from this light, and who do, as it w^ere, blind 
themselves, He has prepared darkness suitable to persons who 
oppose the light, and He has inflicted an appropriate punish- 
ment upon those who try to avoid being subject to Him. 
Submission to God is eternal rest, so that they who shun the 
light have a place worthy of their flight ; and those who fly 
from eternal rest, have a habitation in accordance with their 
fleeing. Now, since all good things are with God, they who 
by their own determination fly from God, do defraud them- 
selves of all good things ; and having been [thus] defrauded 
of all good things with respect to God, they shall consequently 
fall under the just judgment of God. For those persons who 
shun rest shall justly incur punishment, and those w'ho avoid 
the light shall justly dwell in darkness. For as in the case 
of this temporal light, those who shun it do deliver themselves 
over to darkness, so that they do themselves become the cause 
to themselves that they are destitute of light, and do inhabit 
darkness ; and, as I have already observed, the light is not 
the cause of such an [unhappy] condition of existence to 
them ; so those who fly from the eternal light of God, which 
contains in itself all good things, are themselves the cause to 
themselves of their inhabiting eternal darkness, destitute of 
all good things, having become to themselves the cause of 
[their consignment to] an abode of that nature. 

Chap. xl. — One and the same God the Father infilcts punish- 
ment on the reprobate, and bestows rewards on the elect. 

1. It is therefore one and the same God the Father who 
lias prepared good things with Himself for those who desire 
His fellowship, and who remain in subjection to Him ; and 
who has prepared the eternal fire for the ringleader of the 
apostasy, the devil, and those who revolted with him, into 
which [fire] the Lord^ has declared those men shall be sent 
1 Matt. XXV. 41. 


who have been set apart by themselves on His left hand. 
And this is what has been spoken by the prophet, " I am a 
jealous God, making peace, and creating evil things;"^ thus 
makiniT peace and friendship with those who repent and turn 
to Him, and bringing [them to] unity, but preparing for the 
impenitent, those who shun the light, eternal fire and outer 
darkness, which are evils indeed to those persons who fall 
into them. 

2. If, however, it w^ere truly one Father who confers rest, 
and another God who has prepared the fire, their sons would 
have been equally different [one from tlie other] ; one, in- 
deed, sending [men] into the Father's kingdom, but the other 
into eternal fire. But inasmuch as one and the same Lord 
has pointed out that the whole human race shall be divided 
at the judgment, "as a shepherd divideth the sheep from the 
goats," ^ and that to some He will say, " Come, ye blessed 
of my Father, receive the kingdom which has been prepared 
for you," ^ but to others, " Depart from me, ye cursed, into 
everlasting fire, which my Father has prepared for the devil 
and his angels," ^ one and the same Father is manifestly 
declared [in this passage], " making peace and creating evil 
things," preparing fit things for both ; as also there is one 
Judge sending both into a fit place, as the Lord sets forth in 
the parable of the tares and the wheat, where He says, " As 
therefore the tares are gathered together, and burned in the 
fire, so shall it be at the end of the world. The Son of man 
shall send His angels, and they shall gather from His king- 
dom everything that offendeth, and those who work iniquity, 
and shall send them into a furnace of fire: there shall be 
weeping and gnashing of teeth. Then shall the jast shine 
forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father."^ The 
Fatlier, therefore, who has prepared the kingdom for the 
righteous, into which the Son has received those worthy of it, 
is He who has also prepared the furnace of fire, into which 
these angels commissioned by the Son of man shall send 
those persons who deserve it, according to God's command. 

1 Isa. xlv. 7. 2 Matt. xxv. 32. s Matt. xxv. 34. 

* Matt. XXV. 41. « Matt. xiii. 40-43. 


50 IEENjEUS against heresies. [Book it. 

3. The Lord, indeed, sowed good seed in His own field ; ^ 
and He says, " The field is the world." But while men slept, 
the enemy came, and "sowed tares in the midst of the wheat, 
and went his way." ^ Hence we learn that this was the apos- 
tate angel and the enemy, because he was envious of God's 
workmanship, and took in hand to render this [workmanship] 
at enmity Avith God. For this cause also God has banished 
from His presence him who did of his own accord stealthily 
sow the tares, that is, him who brought about the transgres- 
sion ; ^ but He took compassion upon man, who, through want 
of care no doubt, but still wickedly [on the part of another], 
became involved in disobedience : and He turned the enmity 
by which [the devil] had designed to make [man] the enemy 
of God, against the author of it, by removing His own anger 
from man, turning it in another direction, and sending it 
instead upon the serpent. As also the Scripture tells us that 
God said to the serpent, " And I will place enmity between 
thee and the woman, and between tliy seed and her seed. 
He* shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his lieel."^ 
And the Lord summed up in Himself this enmity, when Pie 
was made man from a woman, and trod upon his [the ser- 
pent's] head, as I have pointed out in the preceding book. 

Chap. XLI. — Those inrsons tcJio do not believe in. God, hut 
ivho are disobedient, are angels and sons of the devil, not 
indeed by nature, but by imitation. Close of this book, 
and scope of the succeeding one. 

1. Inasmuch as the Lord has said that there are certain 
angels, [viz. those] of the devil, for M'hom eternal fire is 
prepared ; and as, again. He declares with regard to the tares, 

1 Matt. xiii. 34. ^ Matt. xiii. 28. 

2 The old Latin translator varies from this (the Grcok of which was 
recovered by Grabe from two ancient Catenx Patrum), making the clause 
run thus, that zs, the transgression wMch lie had himself introduced, making 
the explanatory words to refer to the tares, and not, as in the Greek, to 
the sower of the tares. 

* Following the reading of the LXX,, auroi aov rnp'^irsi x.i(pa.hY.v. 

* Gen. iii. 15. 


" Tlie tares are the cliildren of the wicked one," ^ it must be 
affirmed that He has ascribed all who arc of the apostasy to 
him who is the ringleader of this transgression. But He 
made neither angels nor men so by nature. For wo do not 
find that the devil created anything whatsoever, since indeed 
he is himself a creature of God, like the other angels. For 
God made all things, as also David says with regard to all 
things of the kind : " For He spake the word, and they were 
made; He commanded, and they were created."' 

2. Since, therefore, all things were made by God, and since 
the devil has become the cause of apostasy to himself and 
others, justly does the Scripture always term those who remain 
in a state of apostasy " sons of the devil" and " angels of the 
wicked one" {maligni). For [the word] " son," as one before 
me has observed, has a twofold meaning : one [is a son] in 
the order of nature, because he was born a son ; the other, 
in that he was made so, is reputed a son, although there be a 
difference between being born so and being made. so. For 
the first is indeed born from the person referred to ; but the 
second is made so by him, whether as respects his creation 
or by the teaching of his doctrine. For when any person 
has been taught from the mouth of another, he is termed the 
son of him who instructs him, and the latter [is called] his 
father. According to nature, then — that is, according to 
creation, so to speak — we are all sons of God, because we 
have all been created by God. But with respect to obedience 
and doctrine we are not all the sons of God : those only are so 
Avho believe in Him and do His will. And those who do not 
believe, and do not obey His will, are sons and angels of the 
devil, because they do the works of the devil. And that such 
is the case He has declared in Isaiah : " I have begotten and 
brought up children, but they have rebelled against me." ^ And 
again, where Pie says that these children are aliens: "Strange 
children have lied unto me.""* According to nature, then, 
they are [His] children, because they have been so created ; 
but with regard to their works, they are not His children, 

^ Matt. xiii. 38. 2 pg_ cxWx. 5. 

3 Isa. i. 2. ■* Ps, xviii. 45. 


3. For as, among men, those sons who disobey tlieir fathers, 
beino- disinherited, are still their sons in the course of nature, 
but by law are disinherited, for they do not become the 
heirs of their natural parents ; so in the same way is it with 
God, — those who do not obey Him being disinherited by 
Him, have ceased to be His sons. Wherefore they cannot 
receive His inheritance : as David says, " Sinners are alien- 
ated from the womb ; their anger is after the likeness of a 
serpent."^ And therefore did the Lord term those whom He 
knew to be the offspring of men " a generation of vipers ;" ^ 
because after the manner of these animals they go about in 
subtil ty, and injure others. For He said, " Beware of the 
leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees."^ Speaking 
of Herod, too, He says, " Go ye and tell that fox,"^ aiming 
at his wicked cunning and deceit. Wherefore the prophet 
David says, "Man, being placed in honour, is made like unto 
cattle."^ And again Jeremiah says, " They are become like 
horses, furious about females ; each one neighed after his 
neighbour's wife." ^ And Isaiah, when preaching in Judea, 
and reasoning with Israel, termed them " rulers of Sodom" 
and " people of Gomorrah;"^ intimating that they were like 
the Sodomites in wickedness, and that the same description 
of sins was rife among them, calling them by the same name, 
because of the similarity of their conduct. And inasmuch as 
they were not by nature so created by God, but had power 
also to act rightly, the same person said to them, giving them 
good counsel, "Wash ye, make you clean ; take away iniquity 
from your souls before mine eyes ; cease from your ini- 
quities."^ Thus, no doubt, since they had transgressed and 
sinned in the same manner, so did they receive the same 
reproof as did the Sodomites. But when they should be con- 
verted and come to repentance, and cease from evil, they 
should have power to become the sons of God, and to receive 
the inheritance of immortality which is given by Him. For 
this reason, therefore, He has termed those " angels of the 

1 Ps. Iviii. 3, 4. 2 Matt, xxiii. 33. ^ Matt. xvi. 6. 

* Luke xiii. 32. « Ps. xlix. 21. " jgr. y. g. 

^ Isa. i. 10. 8 isa. i. 16. 


devil," and "children of the ^Yicked one,"^ who give heed to 
the devil, and do his works. But these are, at the same time, 
all created by the one and the same God. When, however, 
they believe and are subject to God, and go on and keep His 
doctrine, they are the sons of God ; but when they have 
apostatized and fallen into transgression, they are ascribed 
to their chief, the devil — to him who first became the cause 
of apostasy to himself, and afterwards to others. 

4. Inasmuch as the words of the Lord are numerous, 
M'hile they all proclaim one and the same Father, the Creator 
of this world, it was incumbent also upon me, for their own 
sake, to refute by many [arguments] those who are involved 
in many errors, if by any means, when they are confuted by 
many [proofs], they may be converted to the truth and saved. 
But it is necessary to subjoin to this composition, in what 
follows, also the doctrine of Paul after the words of the 
Lord, to examine the opinion of this man, and expound the 
apostle, and to explain whatsoever [passages] have received 
other interpretations from the hei'etics, who have altogether 
misunderstood what Paul has spoken, and to point out the 
folly of their mad opinions ; and to demonstrate from that 
same Paul, from whose [writings] they press questions upon 
us, that they are indeed utterers of falsehood, but that the 
apostle was a preacher of the truth, and that he taught all 
things agreeable to the preaching of the truth ; [to the effect 
that] it was one God the Father who spake with Abraham, 
who gave the law, who sent the prophets beforehand, who in 
the last times sent His Son, and conferred salvation upon His 
own handiwork — that is, the substance of flesh. Arranging, 
then, in another book, the rest of the words of the Lord, 
which He taught concerning the Father not by parables, but 
by expressions taken in their obvious meaning {sed simpliciter 
ipsis dictionihus), and the exposition of the epistles of the 
blessed apostle, I shall, with God's aid, furnish thee with the 
complete work of the exposure and refutation of knowledge, 
falsely so called ; thus practising myself and thee in [these] 
five books for presenting opposition to all heretics. 
1 Matt. XXV. 41, xiii. 38. 



tlie four preceding books, my very dear friend, 
which I put forth to thee, all the heretics have 
been exposed, and their doctrines brought to light, 
and these men refuted who have devised irreligious 
opinions. [I have accomplished this by adducing] something 
from the doctrine peculiar to each of these men, which they 
liavc left in their writings, as well as by using arguments of 
a more general nature, and applicable to them all.^ Then 
I have pointed out the truth, and shown the preaching 
of the church, which the prophets proclaimed (as I have 
already demonstrated), but which Christ brought to perfec- 
tion, and the apostles have handed down, from whom the 
church, receiving [these truths], and throughout all the world 
alone preserving them in their integrity (bene), has trans- 
mitted them to her sons. Then also — having disposed of all 
questions which the heretics propose to us, and having ex- 
plained the doctrine of the apostles, and clearly set forth 
many of those things which were said and done by the Lord 
in parables — I shall endeavour, in this the fifth book of the 
entire work which treats of the exposure and refutation of 
knowledge falsely so called, to exhibit proofs from the rest of 
the Lord's doctrine and the apostolical epistles : [thus] com- 
plying with thy demand, as thou didst request of me (since 
indeed I have been assigned a place in the ministry of the 
word) ; and, labouring by every means in my power to 

^ Ex ratione uuiversia osteusionibus procedente. The words are very 



furnish thee with large assistance against the contradictions 
of the heretics, as also to reclaim the Avanderers and convert 
them to the church of God, to confirm at the same time the 
minds of the neophytes, that they may preserve stedfast the 
faith which they have received, guarded by the church in its 
integrity, in order that they be in no way perverted by those 
who endeavour to teach them false doctrines, and lead them 
away from the truth. It will be incumbent upon thee, how- 
ever, and all who may happen to read this writing, to peruse 
with great attention w^hat I have already said, that thou 
mayest obtain a knowledge of the subjects against which I 
am contending. For it is thus that thou wilt both controvert 
them in a legitimate manner, and wilt be prepared to receive 
the proofs brought forward against them, casting away their 
doctrines as filth by means of the celestial faith ; but follow- 
ing the only true and stedfast teacher, the Word of God, our 
Lord Jesus Christ, who did, through His transcendent love, 
become what we are, that He might bring us to be even what 
He is Himself. 

Chap. i. — Christ alone is ahle to teach divine things, and to 
redeem iis : He, the same, took Jlesh of the Virgin Mary, 
not merely in appearance, hut actually, hy the operation 
of the Holy Spirit, in order to renovcde us. Strictures on 
the conceits of Valentinus and Ehion. 

1. For in no other way could we have learned the things 
of God, unless our Master, existing as the Word, had become 
man. For no other being had the power of revealing to us i/^ 
the things of the Father, except His own proper Word. For 
what other person " knew the mind of the Lord," or who else 
"has become His counsellor?"^ Again, we could have learned 
in no other way than by seeing our Teacher, and hearing His 
voice with our own ears, that, having become imitators of His 
works as well as doers of His words, we may have communion 
with Him, receiving increase from the perfect One, and from 
Plim who is prior to all creation. We — who were but lately 
^ Eom. xi. 34. 


created by the only best and good Being, by Him also who 
has the mft of immortality, havincr been formed after His 
likeness (predestinated, according to the prescience of the 
Father, that we, who had as yet no existence, might come 
into being), and made the first-fruits of creation ^ — have re- 
ceived, in the times known beforehand, [the blessings of sal- 
vation] according to the ministration of the Word, who is 
perfect in all things, as the mighty Word, and very man, 
who, redeeming ns by His own blood in a manner consonant 
to reason, gave Himself as a redemption for those who had 
been led into captivity. And since the apostasy tyrannized 
over us unjustly, and, though we were by nature the property 
of the omnipotent God, alienated us contrary to nature, ren- 
dering us its own disciples, the Word of God, powerful in 
all things, and not defective with regard to His own justice, 
did righteously turn against that apostasy, and redeem from 
it His own property, not by violent means, as the [apostasy] 
had obtained dominion over us at the beginning, when it 
insatiably snatched away what was not its own, but by means 
of persuasion, as became a God of counsel, who does not use 
violent means to obtain what He desires ; so that neither 
should justice be infringed upon, nor the ancient handiwork 
of God go to destruction. Since the Lord thus has redeemed ^ 
us through His own blood, giving His soul for our souls, and 
His flesh for our flesh, and has also poured out the Spirit of 
the Father for the union and communion of God and man, 
imparting indeed God to men by means of the Spirit, and, on 
the other hand, attaching man to God by His own incar- 
nation, and bestowing upon us at His coming immortality 
durably and truly, by means of communion with God, — all 
the doctrines of the heretics fall to ruin. 

2. Vain indeed are those who allege that He appeared in 
mere seeminsr. For these things were not done in appear- 
ance only, but in actual reality. But if He did appear as a 
man, when He was not a man, neither could the Holy Spirit 
have rested upon Him, — an occurrence which did actually take 

1 " Init.ium factiirse," which Grabe thinks should be thus translated 
■with reference to Jas. i. 18. 


place — as the Spirit is invisible; nor, [in that case], was there 
any degree of truth in Him, for He was not that which He 
seemed to be. But I have already remarked that Abraham 
and the other prophets beheld Him after a prophetical man- 
ner, foretelling in vision what should come to pass. If, then, 
such a being has now appeared in outwiird semblance diffe- 
rent from what he was in reality, there has been a certain 
prophetical vision made to men ; and another advent of Plis 
must be looked forward to, in which He shall be such as 
He has now been seen in a prophetic manner. And I have 
proved already, that it is the same thing to say that He 
appeared merely to outward seeming, and [to affirm] that He 
received nothing from Mary. For He would not have been 
one truly possessing flesh and blood, by which He redeemed 
us, unless He had summed up in Himself the ancient for- 
mation of Adam. Vain therefore are the disciples of Valen- 
tinus who put forth this opinion, in order tliat they may 
exclude the flesh from salvation, and cast aside what God has 

3. Vain also are the Ebionites, who do not receive by faith 
into their soul the union of God and man, but who remain 
in tlie old' leaven of [the natural] birth, and wlio do not 
choose to understand that the Holy Ghost came upon Mary, 
and the power of the Most High did overshadow her : ^ 
wherefore also what was generated is a holy thing, and the 
Son of the Most High God the Father of all, who effected 
the incarnation of this being, and showed forth a new [kind 
of] generation ; that as by the former generation we in- 
Iierited death, so by this new generation we might inherit 
life. Therefore do these men reject the commixture of the 
heavenly wine,^ and wish it to be water of the world only, 
not receiving God so as to have union with Him, but they 
remain in that Adam who had been conquered and was ex- 
pelled from Paradise : not considering that as, at the beginning 

^ Luke i. 35. 

2 In allusiou to the mixture of -water in the eucharistic cup, as prac- 
tised in these primitive times. The Ebionites and others used to con- 
secrate the element of water alone. 


of oui' formation in Adam, that breatli of life wliicli proceeded 
from God, having been united to what had been fashioned, 
animated the man, and manifested him as a being endowed 
with reason ; so also, in [the times of] the end, the Word of 
the Father and the Spirit of God, having become united with 
the ancient substance of Adam's formation, rendered man 
living and perfect, receptive of the perfect Father, in order 
that as in the natural [Adam] we all were dead, so in the 
spiritual we may all be made alive.^ For never at any time 
did Adam escape the hands' of God, to whom the Father 
speaking, said, '•' Let us make man in our image, after our 
likeness." And for this reason in the last times (fine), not by 
the will of the flesh, nor by the will of man, but by the good 
pleasure of the Father,^ His hands formed a living man, in 
order that Adam might be created [again] after the image 
and likeness of God. 

Chap. II. — When Christ visited ris in His grace, lie did 
not come to ivhat did not belong to Him : also, by shed- 
ding His true blood for us, and exhibiting to us His true 
flesh in the Eucharist, He conferred upon our flesh the 
capacity of salvation. 

1. And vain likewise are those who say that God came to 
those things which did not belong to Him, as if covetous of 
another's property ; in order that He might deliver up that 
man who had been created by another, to that God who had 
neither made nor formed anything, but who also was deprived 
from the beginning of His own proper formation of men. 
The advent, therefore, of Him whom these men represent as 
coming to the things of others, was not righteous ; nor did 
He truly redeem us by His own blood, if He did not really 
become man, restoring to His own handiwork what was said 
[of it] in the beginning, that man was made after the image 
and likeness of God ; not snatching away by stratagem the 
property of another, bat taking possession of His own in a 
righteous and gracious manner. As far as concerned the 

1 1 Cor. XV. 22. 2 Viz. the Son and the Spirit. 3 joi^i j, 13, 


apostasy, indeed, He redeems us righteously from it by His 
o^Yll blood ; but as regards us who have been redeemed, [He 
does this] graciously. For we have given nothing to Him 
previously, nor does He desire anything from us, as if He 
stood in need of it ; but we do stand in need of fellowship 
with Him. And for this reason it was that He graciously 
poured Himself out, that He might gather us into the bosom 
of the Father. 

2. But vain in every respect are they who despise the entire 
dispensation of God, and disallow the salvation of the flesh, 
and treat with contempt its regeneration, maintaining that it 
is not capable of incorruption. But if this indeed do not 
attain salvation, then neither did the Lord redeem us with 
Flis blood, nor is the cup of the Eucharist the communion 
of His blood, nor the bread which w^e break the communion 
of His body.^ For blood can only come from veins and 
flesh, and whatsoever else makes up the substance of man, 
such as the Word of God was actually made. By His own 
blood He redeemed us, as also His apostle declares, " In 
whom we have redemption through His blood, even the re- 
mission of sins."" And as we are His members, we are also 
nourished by means of the creation (and He Himself grants 
the creation to us, for Pie causes His sun to rise, and sends 
rain when He wills"). He has acknowledged the cup (which 
is a part of the creation) as His own blood, from which He 
bedews our blood ; and the bread (also a part of the creation) 
He has established as His own body, from which He gives 
increase to our bodies. 

3. When, therefore, the mingled cup and the manufactured 
bread receives the Word of God, and the Eucharist of the 
blood and the body of Christ is made,'* from which things the 
substance of our flesh is increased and supported, how can 
they affirm that the flesh is incapable of receiving the gift of 
God, which is life eternal, which [flesh] is nourished from 
tlie body and blood of the Lord, and is a member of Him ? — 

1 1 Cor. X. 16. 2 Col, i_ 14, 3 Matt. v. 45. 

* The Greek text, of which a considerable portion remains here, ■would 
give, " and the Eucharist becomes the body of Christ." 



even as the blessed Paul declares in his Epistle to the Ephe- 
sians, that " we are members of His body, of His flesh, and 
of His bones." ^ He does not speak these words of some 
spiritual and invisible man, for a spirit has not bones nor 
flesh;" but [he refers to] that dispensation [by which the 
Lord became] an actual man, consisting of flesh, and nerves, 
and bones, — that [flesh] which is nourished by the cup which is 
His blood, and receives increase from the bread which is His 
body. And just as a cutting from the vine planted in the 
ground fructifies in its season, or as a corn of wheat falling 
into the earth and becoming decomposed, rises with manifold 
increase by the Spirit of God, who contains all things, and 
then, through the wisdom of God, serves for the use of men, 
and having received the Word of God, becomes the Eucharist, 
which is the body and blood of Christ ; so also our bodies, 
being nourished by it, and deposited in the earth, and suffer- 
ing decomposition there, shall rise at their appointed time, 
the Word of God granting them resurrection to the glory 
of God, even the Father, who freely gives to this mortal im- 
mortality, and to this corruptible incorruption,^ because the 
strength of God is made perfect in weakness,^ in order that we 
may never become puffed up, as if we had life from ourselves, 
and exalted against God, our minds becomino- nnorateful; 
but learning by experience that we possess eternal duration 
fi'om the excelling power of this Being, not from our own 
nature, we may neither undervalue that glory which sur- 
rounds God as He is, nor be ignorant of our own nature, but 
that we may know what God can effect, and what benefits 
man receives, and thus never wander from the true com- 
prehension of things as they are, that is, both with regard 
to God and with regard to man. And might it not be the 
case, perhaps, as I have already observed, that for this pur- 
pose God permitted our resolution into the common dust of 
mortality,^ that we, being instructed by every mode, may be 

1 Eph. V. 30. 2 Luke xxiv. 39. ^ i Cor. xv. 63. * 2 Cor. xii. 3. 

^ This is Harvey's free rendering of the passage, ■which is in the 
Greek (as preserved in the Catena of John of Damascus) : y.cci liH toZto 
^via)(,iTO 6 &e6s TViv ils rviu yiiv ii[^uu oLvcthvaiv. In the Latin : Propter 


accurate in all things for the future, being ignorant neither 
of God nor of ourselves? 

Chap. hi. — The poiuer and glory of God sJiine forth in the 
loeahiess of human flesh, as He zoill render our hody 
a loarticiiJator of the resurrection and of immortality, 
although He has formed it from the dust of the earth; 
He ti'ill also bestow upon it the enjoyment of immortality, 
just as He grants it this short life in common ivith the 

1. The Apostle Paul has, moreover, in the most lucid man- 
ner, pointed out that man has been delivered over to his own 
infirmity, lest, being uplifted, he might fall away from the 
truth. Thus he says in the second [Epistle] to the Corin- 
thians : " And lest I should be lifted up by the sublimity of 
the revelations, there was given unto me a thorn in the flesh, 
the messenger of Satan to buffet me. And upon this I be- 
sought the Lord three times, that it might depart from me. 
But He said unto me. My grace is sufficient for thee ; for 
strength is made perfect in weakness. Gladly therefore shall 
I rather glory in infirmities, that the power of Christ may 
dwell in me."^ What, therefore? (as some may exclaim :) 
did the Lord wish, in that case, that His apostle should thus 
undergo buffeting, and that he should endure such infirmity? 
Even so it was; the word says it. For strength is made 
perfect in weakness, rendering him a better man who by 
means of his infirmity becomes acquainted with the power of 
God. • For how could a man have learned that he is himself 
an infirm being, and mortal by nature, but that God is im- 
mortal and powerful, unless he had learned by experience 
what is in both ? For there is nothing evil in learning one's 
infirmities by endurance ;■ yea, rather, it has even the bene- 
ficial effect of preventing him from forming an undue opinion 
of his own nature (iion aherrare in natura sua). Bat the 

hoc passus est Deus fieri in nobis resolutionem. See the fprmer volume, 
p. 348. 

1 2 Cor. xii. 7-9. 


being lifted np against God, and taking His glory to one's 
self, rendering man ungrateful, has brought much evil upon 
him. [And thus, I say, man must learn both things by 
experience], that he may not be destitute of truth and love 
either towards himself or his Creator.^ But the experience 
of both confers upon him the true knowledge as to God and 
man, and increases his love towards God. Now, where there 
exists an increase of love, there a greater glory is wrought 
out by the power of God for those who love Him. 

2. Those men, therefore, set aside the power of God, and 
do not consider what the word declares, when they dwell upon 
the infirmity of the flesh, but do not take into consideration 
the power of Him who raises it up from the dead. For if 
He does not vivify what is mortal, and does not bring back 
the corruptible to incorruption. He is not a God of poAver. 
But that He is powerful in all these respects, we ought to 
perceive from our origin, inasmuch as God, taking dust from 
the earth, formed man. And surely it is much more diffi- 
cult and incredible, from non-existent bones, and nerves, and 
veins, and the rest of man's organization, to bring it about 
that all this should be, and to make man an animated and 
rational creature, than to reinteirrate airain that which had 
been created and then afterwards decomposed into earth (for 
the reasons already mentioned), having thus passed into those 
[elements] from which man, who had no previous existence, 
was formed. For He who in the beginning caused him to have 
being who as yet was not, just when He pleased, shall much 
more reinstate again those Avho had a former existence, when 
it is His will [that they should inherit] the life granted by 
Him. And that flesh shall also be found fit for and capable 
of receiving the power of God, which at the beginning 
received the skilful touches of God ; so that one part 
became the eye for seeing ; another, the ear for hearing ; 
another, the hand for feehng and working ; another, the 

^ "We have adopted here the explanation of Massuct, who considers 
the preceding period as merely parenthetical. Both Grabe and Harvey, 
however, -would make conjectural emendations in the text, which seem 
to us to be inadmissible. 


sinews stretched out everywhere, and holding the limhs 
togetlier ; another, arteries and veins, passages for the blood 
and the air ;^ another, the various internal organs ; another, 
the blood, which is the bond of union between soul and body. 
But why go [on in this strain] ? Numbers would fail to 
express the multiplicity of parts in the human frame, which 
was made in no other way than by the great wisdom of God. 
But those things which partake of the skill and wisdom of 
God, do also partake of His power. 

o. The flesh, therefore, is not destitute [of participation] 
in the constructive wisdom and power of God. But if the 
power of Him who is the bestower of life is made perfect 
in weakness — that is, in the flesh — let them inform us, when 
they maintain the incapacity of flesh to receive the life 
granted by God, whether they do say these things as being 
living men at present, and partakers of life, or acknowledge 
that, having no part in life whatever, they are at the present 
moment dead men. And if they really are dead men, how 
is it that they move about, and speak, and perform those 
other functions which are not the actions of the dead, but 
of the living? But if they are now alive, and if their whole 
body partakes of life, how can they venture the assertion that 
the flesh is not qualified to be a partaker of life, when they 
do confess that they have life at the present moment ? It is 
just as if anybody were to take up a sponge full of water, or 
a torch on fire, and to declare that the sponge could not 
possibly partake of the water, or the torch of the fire. In 
this very manner do those men, by alleging that they are alive 
and bear life about in their members, contradict themselves 
afterwards, when they represent these members as not being 
capable of [receiving] life. But if the present tempoi'al life, 
Avhich is of such an inferior nature to eternal life, can never- 
theless effect so much as to quicken our mortal members, why 
should not eternal life, being much more powerful than this, 
vivify the flesh, which has already held converse with, and 

^ The ancients erroneously supposed that the arteries ^vere air-vessels, 
from the fact that these organs, after death, appear quite empty, from 
all the blood stagnating in the veins when death supervenes. 


been accustomed to sustain, life? For that the flesh can 
really partake of life, is shown from the fact of its being 
alive ; for it lives on, as long as it is God's purpose that it 
should do so. It is manifest, too, that God has the power to 
confer life upon it, inasmuch as He grants life to us who 
are in existence. And, therefore, since the Lord has powxr to 
infuse life into what He has fashioned, and since the flesh 
is capable of being quickened, what remains to prevent its 
participating in incorruplion, which is a blissful and never- 
ending life granted by God? 

Chap. iv. — Those persons are deceived ivlio feign another God 
the Father besides the Creator of the loorld ; for he must 
have been feeble and useless, or else malignant and full of 
envy, if he be either unable or unwilling to extend eternal 
life to our bodies. 

1. Those persons who feign the existence of another Father 
beyond the Creator, and who term him the good God, do 
deceive themselves; for they introduce him as a feeble, worth- 
less, and negligent being, not to say malign and full of envy, 
inasmuch as they affirm that our bodies are not quickened by 
him. For when they say of things which it is manifest to all 
do remain immortal, such as the spirit and the soul, and such 
other things, that they are quickened by the Father, but 
that another thing [viz. the body] which is quickened in no 
different manner than by God granting [life] to it, is aban- 
doned by life, — [they must either confess] that this proves 
their Father to be weak and powerless, or else envious and 
malio-nant. For since the Creator does even here quicken 
our mortal bodies, and promises them resurrection by the 
prophets, as I have pointed out ; who [in that case] is shown 
to be more powerful, stronger, or truly good ? Whether is 
it the Creator who vivifies the whole man, or is it their 
Father, falsely so called ? He feigns to be the quickener of 
those things which are immortal by nature, to which things 
life is always present by their very nature ; but he does 
not benevolently quicken those things which required his 


"assistance, that they miglit live, but leaves them carelessly 
to full under the power of death. Whether is it the case, 
then, that their Father does not bestow life upon them when 
he has the power of so doing, or is it that he does not possess 
the power? If, on the one hand, it is because he cannot, 
he is, upon that supposition, not a powerful being, nor is he 
more perfect than the Creator ; for the Creator grants, as 
we must perceive, what He is unable to afford. But if, on 
the other hand, fit be that he does not grant this] when he 
has the power of so doing, then he is proved to be not a good, 
but an envious and malignant Father. 

2. If, again, they refer to any cause on account of which 
their Father does not impart life to bodies, then that cause 
must necessarily appear superior to the Father, since it 
restrains Him from the exercise of His benevolence ; and His 
benevolence will thus be proved weak, on account of that 
cause which they bring forward. Now every one must per- 
ceive that bodies are capable of receiving life. For they live 
to the extent that God pleases that they should live ; and 
that being so, the [heretics] cannot maintain that [these 
bodies] are utterly incapable of receiving life. If, therefore, 
on account of necessity and any other cause, those [bodies] 
which are capable of participating in life are not vivified, 
their Father shall be the slave of necessity and that cause, 
and not therefore a free agent, having His will under His 
own control. 

Chap. v. — The prolonged life of the ancients, the translation 
of Elijah and of Enoch in their oiim bodies, as well as 
the preservation of Jonah, of Shadrach, Meshach, and 
Ahednego, in the midst of extreme peril, are clear demon- 
strations that God can raise up our bodies to life eternal. 

1. [In order to learn] that bodies did continue in existence 
for a lengthened period, as long as it was God's good pleasure 
that they should flourish, let [these heretics] read the Scrip- 
tures, and they will find that our predecessors advanced 
beyond seven hundred, eight hundred, and nine hundred 

lEEN. — VOL. II. E 


years of age ; and that their bodies kept pace with the pro- 
tracted leugtli of their days, and participated in life as long 
as God willed that they should live. But why do I refer to 
these men ? For Enoch, when he pleased God, was trans- 
lated in the same body in which he did please Him, thus 
pointing out by anticipation the translation of the just. 
Elijah, too, was caught up [when he was yet] in the substance 
of the [natural] form ; thus exhibiting in prophecy the 
assumption of those who are spiritual, and that nothing stood 
in the way of their body being translated and caught up. 
For by means of the very same hands through which they 
were moulded at the beginning, did they receive this transla- 
tion and assumption. For in Adam the hands of God had 
become accustomed to set in order, to rule, and to sustain His 
own workmanship, and to bring it and place it whei'e they 
pleased. Where, then, Avas the first man placed ? In para- 
dise certainly, as the Scripture declares : " And God planted 
a garden \jparadiswn\ eastward in Eden, and there He placed 
the man whom He had formed."' ^ And then afterwards, when 
[man] proved disobedient, he was cast out thence into this 
world. Wherefore also the elders who were disciples of the 
apostles tell us that those who were translated were transferred 
to that place (for paradise has been prepared for righteous 
men, such as have the Spirit ; in which place also Paul the 
apostle, when he was caught up, heard words v»'hich are un- 
speakable as regards us in our present condition"), and that 
there shall they who have been translated remain until the 
consummation [of all things], as a prelude to immortality. 

2. If, however, any one imagine it impossible that men 
should survive for such a length of time, and that Elias 
was not caught up in the flesh, but that his flesh was con- 
sumed in the fiery chariot, let him consider that Jonah, when 
he had been cast into the deep, and swallowed down into the 
whale's belly, was by the command of God again thrown out 
safe upon the land."' And then, again, when Ananias, Azarias, 
and Misael were cast into the furnace of fire sevenfold heated, 
they sustained no harm whatever, neither was the smell of 
1 Gen. ii. 8. 2 2 Cor. xii. 4. ^ionii\\ ii. 11. 


fire perceived upon tliem. As, therefore, the hand of God was 
present with them, working out marvellous things in their case 
— [things] impossible [to be accomplished] by man's nature — 
what wonder was it, if also in the case of those who were 
translated it performed something wonderful, working in obe- 
dience to the \A ill of God, even the Father ? Now this is the 
Son of God, as the Scripture represents Nebuchadnezzar the 
kino- as having said, " Did not we cast three men bound into 
the furnace? and, lo, I do see four walking in the midst of 
the fire, and the fourth is like the Son of God."^ Neither 
the nature of any created thing, therefore, nor the weakness 
of the flesh, can prevail against the will of God. For God 
is not subject to created things, but created things to God ; 
and all things yield obedience to His will. Wherefore also 
the Lord declares, " The things which are impossible with 
men, are possible with God." " As, therefore, it might seem 
to the men of the present day, who are ignorant of God's 
appointment, to be a thing incredible and impossible that any 
man could live for such a number of years, yet those wdio 
were before us did live [to such an age], and those.who were 
translated do live as an earnest of the future length of days ; 
and [as it might also appear impossible] that from the whale's 
belly and from the fiery furnace men issued forth unhurt, yet 
they nevertheless did so, led forth as it were by the hand of 
God, for the purpose of declaring His power : so also now, 
although some, not knowing the power and promise of God, 
may oppose their own salvation, deeming it impossible for 
God, who raises up the dead, to have power to confer upon 
them eternal duration, yet the scepticism of men of this stamp 
shall not render the faithfulness of God of none effect. 

Chap. vi. — God xoill hesfoio salvation upon the whole nature 
of man, consisting of body and soid in close union, since 
the Word tooh it tipon Him, and adorned it loith the gifts 
of the Holy Spirit^ of lohom our bodies are, and are 
termed, the temjjles. 

1. Now God shall be glorified in His handiwork, fitting it 
1 Dan. iii. 19-25. 2 j^^^^ ^^^_ 37. 


80 as to be conformable to, and modelled after, His own Son. 
/ \For by the hands of the Father, that is, by the Son and tlie 
ijHoly Spirit, man, and not [merely] a part of man, Avas made 
' in the likeness of God. Now the soul and the spirit are cer- 
tainly a pa?'^ of the man, but certainly not the man ; for the 
perfect man consists in the commingling and the union of the 
soul receiving the spirit of the Father, and the admixture of 
that fleshly nature which was moulded after the image of 
God. For this reason does the apostle declare, " We speak 
wisdom among them that are perfect,"^ terming those persons 
" perfect" who have received the Spirit of God, and who 
through the Spirit of God do speak in all languages, as he 
used himself also to speak. In like manner we do also hear' 
many brethren in the church, who possess prophetic gifts, and 
who through the Spirit speak all kinds df languages, and 
bring to light for the general benefit the hidden things of 
men, and declare the mysteries of God, whom also the apostle 
terms " spiritual," they being spiritual because they partake 
of the Spirit, and not because their flesh has been stripped off 
and taken away, and because they have become purely spiritual. 
For if any one take away the substance of flesh, that is, of 
the handiwork [of God], and understand that which is purely 
spiritual, such then would not be a spiritual man, but would 
be the spirit of a man, or the Spirit of God. But when the 
spirit here blended with the soul is united to [God's] handi- 
work, the man is rendered spiritual and perfect because of 
the outpouring of the Spirit, and this is he who was made in 
the image and likeness of God. But if the Spirit be wanting 
to the soul, he who is such is indeed of an animal nature, and 
being left carnal, shall be an imperfect being, possessing in- 
deed the image [of God] in his formation {in plasmcde), but 
not receiving the similitude through the Spirit ; and thus is 
this being imperfect. Thus also, if any one take away the 
image and set aside the handiwork, he cannot then under- 
stand this as being a man, but as either some part of a man, 
as I have already said, or as something else than a man. For 
that flesh which has been moulded is not a perfect man in itself, 
^ 1 Cor. ii. 6 2 fhe old Latin has "audivhmis," hove licard. 


but the body of a man, and part of a man. Neither is the 
soul itself, considered apart by itself, the man ; but it is the 
soul of a man, and part of a man. Neither is the spirit a 
man, for it is called the spirit, and not a man ; but the com- 
mingling and union of all these constitutes the perfect man. 
And for this cause does the apostle, explaining himself, make 
it clear that tlie saved man is a complete man as well as a 
spiritual man ; saying thus in the first Epistle to the Thessa- 
lonians, " Now the God of peace sanctify you perfect (^per- 
fecios) ; and may your spirit, and soul, and body be preserved 
M'hole without complaint to the coming of the Lord Jesus 
Christ."^ Now what was his object in praying that these 
three — that is, soul, body, and spirit — might be preserved to 
the coming of the Lord, unless he was aware of the [future] 
reintegration and union of the three, and [that they should be 
heirs of] one and the same salvation ? For this cause also he 
declares that those are " the perfect " who present unto the 
Lord the three [component parts] without offence. Those, 
then, are the perfect who have had the Spirit of God remain- 
ing in them, and have preserved their souls and bodies blame- - 
less, holding fast the faith of God, that is, that faith which is 
[directed] towards God, and maintaining righteous dealings 
with respect to their neighbours. 

2. Whence also he says, that this handiwork is "the 
temple of God," thus declaring : " Know ye not that ye are 
the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in 
you? If any man, therefore, will defile the temple of God, 
him will God destroy : for the temple of God is holy, which 
[temple] ye are."' Here he manifestly declares the body to 
be the temple in which the Spirit dwells. As also the Lord 
speaks in reference to Himself, " Destroy this temple, and in 
three days I will raise it up. Pie spake this, however," it is 
said, " of the temple of His body."'^ And not only does he 
(the apostle) acknowledge our bodies to be a temple, but 
even the temple of Christ, saying thus to the Corinthians, 
" Know ye not that your bodies are members of Christ 1 
Shall I then take the members of Christ, and make them the 
1 1 Thess. V. 23. 2 1 Cor. iii. 16. ^ john ii. 19-21. 


members of an harlot?"^ He speaks these things, not in 
reference to some other spiritual man ; for a being of such a 
nature could have nothing to do ivitli an harlot : but he 
declares "our body," that is, the flesh which continues in 
sanctity and purity, to be "the members of Christ;" but that 
when it becomes one with an harlot, it becomes the members 
of an harlot. And for this reason he said, " If any man 
defile the temple of God, him will God destroy." How then 
is it not the utmost blasphemy to allege, that the temple of 
God, in which the Spirit of the Father dwells, and the mem- 
bers of Christ, do not partake of salvation, but are reduced 
to perdition ? Also, that our bodies are raised not from their 
own substance, but by the power of God, he says to the 
Corinthians, " Now the body is not for fornication, but for 
the Lord, and the Lord for the body. But God hath both 
raised up the Lord, and shall raise us up by His own 
power." ' 

Chap. vii. — Inasmuch as Christ did o-ise in our flesh, it fol- 
lows that ive shall be also raised in the same ; since the 
resurrection j^romised to us shoidd not he referred -to 
spirits naturally immortal, hut to bodies in themselves 

1. Li the same manner, therefore, as Christ did rise in the 
substance of flesh, and pointed out to His disciples the mark 
of the nails and the opening in His side^ (now these are the 
tokens of that flesh which rose from the dead), so " shall He 
also," it is said, " raise us uj) by His own power." ^ And 
again to the Romans he says, " But if the Spirit of Him that 
raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you. He that raised up 
Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies."^ 
What, then, are mortal bodies ? Can they be souls ? Nay, 
for souls are incorporeal Avhen put in comparison with mortal 
bodies ; for God " breathed into the face of man the breath 
of life, and man became a living soul." Now the breath 

1 1 Cor. iii. 17. " 1 Cor. vi. 13, 14. " John xx. 20, 25, 27. 

* 1 Cor. vi. 14. ^ Rom. viii. 11. 


of life is an incorporeal thing. And certainly they cannot 
maintain that the very breath of life is mortal. Therefore 
David says, " My soul also shall live to Him,"^ just as if its 
substance were immortal. Neither, on the other hand, can 
they say that the spirit is the mortal body. What therefore 
is there left to which we may apply the term " mortal body," 
unless it be the thing that was moulded, that is, the flesh, of 
which it is also said that God will vivify it ? For this it is 
which dies and is decomposed, but not the soul or the spirit. 
For to die is to lose vital power, and to become henceforth 
breathless, inanimate, and devoid of motion, and to melt away 
into those [component parts] from which also it derived the 
commencement of [its] substance. But this event happens 
neither to the soul, for it is the breath of life ; nor to the 
spirit, for the spirit is simple and not composite, so that it 
cannot be decomposed, and is itself the life of those who re- 
ceive it. We must therefore conclude that it is in reference 
to the flesh that death is mentioned ; which [flesh], after the 
soul's departure, becomes breathless and inanimate, and is 
decomposed gradually into the earth from which it was taken. 
This, then, is what is mortal. And it is this of which he 
also says, "He shall also quicken your mortal bodies." And 
therefore in reference to it he says, in the first [Epistle] to the 
Corinthians : " So also is the resurrection of the dead : it is 
sown in corruption, it rises in incorruption." ' For he declares, 
'"' That which thou sowest cannot be quickened, unless first 
it die."^ 

2. But what is that which, like a grain of wheat, is sown 
in the earth and decays, unless it be the bodies which are 
laid in the earth, into which seeds are also cast? And for 
this reason he said, "It is sown in dishonour, it rises in 
glory." ^ For what is more ignoble than dead flesh? Or, 
on the other hand, what is more glorious than the same when 
it arises and partakes of incorruption ? " It is sown in weak- 
ness, it is raised in power :"^ in its own weakness certainly, 
because since it is earth it goes to earth ; but [it is quickened] 

1 Ps. xxii. 31, LXX. 2 1 Cor. xv. 42. s i Cor. xv. 36. 

* 1 Cor. XV. 43. fi 1 Cor. xv. 43. 



by the power of God, who raises it from the dead. " It is 
sown an animal body, it rises a spiritual body."^ He has 
taught, beyond all doubt, that such language was not used 
by him, either with reference to the soul or to the spirit, but 
to bodies that have become corpses. For these are animal 
bodies, that is, [bodies] which partake of life, which when 
they have lost, they succumb to death ; then, rising through 
the Spirit's instrvnnentality, they become spiritual bodies, so 
that by the Spirit they possess a perpetual life. ^- For 
now," he says, " we know in part, and we prophesy in part, 
but then face to face." - And this it is which has been said 
also by Peter : " Whom having not seen, ye love ; in whom 
now also, not seeing, ye believe; and believing, ye shall rejoice 
with joy unspeakable."^ For our face shall see the face of 
the Lord,^ and shall rejoice with joy unspeakable, — that is 
to say, when it shall behold its own Delight. 

Chap. yiii. — The gifts of the Holy Spirit lohich ice receive 
prepare us for incorruption, render us spiritual^ and 
separate us from carnal men. These two classes are 
signified by the cleaii and unclean animals in the legal 

1 . But we do now receive a certain portion of His Spirit, 
tending towards perfection, and preparing us for incorrup- 
tion, being little by little accustomed to receive and bear 
God ; which also the apostle terms " an earnest," that is, a 
part of the honour which has been promised us by God, 
where he says in the Epistle to the Ephesians, "In which 
ye also, having heard the word of truth, the gospel of your 
salvation, believing in which ye have been sealed with the 
Holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inherit- 
ance."^ This earnest, therefore, thus dwelling in us, renders 

' 1 Cor. XV. 44. 2 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 12. =1 Pet. i. 8. 

■* Grabe, Massuet, and Stieren prefer to read, " the face of the livinof 
God ;" while Harvey adopts the above, reading merely " Domini," and 
not " Dei vivi." 

* Eph. i. 13, etc. 


us spiritual even now, and the mortal is swallowed up by 
immortality.^ " For ye," he declares, " are not in the flesh, 
but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in 
you."' This, however, does not take place by a casting avray 
of the flesh, but by the impartation of the Spirit. For those 
to whom he was writing were not without flesh, but they 
were those who had received the Spirit of God, " by which 
we cry, Abba, Father."^ If therefore, at the present time, 
having the earnest, we do cry, " Abba, Father," what shall it 
be when, on rising again, we behold Him face to face ; when 
all the members shall burst out into a continuous hymn of 
triumph, glorifying Him who raised them from the dead, and 
gave the gift of eternal life ? For if the earnest, gathering 
man into itself, does even now cause him to cry, " Abba, 
Father," Avhat shall the complete grace of the Spirit effect, 
which shall be given to men by God? It will render us like 
unto Him, and accomplish the will^ of the Father ; for it 
shall make man after the image and likeness of God. 

2. Those persons, then, who possess the earnest of the 
Spirit, and who are not enslaved by the lusts of the flesh, 
but are subject to the Spirit, and who in all things walk 
according to the light of reason, does the apostle properly; 
term " spiritual," because the Spirit of God dwells in them. ; 
Now, spiritual men shall not be incorporeal spirits ; but our 
substance, that is, the union of flesh and spirit, receiving the 
Spirit of God, makes up the spiritual man. But those who 
do indeed reject the Spirit's counsel, and are the slaves of 
fleshly lusts, and lead lives contrary to reason, and who, 
without restraint, plunge headlong into their own desires, 
having no longing after the Divine Spirit, do live after the 
manner of swine and of dogs ; these men, [I say], does the 
apostle very properly term " carnal," because they have no 
thought of anything else except carnal things. 

3. For the same reason, too, do the prophets compare 
them to irrational animals, on account of the irrationality of 

^ 2 Cor. V. 4. - Rom. viii. 9. ^ ]^om. viii. 15. 

•* This is adopting Harvey's emendation of "voluntatem" for "voluu- 


their conduct, saying, " They have become as horses raging 
for the females ; each one of them neighing after his neigh- 
boux"'s wife." ^ And again, " Man, when he was in honour, 
was made hke unto cattle." " This denotes that, for his own 
fault, he is likened to cattle, by rivalling their irrational life. 
And we also, as the custom is, do designate men of this 
stamp as cattle and irrational beasts. 

3. Now the law has figuratively predicted all these, deli- 
neating man by the [various] animals : " whatsoever of these, 
says [the Scripture], have a double hoof and ruminate, it pro- 
claims as clean ; but v.'hatsoever of them do not possess one 
or other of these [properties], it sets aside by themselves as 
unclean. Who then are the clean ? Those who make their 
way by faith steadily towards the Father and the Son ; for 
this is denoted by the steadiness of those which divide the hoof; 
and they meditate day and night upon the words of God,* 
that they may be adorned with good works : for this is the 
meaning of the ruminants. The unclean, however, are those 
which do neither divide the hoof nor ruminate ; that is, those 
])ersons who have neither faith in God, nor do meditate on 
His words : and such is the abomination of the Gentiles. 
But as to those animals which do indeed chew the cud, but 
liave not the double hoof, and are themselves unclean, we 
have in them a figurative description of the Jews, who 
certainly have the words of God in their mouth, but who do 
not fix their rooted stedfastness in the Father and in the 
Son ; wherefore they are an unstable generation. For those 
animals which have the hoof all in one piece easily slip ; but 
those which have it divided are more sure-footed, their cleft 
hoofs succeeding each other as they advance, and the one 
hoof supporting the other. In like manner, too, those are 
unclean which have the double hoof but do not ruminate : 
this is plainly an indication of all heretics, and of those who 
do not meditate on the words of God, neither are adorned 
with works of righteousness; to whom also the Lord says, 
" Why call ye me Lord, Lord, and do not the things which 

1 Jer, V. 3. 2 Ps. xlix. 20. 

3 Lev. xi. 2 ; Deut. xiv. 3, etc. * Ps. i. 2. 


I say to you?"^ For men of this stamp do indeed say that 
they believe in the Father and the Son, but they never medi- 
tate as they should upon the things of God, neither are they 
adorned with works of righteousness ; but, as I have already 
observed, they have adopted the lives of swine and of dogs, 
giving themselves over to filthiness, to gluttony, and reck- 
lessness of all sorts. Justly, therefore, did the apostle call 
all such " carnal" and " animal,"^ — [all those, namely], who 
through their own unbelief and luxury do not receive the 
Divine Spirit, and in their various phases cast out from 
themselves the life-giving Word, and walk stupidly after 
their own lusts : the prophets, too, spake of them as beasts of 
burden and wild beasts ; custom likewise has viewed them 
in the light of cattle and irrational creatures ; and the law has 
pronounced them unclean, 

CflAr. IX. — Showing lioio that ijcissarje of the ajyostle tohick 
the heretics pervert, should he understood; viz., ^^ Flesh 
and blood shall not possess the kingdom of GodJ' 

1. Among the other [truths] proclaimed by the apostle, 
there is also this one, " That flesh and blood cannot inherit 
the kingdom of God."^ This is [the passage] which is 
adduced by all the heretics in support of their folly, with an 
attempt to annoy us, and to point out that the liaudiwork 
of God is not saved. They do not take -this fact into con- 
sideration, that there are three things out of which, as I have 
shown, the complete man is composed — flesh, soul, and spirit. 
One of these does indeed preserve and fashion [the man] — 
this is the spirit ; while as to another it is united and formed 
— that is the flesh ; then [comes] that which is between these 
two — that is the soul, which sometimes indeed, when it follows 
the spirit, is raised up by it, but sometimes it sympathizes 
with the flesh, and falls into carnal lusts. Those then, as 
many as they be, who have not that which saves and forms 
[us] into life [eternal], shall be, and shall be called, [mere] 
flesh and blood ; for these are they who have not the Spirit 

1 Luke vi. -IG. - 1 Cor. ii. 14, iii. 1, etc. s i Cor. xv. 60- 


of God in themselves. Wherefore men of tliis stamp are 
spoken of by tlie Lord as "dead;" for, says He, "Let the 
dead bury their dead,"^ because they have not the Spirit 
which quickens man. 

2. On the other hand, as many as fear God and trast in 
His Son's advent, and who through faith do estabhsh the 
Spirit of God in their hearts, — such men as these shall be 
properly called both "pure," and "spiritual," and "those 
living to God," because they possess the Spirit of the Father, 
wlio purifies man, and raises him up to the life of God. For 
as the Lord has testified that " the flesh is weak," so [does 
He also say] that " the spirit is willing."^ For this latter is 
capable of working out its own suggestions. If, therefore, 
any one admix the ready inclination of the Spirit to be, as 
it were, a stimulus to the infirmity of the flesh, it inevitably 
follows that what is strong will prevail over the weak, so that 
the weakness of the flesh will be absorbed by the strength 
of the Spirit ; and that the man in whom this takes place 
cannot in that case be carnal, but spiritual, because of the 
fellowship of the Spirit. Thus it is, therefore, that the 
martyrs bear their witness, and despise death, not after the 
infirmity of the flesh, but because of the readiness of the 
Spirit. For when the infirmity of the flesh is absorbed, it 
exhibits the Spirit as powerful ; and again, when the Spirit 
absorbs the weakness [of the flesh], it possesses the flesh as an 
inheritance in itself, and from both of these is formed a living 
man, — living, indeed, because he partakes of the Spirit, but 
man, because of the substance of flesh. 

3. The flesh, therefore, Avhen destitute of the Spirit of 
God, is dead, not having life, and cannot possess the kingdom 
of God : [it is as] irrational blood, like water poured out upon 
the ground. And therefore he says, "As is the earthy, such 
are they that are earthy."^ But wliere the Spirit of the 
Father is, there is a living man ; [there is] the rational blood 
preserved by God for the avenging [of those that shed it] ; 
[there is] the flesh possessed by the Spirit, forgetful indeed 
of what belongs to it, and adopting the quality of the Spirit, 

1 Luke X. CO. - iMatt. xxvi. 41. ^ i Cor. xv. 48. 


being made conformable to the Word of God. And on tliis 
account he (the apostle) declares, " As we have borne the 
imacfe of him who is of the earth, we shall also bear the 
image of Him who is from heaven."^ What, therefore, is 
the earthly 1 That which was fashioned. And what is the 
heavenly % The Spirit. As therefore he says, when we were 
destitute of the celestial Spirit, we walked in former times 
in the oldness of the flesh, not obeying God ; so now let us, 
receiving the Spirit, walk in newness of life, obeying God. 
Inasmuch, therefore, as without the Spirit of God we cannot 
be saved, the apostle exhorts us through faith and chaste con- 
versation to preserve the Spirit of God, lest, having become 
non-participators of the Divine Spirit, we lose the kingdom 
of heaven ; and he exclaims, that flesh in itself, and blood, 
cannot possess the kingdom of God. 

4. If, however, we must speak strictly, [we would say that] 
the flesh does not inherit, but is inherited ; as also the Lord 
declares, " Blessed are the meek, for they shall possess the 
earth by inheritance;""' as if in the [future] kingdom, the 
earth, from whence exists the substance of our flesh, is to be 
possessed by inheritance. This is the reason for His wishing 
the temple {i.e. the flesh) to be clean, that the Spirit of God 
may take delight therein, as a bridegroom with a bride. As, 
therefore, the bride cannot [be said] to wed, but to be wedded, 
when the bridegroom comes and takes her, so also the flesh 
cannot by itself possess the kingdom of God by inheritance ; 
but it can be taken for an inheritance into the kingdom of 
God. For a living person inherits the goods of the deceased; 
and it is one thing to inherit, another to be inherited. The 
former rules, and exercises power over, and orders the things 
inherited at his will ; but the latter things are in a state of 
subjection, are under orders, and are ruled over by him who 
has obtained the inheritance. What, therefore, is it that lives? 
The Spirit of God, doubtless. What, again, are the posses- 
sions of the deceased ? The various parts of the man, surely, 
which rot in the earth. But these are inherited by the Spirit 
when they are translated into the kingdom of heaven. For 
1 1 Cor. XV. 49. 2 Matt. v. 5. 


this cause, too, dicl Christ die, that the gospel covenant being 
manifested and known to the whole world, might in the first 
place set free Ilis slaves ; and then afterwards, as I have 
already shown, might constitute them heirs of His property, 
w^hen the Spirit possesses them by inheritance. For he -«.vho 
lives inherits, but the flesh is inherited. In order that we 
may not lose life by losing that Spirit which possesses us, 
the apostle, exhorting us to the communion of the Spirit, has 
said, according to reason, in those words already quoted, 
" That flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God." 
Just as if he were to say, " Do not err ; for unless the Word 
of God dwell with, and the Spirit of the Father be in you, 
and if ye shall live frivolously and carelessly as if ye were 
this only, viz. mere flesh and blood, ye cannot inherit the 
kingdom of God." 

Chap. x. — By a comparison di'aion from the toild olive-tree, 
whose quality hut not ivhose nature is changed by grafting, 
he proves more important things ; he points out also that 
man without the Spirit is not capable of bringing forth 
fruit, or of inheriting the kingdom of God. 

1. This truth, therefore, [he declares], in order that we 
may not reject the engrafting of the Spirit while pampering 
the flesh. " But thou, being a wi]d olive-tree," he says, 
" hast been grafted into the good olive-tree, and been made 
a partaker of the fatness of the olive-tree." ^ As, therefore, 
when the wild olive has been engrafted, if it remain in its 
former condition, viz. a wild olive, it is " cut off, and cast 
into the fire;""^ but if it takes kindly to the graft, and is 
changed into the good olive-tree, it becomes a fruit-bearing 
olive, planted, as it were, in a king's park (paradiso) : so 
likewise men, if they do truly progress by faith towards better 
things, and receive the Spirit of God, and bring forth the 
fruit thereof, shall be spiritual, as being planted in the para- 
dise of God. But if they cast out the Spirit, and remain in 
their former condition, desirous of being of the flesh rather 
1 Rom. xi. 17. - Matt. vii. 19. 


than of the Spirit, then it is very justly said with regard to 
men of this stamp, " That flesh and blood shall not inherit 
the kingdom of God;"^ just as if any one were to say that 
the wild olive is not received into the paradise of God. 
Admirably therefore does the apostle exhibit our nature, and 
God's universal appointment, in his discourse about flesh and 
blood and the wild olive. For as the good olive, if neglected 
for a certain time, if left to grow wild and to run to wood, 
does itself become a wild olive ; or again, if the wild olive 
be carefully tended and grafted, it naturally reverts to its 
former fruit-bearing condition : so men also, when they 
become careless, and bring forth for fruit the lusts of the 
flesh like woody produce, are rendered, by their own fault, 
unfruitful in righteousness. For when men sleep, the enemy 
sows the material of tares ;^ and for this cause did the Lord 
command His disciples to be on the watch.^ And again, 
those persons who are not bringing forth the fruits of right- 
eousness, and are, as it were, covered over and lost among 
brambles, if they use diligence, and receive the word of 
God as a graft,* arrive at the pristine nature of man — that 
which was created after the image and likeness of God. 

2. But as the engrafted wild olive does not certainly lose 
the substance of its wood, but changes the quality of its fruit, 
and receives another name, being now not a wild olive, but 
a fruit-bearing olive, and is called so ; so also, when man is 
grafted in by faith and receives the Spirit of God, he certainly 
does not lose the substance of flesh, but changes the quality / 
of the fruit [brought forth, ^.e.] of his works, and receives i 
another name,^ showing that he has become changed for the , 
better, being now not [mere] flesh and blood, but a spiritual 
man, and is called such. Then, again, as the wild olive, if it be 
not grafted in, remains useless to its lord because of its woody 
quality, and is cut down as a tree bearing no fruit, and cast 
into the fire ; so also man, if he does not receive through 
faith the engrafting of the Spirit, remains in his old condi- 

1 1 Cor. XV. 50. - IMatt. xiii. 25. 

^ Matt. xxiv. 42, xxv. 13 ; Mark xiii. 33. 

* Jas. i. 21. 6 Eev. ii. 17. 



tlon, and being [mere] flesli and blood, he cannot inherit the 
kingdom of God. Rightly therefore does the apostle declare, 
"Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God;"^ 
and, "Those who are in the flesh cannot please God:"^ not 
repudiating [by these words] the substance of flesh, but 
showing that into it the Spirit must be infused." And for 
this reason he says, " This mortal must put on immortality, 
and this corruptible must put on incorruption.'"' And again 
he declares, " But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, 
if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you."^ He sets this 
forth still more plainly, where he says, " The body indeed is 
dead, because of sin ; but the Spirit is life, because of right- 
eousness. But if the Spirit of Him who raised up Jesus 
from the dead dwell in you. He that raised up Christ from 
the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies, because of 
His Spirit dwelling in you."^ And again he says, in the 
Epistle to the Romans, " For if ye live after the flesh, ye 
shall die."^ [Now by these words] he does not prohibit them 
from living their lives in the flesh, for he was himself in the 
flesh when he wrote to them ; but he cuts away the lusts of 
the flesh, those which bring death upon a man. And for 
this reason he says in continuation, " But if ye through the 
Spirit do mortify the works of the flesh, ye shall live. For 
whosoever are led by the Spirit of God, these are the sons of 

Chap. xi. — Treats upon the actions of carnal and of spiritual 
pei'sons ; also, that the spiritual cleansing is not to he 
referred to the substance of our bodies, but to the manner 
of our former life. 

1. [The apostle], foreseeing the wicked speeches of un- 
beHevers, has particularized the works which he terms carnal ; 
and he explains himself, lest any room for doubt be left to 

^ 1 Cor. XV. 50. - Rom. viii. 8. 

^ The Ijatin has, " seel infusionem Spiritus attrahens.'' 
■* 1 Cor. XV. 53. ^ Rom. viii. 9. 

* Rom. viii. 10, etc. ^ Rom. viii. 13. 


those who do dishonestly pervert his meaning, thus saying in 
tlie Epistle to the Galatians : " Now the works of the flesh 
are manifest, which are ; adulteries, fornications, uncleanness, 
luxuriousness, idolatries, witchcrafts,^ hatreds, contentions, 
jealousies, wraths, emulations, animosities, irritable speeches, 
dissensions, heresies, envyings, drunkenness, carousings, and 
such like ; of which I warn you, as also I have warned you, 
that they who do such things shall not inherit the kingdom 
of God." "^ Thus does he point out to his hearers in a more 
explicit manner what it is [he means when he declares], 
" Flesh and blood shall not inherit the kingdom of God." For 
they who do these things, since they do indeed walk after the 
flesh, have not the power of living unto God. And then, 
again, he proceeds to tell us the spiritual actions which vivify 
a man, that is, the engrafting of the Spii'it; thus saying, 
" But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, 
goodness, benignity, faith, meekness, continence, chastity : 
against these there is no law."^ As, therefore, he who has 
gone forward to the better things, and has brought forth the 
fruit of the Spirit, is saved altogether because of the com- 
munion of the Spirit ; so also he who has continued in the 
aforesaid works of the flesh, being truly reckoned as carnal, 
because he did not receive the Spirit of God, shall not have 
power to inherit the kingdom of heaven. As, again, the 
same apostle testifies, saying to the Corinthians, " Know ye 
not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of 
God ? Do not err," he says : " neither fornicators, nor 
idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of them- 
selves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor revilers, 
nor rapacious persons, shall inherit the kingdom of God. And 
these ye indeed have been ; but ye have been washed, but ye 
have been sanctified, but ye have been justified in the name 
of the Lord Jesus Christ, and in the Spirit of our God.""* 
He shows in the clearest manner through what things it is 
that man goes to destruction, if he has continued to live after 
the flesh ; and then, on the other hand, [he points out} 

^ Or, "poisonings." - Gal. v. 19, etc. 

s Gal. V. 22. 4 1 Cor. vi. 9-11. 



through Avhat things he is saved. Xow he says that tlic 
things which save are the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and the Spirit of our God. 

2. Since, therefore, in that passage he recounts those works 
of the flesh which are without the Spirit, which bring death 
[upon their doers], he exclaimed at the end of his epistle, in 
accordance with what he had already declared, " And as we 
have borne the image of him who is of the earth, we shall 
also bear the image of Ilim who is from heaven. For this I 
say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the king- 
dom of God."^ Now this which he says, " as we have borne 
the image of him who is of the earth,'' is analogous to what 
has been declared, " And such indeed ye were ; but ye have 
been washed, but ye have been sanctified, but ye have been 
justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in the 
Spirit of our God." When, therefore, did we bear the image 
of him who is of the earth ? Doubtless it was when those 
actions spoken of as " works of the flesh" used to be wrought 
in us. And then, again, when [do we bear] the image of the 
heavenly? Doubtless when he says, " Ye have been washed," 
believing in the name of the Lord, and receiving His Spirit. 
Now we have washed away, not the substance of our body, 
nor the image of our [primary] formation, but the former 
vain conversation. In these members, therefore, in which 
Ave were going to destruction by working the works of cor- 
ruption, in these very members are we made alive by working 
the works of the Spirit. 

Chap. xii. — Of the difference between life and death; of the 
breath of life and the vivifying Spirit : also hoio it is 
that the substance of flesh revives ivhich once loas dead. 

1. For as the flesh is capable of corruption, so is it also of 
incorruption ; and as it is of death, so is it also of life. These 
two do mutually give way to each other; and both cannot 
remain in the same place, but one is driven out by the other, 
and the presence of the one destroys that of the other. If, 
^ 1 Cor. XV. 49, etc. 


then, when death takes possession of a man, it drives life away 
from liim, and proves him to be dead, much more does life, 
when it has obtained power over the man, drive out death, 
and restore him as living unto God. For if death brings 
mortality, why should not life, when it comes, vivify man ? 
Just as Esaias the prophet says, '• Death devoured when it 
liad prevailed."^ And again, "God has wiped away every 
tear from every face," Thus that former life is expelled, 
because it was not given by the Spirit, but by the breath. 

2. For the breath of life, which also rendered man an ani- 
mated being, is one thing, and the vivifying Spirit another, 
which also caused him to become spiritual. And for thii» 
reason Isaiah said, "Thus saith the Lord, who made heaven 
and established it, who founded the earth and the things 
therein, and gave breath to the people upon it, and Spirit to 
those walking upon it;"-' thus telling us that breath is indeed 
given in common to all people upon earth, but that the 
Spirit is theirs alone who tread down earthly desires. And 
therefore Isaiah himself, distinguishing the things already 
mentioned, again exclaims, " For the Spirit shall go forth 
from me, and I have made every breath."^ Thus does he 
attribute the Spirit as peculiar to God, which in the last 
times He pours forth upon the human race by the adoption 
of sons ; but [he shows] that breath was common throughout 
the creation, and points it out as something created. Now 
what has been made is a different thing from him who makes 
it. The breath, then, is temporal, but the Spirit eternal. 
The breath, too, increases [in strength] for a short period, and 
continues for a certain time ; after that it takes its departure, 
leaving its former abode destitute of breath. But when the ■ 
Spirit pervades the man within and without, inasmuch as it ' 
continues there, it never leaves him. "But that is not first 
which is spiritual," says the apostle, speaking this as if with 
reference to us human beings; "but that is first which is 
animal, afterwards that which is spiritual,"* in accordance 
with reason. For there had been a necessity that, in the 

^ Isa. XXV. 8, LXX. ^ Isa. xlii. 5. 

3 Isa. Ivii. 16. < 1 Cor. xv. 46. 


first place, a human being should be fashioned, and that what 
was fashioned should receive the soul ; afterwards that it 
should thus receive the communion of the Spirit. Where- 
fore also " the first- Adam was made " by the Lord " a living 
soul, the second Adam a quickening spirit."^ As, then, he 
who was made a living soul forfeited life when he turned 
aside to what was evil, so, on the other hand, the same indi- 
vidual, when he reverts to what is good, and receives the 
quickening Spirit, shall find life. 

3. For it is not one thing which dies and another which is 
quickened, as neither is it one thing which is lost and another 
which is found, but the Lord came seeking for that same sheep 
which had been lost. What was it, then, which was dead ? 
Undoubtedly it was the substance of the flesh; the same, too, 
which had lost the breath of life, and had become breathless 
and dead. This same, therefore, was what the Lord came to 
quicken, that as in Adam we do all die, as being of an animal 
nature, in Christ Ave may all live, as being spiritual, not lay- 
ing aside God's handiwork, but the lusts of the flesh, and 
receiving the Holy Spirit ; as the apostle says in the Epistle 
to the Colossians : " Mortify, therefore, your members which 
are upon the earth." And what these are he himself ex- 
plains : " Fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil 
concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry."" The 
laying aside of these is what the apostle preaches ; and he 
declares that those who do such things, as being merely flesh 
and blood, cannot inherit the kingdom of heaven. For their 
soul, tending towards what is worse, and descending to earthly 
lusts, has become a partaker in the same designation which 
belongs to these [lusts, viz. " earthly "], which, when the 
apostle commands us to lay aside, he says in the same epistle, 
" Cast ye off the old man with his deeds." ^ But when he 
said this, he does not remove away the ancient formation [of 
man] ; for in that case it would be incumbent on us to rid 
ourselves of its company by committing suicide. 

4. But the apostle himself also, being one who had been 
formed in a womb, and had issued thence, wrote to us, and 

1 1 Cor. XV. 45, 2 Col. iii. 5. ^ Col. iii. 9. 


confessed in his Epistle to the Pliilippians that " to live 
in the flesh was the fruit of [his] work;"^ thus expressing 
himself. Now the final result of the work of the Spirit is the 
salvation of the flesh.'^ For what other visible fruit is there / 
of the invisible Spirit, than the rendering of the flesh mature 1 
and capable of incorruption ? If then [he says], " To live in ( 
the flesh, this is the result of labour to me," he did not surely 
contemn the substance of flesh in that passage where he said, 
" Put ye off the old man with his works ;"^ but he points out 
that we should lay aside our former conversation, that which 
waxes old and becomes corrupt ; and for this reason he goes 
on to say, " And put ye on the new man, that which is renewed 
in knowledge, after the image of Him who created him." In 
this, therefore, that he says, " which is renewed in knowledge," 
he demonstrates that he, the selfsame man who was in igno- 
rance in times past, that is, in ignorance of God, is renewed 
by that knowledge which has respect to Him. For the know- 
ledge of God renews man. And when he says, " after the 
image of the Creator," he sets forth the recapitulation of the 
same man, who was at the beginning made after the likeness 
of God. 

5. And that he, the apostle, was the very same person who 
had been born from the womb, that is, of the ancient sub- \ 
stance of flesh, he does himself declare in the Epistle to tEe 
Galatians : " But when it pleased God, who separated me 
from my mother's womb, and called me by His grace, to reveal 
His Son in me, that I might preach Him among the Gen- i 
tiles,"'* it was not, as I have already observed, one person who I 
had been born from the womb, and another who preached .~s 
the gospel of the Son of God ; but that same individual who 
formerly was ignorant, and used to persecute the church, 
when the revelation was made to him from heaven, and the 
Lord conferred with him, as I have pointed out in the third 
book,^ preached the gospel of Jesus Christ the Son of God, 
wlio was crucified under Pontius Pilate, his former ignorance 

1 Phil. i. 22. 

- Following Harvey's explanation of a somewhat obscure passage. 

3 Col. iii. 10. 4 Gal. i. 15, 16. ^ YqI, i pp, 306, 321. 


being driven out by his subsequent knowledge : just as the 
bHnd men whom the Lord healed did certainly lose their 
blindness, but received the substance of their eyes perfect, 
and obtained the power of vision in the very same eyes with 
which they formerly did not see ; the darkness being merely 
driven away by the power of vision, while the substance of 
the eyes was retained, in order that, by means of those eyes 
through which they had not seen, exercising again the visual 
power, they might give thanks to Him who had restored them 
again to sight. And thus, also, he whose withered hand was 
healed, and all who were healed generally, did not change 
those parts of their bodies which had at their birth come forth 
from the womb, but simply obtained these anew in a healthy 

6. For the Maker of all things, the Word of God, who 
did also from the beginning form man, when He found His 
handiwork impaired by wickedness, performed upon it all 
kinds of healing. At one time [He did so], as regards each 
separate member, as it is found in His own handiwork ; and at 
another time He did once for all restore man sound and whole 
in all points, preparing him perfect for Himself unto the 
resurrection. For what was His object in healing [different] 
portions of the flesh, and restoring them to their original 
condition, if those parts which had been healed by Him were 
not in a position to obtain salvation ? For if it was [merely] 
a temporary benefit which He conferred, He granted nothing 
of importance to those who were the subjects of His healing. 
Or how can they maintain that the flesh is incapable of 
receiving the life which flows from Him, when it received 
healins from Him ? For life is brought about through 
healing, and incorruption through life. He, therefore, who 
confers healing, the same does also confer life ; and Pie 
[who gives] life, also surrounds His own handiwork with 


Chap. xiii. — In the dead who xvere raised by Christ loe possess 
the highest proof of the resurrection; and our hearts are 
shoion to he capable of life eternal, because they can noio 
receive the Spirit of God. 

1. Let our opponents — that is, they who speak against 
their own salvation — inform us [as to this point] : The de- 
ceased daughter of the higli priest ; ^ the widow's dead son, 
who was being carried out [to burial] near the gate [of the 
city];^ and Lazarus, who had lain four days in the tomb," — in 
what bodies did they rise again ? In those same, no doubt, 
in which they had also died. For if it were not in the very 
same, then certainly those same individuals who had died did 
not rise again. For [the Scripture] says, " The Lord took 
the hand of the dead man, and said to him, Young man, I 
say unto thee, Ai'ise. And the dead man sat up, and He com- 
manded that something should be given him to eat ; and He 
delivered him to his mother."^ Again, He called Lazarus 
" with a loud voice, saying, Lazarus, come forth ; and he 
that was dead came forth bound with bandages, feet and 
hands." This was symbolical of that man who had been 
bound in sins. And therefore the Lord said, " Loose him, 
and let him depart." As, therefore, those who were healed 
were made whole in those members which had in times past 
been afflicted; and the dead rose in the identical bodies, 
their limbs and bodies receiving health, and that life which 
was granted by the Lord, who prefigures eternal things by 
temporal, and shows that it is He who is Himself able to 
extend both healing and life to His handiwork, that His 
words concerning its [future] resurrection may also be be- 
lieved ; so also at the end, when the Lord utters His voice 
" by the last trumpet,"'' the dead shall be raised, as He Him- 

^ Mark v. 22. Irenseus confounds the ruler of the synagogue with the 
liigh priest. 

^ liUke vii. 12. ■" John ix. ."0. 

* The two miracles of raising the widow's son and the rabbi's daughter 
are here amalgamated. 

^ 1 Cor. XV. 52. 


self declares : " The hour shall come, in which all the dead 
which are in the tomhs shalljiear the voice of the Son of 
man, and shall come forth ; those that have done good to the 
resurrection of lifc; and those that have done evil to the 
resurrection of judgment." ^ 

2. Vain, therefore, and truly miserable, are those who do 
not choose to see what is so manifest and clear, but shun the 
light of truth, blinding themselves like the tragic Qildipus. 
And as those who are not practised in wrestling, when they 
contend with others, laying hold with a determined grasp of 
some part of [their opponent's] body, really fall by means of 
that which they grasp, yet when they fall, imagine that they 
are gaining the victory, because they have obstinately kept 
their hold upon that part which they seized at the outset, 
and besides falling, become subjects of ridicule ; so is it 
with respect to that [favourite] expression of the heretics : 
"Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God;" 
while taking two expressions of Paul's, without having per- 
ceived the apostle's meaning, or examined critically the force 
of the terms, but keeping fast hold of the mere expressions 
by themselves, they die in consequence of their influence 
(TTfjol avra<i), overturning as far as in them lies the entire 
dispensation of God. 

3. For thus they will allege that this passage refers to the 
flesh strictly so called, and not to fleshly works, as I have 
pointed out, so representing the apostle as contradicting 
himself. For immediately following, in the same epistle, he 
says conclusively, speaking thus in reference to the flesh : 
"For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this 
mortal must put on immortality. So, when this mortal shall 
have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the 
saying which is written. Death is swallowed up in victory. 
O death, where is thy sting? O death, where is thy victory ?"- 
Now these words shall be appropriately said at the time when 
this mortal and corruptible flesh, which is subject to death, 
which also is pressed down by a certain dominion of death, 
rising up into life, shall put on incorruption and immortality. 

1 Jolm V. 28. " 1 Cor, xv. 53. 


For then, indeed, shall death be truly vanquished, when that 
flesh which is held down by it shall go forth from under its 
dominion. And again, to the Philippians he says: "But 
our conversation is in heaven, from whence also we look for 
the Saviour, the Lord Jesus, who shall transfigure the body 
of our humiliation conformable to the body of His glory, 
even as He is able {ita ut possit) according to the Avorking of 
Plis own power." ^ What, then, is this "body of humiliation" 
which the Lord shall transfigure, [so as to be] conformed to 
" the body of His glory?" Plainly it is this body composed 
of flesh, which is indeed humbled when it falls into the 
earth. Now its transformation [takes place thus], that while 
it is mortal and corruptible, it becomes immortal and incor- 
ruptible, not after its own proper substance, but after the 
mighty working of the Lord, who is able to invest the mortal 
with immortality, and the corruptible with incorruption. And 
therefore he says,^ " that mortality may be swallowed up of 
life. He who has perfected us for this very thing is God, who 
also has given unto us the earnest of the Spirit."^ He uses 
these words most manifestly in reference to the flesh ; for 
the soul is not mortal, neither is the spirit. Now, what is 
mortal shall be swallowed up of life, when the flesh is dead 
no longer, but remains living and incorruptible, hymning the 
praises of God, who has perfected us for this very thing. In 
order, therefore, that we may be perfected for this, aptly does, 
he say to the Corinthians, "Glorify God in your body."* 
Now God is He who gives rise to immortality. 

4. That he uses these words with respect to the body of 
flesh, and to none other, he declares to the Corinthians mani- 
festly, indubitably, and free from all ambiguity : " Always 
bearing about in our body the dying of Jesus,^ that also the 

1 Phil. iii. 29, etc. 

2 The original Greek text is preserved here, as above ; the Latin 
translator inserts, " in secuuda ad Corinthios." Harvey observes: " The 
interpolation of the scriptural reference by the translator suggests the 
suspicion that the greater number of such references have come in from 
the margin." 

3 2 Cor. V. 4. 4 1 Cor. vi. 20. 

^ Agreeing with the Syriac version in omitting " the Lord" before the 


life of Jesus Christ might be manifested in our body. For 
if we who live are delivered unto deatli for Jesus' sake, it is 
that the life of Jesus may also be manifested in our mortal 
flesh." ^ And that the Spirit lays hold on the flesh, he says 
in the same epistle, " That ye are the epistle of Christ, mini- 
stered by us, inscribed not with ink, but with the Spirit of 

V the living God, not in tables of stone, but in the fleshly tables 
of the heart." ^ If, therefore, in the present time, fleshly 
hearts are made partakers of the Spirit, what is there astonish- 

xj ing if, in the resurrection, they receive that life which is 
granted by the Spirit ? Of which resurrection the apostle 
speaks in the Epistle to the Philippians : " Having been made 
conformable to His death, if by any means I might attain to 
the resurrection which is from the dead."^ In what other 
mortal flesh, therefore, can life be understood as being mani- 
fested, unless in that substance which is also put to death 
on account of that confession which is made of God? — as 
he has himself declared, " If, as a man, I have fought with 
beasts* at Epliesus, what advantageth it me if the dead rise 
not ? For if the dead rise not, neither has Christ risen. 
Now, if Christ has not risen, our preaching is vain, and your 
faith is vain. In that case, too, we are found false witnesses 
for God, since we have testified that He raised up Christ, 
whom [upon that supposition] He did not raise up.^ For if 
the dead rise not, neither has Christ risen. But if Christ 
be not risen, your faith is vain, since ye are yet in your 
sins. Therefore those who have fallen asleep in Christ have 
perished. If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we 
are more miserable than all men. But now Christ has 
risen from the dead, the first-fruits of those that sleep ; for 

word "Jesus," and in reading dil as s/, Avliicli Harvey considers the true 

1 2 Cor. iv. 10, etc. ^ 2 Cor. iii. 3. ^ phii. \;xi. 11. 

■* The Syriac translation seems to take a literal meaning out of this 
passage : "If, as one of the sons of men, I have been cast forth to the 
wild beasts at Ephesus." 

^ This is in accordance with the Syriac, which omits the clause, uTrip 
elp» uix,poi oiix, eyiipovTxt. 


ns by man [came] death, by man also [came] the resurrection 
of the dead." ^ 

5. In all these passages, therefore, as I have already said, 
these men must either allege that the apostle expresses 
opinions contradicting himself, with respect to that state- 
ment, "Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God;" 
or, on the other hand, they will be forced to make perverse 
and crooked interpretations of all the passages, so as to over- 
turn and alter the sense of the words. For what sensible 
thing can they say, if they endeavour to interpret otherwise 
this which he writes : " For this corruptible must put on 
incorruption, and this mortal put on immortality;"^ and, 
" That the life of Jesus may be made manifest in our mortal 
flesh ;"^ and all the other passages in which the apostle does 
manifestly and clearly declare the resurrection and incorrup- 
tion of the flesh ? And thus shall they be compelled to put 
a false interpretation upon passages such as these, they who 
do not choose to understand one correctly. 

CiiAr. XIV. — Unless the flesh iceretohe saved, the Wordiooidcl 
not have taken upon Him flesh of the same substance as 
ours : from this it looidd folloio that neither should ive 
have been reconciled by Him. 

1. And inasmuch as the apostle has not pronounced against 
the very substance of flesh and blood, that it cannot inherit 
the kingdom of God, the same apostle has everywhere adopted 
the term " flesh and blood" with regard to the Lord Jesus 
Christ, partly indeed to establish His human nature (for 
He did Himself speak of Himself as the Son of man), and 
partly that He might confirm the salvation of our flesh. 
For if the flesh were not in a position to be saved, the Word 
of God would in no wise have become flesh. And if the 
blood of the righteous were not to be inquired after, the Lord 
would certainly not have had blood [in His composition]. 
But inasmuch as blood cries out (vocalis est) from the begin- 
ning [of the world], God said to Cain, when he had slain his 
1 1 Cor. XV. 13, etc. 2 i Cor. xv. 53. s 2 Cor. iv. 11. 


brother, " The voice of thy brother's blood crieth to me." ^ 
And as their blood will be inquired after, he said to those 
with Noah, "For .your blood of your souls will I require, 
[even] from the hand of all beasts;"^ and again, "Whoso- 
ever will shed man's blood,^ it shall be shed for his blood." 
In like manner, too, did the Lord say to those who should 
afterwards shed His blood, " All righteous blood shall be 
required which is shed upon the earth, from the blood of 
righteous Abel to the blood of Zacharias the son of Bara- 
chias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. 
Verily I say unto you. All these things shall come upon this 
generation."^ He thus points out the recapitulation that 
should take place in His own person of the effusion of blood 
from the beginning, of all the righteous men and of the 
prophets, and that by means of Himself there should be a 
requisition of their blood. Now this [blood] could not be 
required unless it also had the capability of being saved ; nor 
would the Lord have summed np these things in Himself, 
unless He had Himself been made flesh and blood after the 
way of the original formation [of man], saving in His own 
person at the end that which had in the beginning perished 
in Adam. 

2. But if the Lord became incarnate for any other order 
of things, and took flesh of any other substance, He has not 
then summed up human nature in His own person, nor in 
that case can He be termed flesh. For flesh has been truly 
made [to consist in] a transmission of that thing moulded 
originally from the dust. But if it had been necessary for 
Him to draw the material [of his body] from another sub- 
stance, the Father would at the beginning have moulded 
the material [of flesh] from a different substance [than from 
Avhat He actually did]. But now the case stands thus, that 
the Word has saved that which really was [created, viz.] 
humanity which had perished, effecting by means of Himself 
that communion which should be held with it, and seeking 

1 Gen. iv. 10. - Gen. ix. 6, 6, LXX. 

3 One of the MSS. reads here : Sanguis pro sanguine ejus effundetur. 

* Matt, xxiii. 35, etc. ; Luke xi. 50. 


out its salvation. But the thing which had perished possessed 
flesh and blood. For the Lord, taking dust from the earth, 
moulded man ; and It was upon his behalf that all the dis- 
pensation of the Lord's advent took place. He had Himself, 
therefore, flesli and blood, recapitulating in Himself not a 
certain other, but that original handiwork of the Father, seek- 
ing out that thing which had perished. And for this cause the 
apostle, in the Epistle to the Colossians, says, " And though 
ye were formerly alienated, and enemies to His knowledge by 
evil works, yet now ye have been reconciled in the body of 
His flesh, through His death, to present yourselves holy and 
chaste, and without fault in His sight." ^ He says, "Ye have 
been reconciled in the body of His flesh," because the righteous 
flesh has reconciled tliat flesh which was being kept under 
bondage in sin, and brought It into friendship with God. 

3. If, then, any one allege that in this respect the, flesh of 
the Lord was different from ours, because it Indeed did not 
commit sin, neither was deceit found in His soul, while we, 
on the other hand, are sinners, he says what is the fact. But 
if he pretends that the Lord possessed another substance of 
flesh, the sayings respecting reconciliation will not agree with 
that man. For that thing Is reconciled which had formerly 
been In enmity. Now, if the Lord had taken flesh from 
another substance. He would not, by so doing, have recon- 
ciled that one to God which had become Inimical through 
transgression. But now, by means of communion with Him- 
self, the Lord has reconciled man to God the Father, In 
reconciling us to Himself by the body of His own flesh, and 
redeeming us by His own blood, as the apostle says to the 
Ephesians, " In whom we have redemption through His 
blood, the remission of sins;"^ and again to the same he says, 
" Ye who formerly were far off have been brought near In 
the blood of Christ;"^ and again, "Abolishing In His flesh 
the enmities, [even] the law of commandments [contained] 
in ordinances."* And In every epistle the apostle plainly 
testifies, that through the flesh of our Lord, and through His 
blood, we have been saved. 

> Col. i. 21, etc. 2Epii, i_7^ s gph. ii. 13. * Epli. ii. 15. 


4. If, therefore, flesh and blood are the things wliich pro- 
cure for us life, it has not been declared of flesh and blood, 
in the literal meaning (proprie) of the terms, that they cannot 
inherit the kingdom of God ; but [these words apply] to those 
carnal deeds already mentioned, which, perverting man to 
sin, deprive him of life. And for this reason he says, in tlie 
Epistle to the Romans : " Let not sin, therefore, reign in 
your mortal body, to be under its control : neither yield ye 
your members instruments of unrighteousness unto sin ; but 
yield yourselves to God, as being alive from the dead, and 
your members as instruments of righteousness unto God."^ 
In these same members, therefore, in which we used to serve 
sin, and bring forth fruit unto death, does He wish us to [be 
obedient] unto righteousness, that we may bring forth fruit 
unto life. Remember, therefore, my beloved friend, that 
thou hast been redeemed by the flesh of our Lord, re-estab- 
lished' by His blood ; and '• holding the Head, from which 
the whole body of the church, having been fitted together, 
takes increase"^ — that is, acknowledging the advent in the 
flesh of the Son of God, and [His] divinity (denm), and look- 
ing forward with constancy to His human nature^ {hommem), 
availing thyself also of these proofs drawn from Scriptiu'e — 
thou dost easily overthrow, as I have pointed out, all those 
notions of the heretics which were concocted afterwards. 

CiT A p, XV. — Proofs of the resurreciiGn from Isaiah and Ezelcid; 
the same God ivho created us loill also raise us up. 

1. Now, that He who at the beginning created man, did 
promise him a second birth after his dissolution into earth, 

^ Rom. vi. 12, etc. 

- " Et sanguine ejus redhibitus," corresponding to the Greek term 
dTo-AxrusruSili. " Redhibere " is properly & forensic term, me:ming to 
cause any article to be restored to the vendor. 

3 Col. ii. 19. 

•* Harvey restores the Greek thus, x.x\ to:/ «vroS civ^ou-rrov fislSxia; 
iKOsxof^s'Jo;, which he thinks has a reference to the patient waiting for 
"Christ's second advent to judge the world." The phrase might also be 
translated, " and receiving stedfastly His human natm'e." 


Esaias thus declares : " The dead shall rise agahi, and they 
who are in the tombs shall arise, and they who are in the 
earth shall rejoice. For the dew which is from Thee is 
health to them."^ And again : " I will comfort you, and ye 
shall be comforted in Jerusalem: and ye shall see, and your 
heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish as the grass ; 
and the hand of the Lord shall be known to those who wor- 
ship Him."^ And Ezekiel speaks as follows: "And the 
hand of the Lord came upon me, and the Lord led me forth 
in the Spirit, and set me down in the midst of the plain, and 
this place was full of bones. And He caused me to pass by 
them round about : and, behold, there were many upon the 
surface of the plain very dry. And He said unto me. Son 
of man, can these bones live ? And I said. Lord, Thou who 
hast made them dost know. And He said unto me. Prophesy 
upon these bones, and thou shalt say to them. Ye dry bones, 
hear the word of the Lord. Thus saith the Lord to these 
bones, Behold, I will cause the spirit of life to come upon you, 
and I will lay sinews upon you, and bring up flesh again upon 
you, and I will stretch skin upon you, and will put my Spirit 
into you, and ye shall live ; and ye shall know that I am the 
Lord. And I prophesied as the Lord had commanded me. 
And it came to pass, when I was prophesying, that, behold, 
an earthquake, and the bones were drawn together, each one 
to its own articulation : and I beheld, and, lo, the sinews 
and flesh were produced upon them, and the skins rose upon 
them round about, but there was no breath in them. And 
He said unto me. Prophesy to the breath. Son of man, and say 
to the breath, These things saith the Lord, Come from the 
four winds (spiritibus), and breathe upon these dead, that they 
may live. So I prophesied as the Lord had commanded me, 
and the breath entered into them ; and they did live, and 
stood upon their feet, an exceeding great gathering."^ And 
again he says, " Thus saith the Lord, Behold, I will set your 
graves open, and cause you to come out of your graves, and 
bring you into the land of Israel ; and ye shall know that I 
am the Lord, when I shall open your sepulchres, that I may 
^ Isa. xxvi. 19. - Isa. Ixvi. 13. ^ Ezek. xxvii. 1, etc. 


bring my people again out of the sepulchres : and I will put 
my Spirit into you, and ye shall live ; and I ^Yill place you in 
your land, and ye shall know that I am the Lord. I have 
said, and I will do, saith the Lord."-^ As we at once per- 
ceive that the Creator (Demiurgo) is in this passage repre- 
sented as vivifying our dead bodies, and promising resurrection 
to them, and resuscitation from their sepulchres and tombs, 
conferring upon them immortality also (He says, " For as 
the tree of life, so shall their days be"^), He is shown to be 
the only God who accomplishes these things, and as Himself 
the good Father, benevolently conferring life upon those 
who have not life from themselves. 

2. And for this reason did the Lord most plainly mani- 
fest Himself and the Father to His disciples, lest, forsooth, 
they might seek after another God besides Him who formed 
man, and who gave him the breath of life; and that men 
might not rise to such a pitch of madness as to feign 
another Father above the Creator. And thus also He healed 
by a word all the others who were in a weakly condition 
because of sin ; to Avhom also He said, " Behold, thou art 
made whole, sin no more, lest a worse thing come upon thee:"" 
pointing out by this, that, because of the sin of disobedience, 
infirmities have come upon men. To that man, however, 
who had been blind from his birth. Pie gave sight, not by 
means of a woi'd, but by an outward action ; doing this not 
without a purpose, or because it so happened, but that He 
might show forth the hand of God, that which at the 
beginning had moulded man. And therefore, when His 
disciples asked Him for what cause the man had been born 
blind, whether for his own or his parents' fault. He replied, 
" Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents, but that the 
works of God should be made manifest in him.'"* Now the 
work of God is the fashioning of man. For, as the Scrip- 
ture says. He made [man] by a kind of process: ^'And the 
Lord took clay from the earth, and formed man."^ Where- 
fore also the Lord spat on the ground and made clay, and 
1 Ezelv. xxxvii. 12, etc. - Isa. Ixv. 22. ^ joim y. 14. 

* John ix. 3. ^ Gen. ii. 7. 


smeared it upon the eyes, pointing out the original fashion- 
ing [of man], how it was effected, and manifesting the hand 
of God to tiiose who can understand by what [hand] man 
was formed out of the dust. For that which the artificer, 
the Word, had omitted to form in the womb, [viz. the bhnd 
man's eyes], He then supplied in public, that the works of 
God might be manifested in him, in order that we might 
not be seeking out another hand by which man was fashioned, 
nor another Father ; knowing that this hand of God which 
formed us at the beginning, and which does form us in the 
womb, has in the last times sought us out who were lost, 
■winning back His own, and taking up the lost sheep upon 
His shoulders, and with joy restoring it to the fold of life. 

3. Now, that the Word of God forms us in the -womb, He 
says to Jeremiah, " Before I formed thee in the w^omb, I 
knew thee ; and before thou wentest forth from the belly, I 
sanctified thee, and appointed thee a prophet among the 
nations."^ And Paul, too, says in like manner, "But when 
it pleased God, who separated me from my mother's womb, 
that I might declare Plim among the r.;;tions."" As, there- 
fore, we are by the Word formed in the womb, this very 
same Word formed the visual power in him who had been 
blind from his birtii ; showing openly who it is that fashions 
us in secret, since the Word Himself had been made mani- 
fest to men : and declaring the original formation of Adam, 
and the manner in which he was created, and by what hand 
he was fashioned, indicating the whole from a part. For 
the Lord who formed the visual powers is He who made 
the whole man, carrying out the will of the Father. And 
inasmuch as man, with respect to that formation which was 
after Adam, having fallen into transgression, needed the 
laver of regeneration, [the Lord] said to him [upon whom 
He had conferred sight], after He had smeared his eyes 
with the clay, "Go to Siloam, and wash; "^ thus restoring 
to him both [his perfect] conformation, and that regeneration 
which takes place by means of the laver. And for this reason 
when he was washed he came seeinfr, that he micht both 
1 Jer. i. 5. 2 Gal. i. 15. 3 joi^ i^. 7. 



know Him who had fashioned him, and that man micht 
learn [to know] Him who has conferred upon him life. 

4. All the followers of Valentinus, therefore, lose their 
case, when they say that man was not fashioned ont of this 
earth, hut from a fluid and diffused substance. For, from 
the earth out of which the Lord formed eyes for that man, 
from the same earth it is evident that man was also fashioned 
at the beginning. For it were incompatible that the eyes 
should indeed be formed from one source and the rest of the 
body from another ; as neither would it be compatible that ■ 
one [being] fashioned the body, and another the eyes. But 
He, the very same who formed Adam at the beginning, with 
whom alsp the Father spake, [saying], " Let us make man 
after our imafje and likeness,"^ revealino; Himself in these 
last times to men, formed visual organs (yisionem) for him 
who had been blind [in that body which he had derived] 
from Adam. Wherefore also the Scripture, pointing out 
what should come to pass, says, that when Adam had hid 
himself because of his disobedience, the Lord came to him 
at eventide, called him forth, and said, "Where art thou?'"^ 
That means that in the last times the very same Word of 
God came to call man, reminding him of his doings, living 
in which he had been hidden from the Lord. For just as 
at that time God spake to Adam at eventide, searching 
him out ; so in the last times, by means of the same voice, 
searching out his posterity, He has visited them. 

Chap. XVI. — Since our bodies return to the earth, it follows 
that they have their substance from it; also, by the 
advent of the Word, the image of God in us aj^j^eared in 
a clearer light. 

1. And since Adam was moulded from this earth to which 
we belong, the Scripture tells us that God said to him, " In 
the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread, until thou 
turnest again to the dust from whence thou wert taken." ^ 
If then, after death, our bodies return to any other substance, 
1 Gen. i. 25. ^ Qen. iii. 9. ^ Qen. iii. 19. 


it follows that from it also they have their substance. But 
if it be into this very [earth], it is manifest that it was also 
from it that man's frame was created ; as also the Lord 
clearly showed, Avhen from this veiy substance He formed 
eyes for the man [to Avhom He gave sight]. And thus was 
the hand of God plainly shown forth, by which Adam was 
fashioned, and we too have been formed ; and since there is 
one and the same Father, whose voice from the beginning 
even to the end is present with His handiwork, and the sub- 
stance from which we were formed is plainly declared through 
the Gospel, we should therefore not seek after another Father 
besides Him, nor [look for] another substance from which 
we have been formed, besides what was mentioned before- 
hand, and shown forth by the Lord ; nor another hand of 
God besides that which, from the beginning even to the end, 
forms us and prepares us for life, and is present with His 
handiwork, and perfects it after the image and likeness of 

2. And then, again, this Word was manifested when the 
Word of God was made man, assimilating Himself to man, 
and man to Himself, so that by means of his resemblance' to 
the Son, man might become precious to the Father. For in 
times long past, it was said that man was created after the 
image of God, but it was not [actually] slioicn ; for the Word 
was as yet invisible, after whose image man was created. 
Wherefore also he did easily lose the similitude. When, 
however, the Word of God became flesh. He confirmed both 
these : for He both showed forth the image truly, since He 
became Himself what was His image ; and He re-established 
the similitude after a sure manner, by assimilating man to 
the invisible Father through means of the visible Word. 

3. And not by the aforesaid things alone has the Lord 
manifested Himself, but [He has done this] also by means 
of His passion. For doing away with [the effects of] that 
disobedience of man which had taken place at the beginning 
by the occasion of a tree, " He became obedient unto death, 
even the death of the cross ;"^ rectifying that disobedience 

1 Phil, il 8. 


which had occurred by reason of a tree, through that 
obedience which was [wrought out] upon the tree [of the 
cross]. Now He would not have come to do away, by means 
of that same [image], the disobedience which had been in- 
curred towards our Maker if He procLiimed another Father. 
But inasmuch as it was by these things that we disobeyed 
God, and did not give credit to Plis word, so was it also by 
these same that He brought in obedience and consent as 
respects His Word; by which things He clearly shows forth 
God Himself, whom indeed we had offended in the first 
Adam, when he did not perform His commandment. In 
the second Adam, however, we are reconciled, being made 
obedient even unto death. For we were debtors to none 
other but to Him whose commandment we had transgressed 
at the beginning. 

Chap. xvii. — Tliere is hut one Lord and one God, tJi 


Father and Creator of all things, who has loved us in 
Christ, given lis commandments, and remitted our sins ; 
whose Son and Word Christ proved Himself to he, wlien 
lie forgave our sins. 

1. Now this being is the Creator {Demiurgus), who is, in 
respect of His love, the Father ; but in respect of His povt-er. 
He is Lord ; and in respect of His wisdom, our Maker and 
Fashioner ; by transgressing whose commandment we became 
His enemies. And therefore in the last times the Lord has 
restored us into friendship through His incarnation, having 
become " the Mediator between God and men ;" ^ propitiating 
indeed for us the Father against whom we had sinned, and 
cancelling (consolatus) our disobedience by His own obedi- 
ence ; conferring also upon us the gift of communion with, 
and subjection to, our Maker. For this reason also He has 
taught us to say in prayer, "And forgive us our debts;"'" 
since indeed He is our Father, whose debtors we were, having 
transgressed His commandments. But who is this Being ? 
Is He some unknown one, and a Father who gives no com- 
1 ] Tim. ii. 5. - Matt. vi. 12. 


mandment to any one? Or is Pie tlie God who is proclaimed 
in the Scriptures, to whom we were debtors, having trans- 
gressed His commandment? Now the commandment was 
given to man by the Word. For Adam, it is said, " heard 
the voice of the Lord God."^ Rightly then docs His Word 
say to man, "Thy sins are forgiven thee;"" He, the same 
against whom we had sinned in the beginning, grants forgive- 
ness of sins in the end. But if indeed we had disobeyed the 
command of any other, while it was a different being who 
said, "Thy sins are forgiven thee ;"" such an one is neither 
good, nor true, nor just. For how can he be good, who does 
not «rive from what belono-s to himself ? Or how can he be 
just, who snatches away the goods of another? And in what 
way can sins be truly remitted, unless that He against whom 
we have sinned has Himself granted remission "through the 
bowels of mercy of our God," in which " He has visited us"'^ 
through His Son ? 

2. And therefore, when He had healed the man sick of 
the palsy, [the evangelist] says : " The people upon seeing 
it glorified God, who gave such power unto men."^ What 
(jod, then, did the bystanders glorify? Was it indeed that 
unknown Father invented by the heretics? And how could 
they glorify him who was altogether unknown to them ? It 
is evident, therefore, that the Israelites glorified Him who has 
been proclaimed as God by the law and the prophets, who is 
also the Father of our Lord ; and therefore He taught men, 
by the evidence of their senses through those signs which He 
accomplished, to give glory to God. If, however. He Him- 
self had come from another Father, and men glorified a diffe- 
rent Father when they beheld His miracles. He [in that case] 
rendered them ungrateful to that Father who had sent the 
gift of healing. But as the only-begotten Son had come for 
man's salvation from Ilim who is God, He did both stir up 
the incredulous by the miracles which He was in the habit 
of working, to give glory to the Father ; and to the Phari- 
sees, who did not admit the advent of His Son, and who 

1 Gen. iii. 8. " Matt. ix. 2 ; Luke v. 20. 

3 Luke i. 78. * Matt. ix. 8. 


consequently did not believe in the remission [of sins] Vvliich 
was conferred by Him, He said, " That ye may know that 
the Son of man hath power to forgive sins." ^ And when He 
had said this, He commanded the paralytic man to take up 
the pallet upon which he was lying, and go into his house. 
By this work of His He confounded the unbelievers, and 
showed that He is Himself the voice of God, by which man 
received commandments, which he broke, and became a 
sinner ; for the paralysis followed as a consequence of sins. 

3. Therefore, by remitting sins, He did indeed heal man, 
while He also manifested Himself Avho He was. For if no 
one can forgive sins but God alone, while the Lord remitted 
them and healed men, it is plain that He was Himself the 
Word of God made the Son of man, receiving from the 
Father the power of remission of sins ; since He was man, 
and since He was God, in order that since as man He suffered 
for us, so as God He might have compassion on us, and for- 
give us our debts, in which we were made debtors to God our 
Creator. And therefore David said beforehand, " Blessed are 
they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. 
Blessed is the man to whom the Lord has not imputed sin ;"^ 
pointing out thus that remission of sins which follows upon 
His advent, by which " He has destroyed the handwriting" 
of our debt, and "fastened it to the cross ;"^ so that as by 
means of a tree we were made debtors to God, [so also] by 
means of a tree we may obtain the remission of our debt. 

4. This fact has been strikingly set forth by many others, 
and especially through means of Elisha the prophet. For 
when his fellow-prophets were hewing wood for the construc- 
tion of a tabernacle, and when the iron [head], shaken loose 
from the axe, had fallen into the Jordan and could not be 
found by them, upon Elisha's coming to the place, and learn- 
ing what had happened, he threw some wood into the water. 
Then, when he had done this, the iron part of the axe floated 
up, and they took up from the surface of the water what they 
had previously lost,'* By this action the, prophet pointed out 

1 Matt. ix. 6. 2 Ps. xxxii. 1, 2. 

s Col. ii. 14. * 2 Kings vi. C. 


that the sure word of God, which we had negh'gently lost by 
means of a tree, and were not in the way of finding again, we 
should receive anew by the dispensation of a tree, [viz. the 
cross of Christ]. For that the word of God is likened to an 
axe, John the Baptist declares [when he says] in reference to 
it, "But now also is the axe laid to the root of the trees." ^ 
Jeremiah also says to the same purport : " The word of God 
cleaveth the rock as an axe."^ This word, then, what was 
hidden from us, did the dispensation of the tree make mani- 
fest, as I have already remarked. For as we lost it by means 
of a tree, by means of a tree again was it made manifest to 
all, showing the height, the length, the breadth, the depth in 
itself ; and, as a certain man among our predecessors ob- 
served, " Through the extension of the hands of a divine 
person,^ gathering together the two peoples to one God." 
For these were two hands, because there were two peoples 
scattered to the ends of the earth ; but there was one head 
in the middle, as there is but one God, who is above all, and 
through all, and in us all. 

CnAP, XVIII. — God the Father and His Word have formed all 
created things (lohich they xisi) hy their cum poioer and 
wisdom, not out of defect or ignorance. The Son of God, 
zvho received all poiver from the Father, loould otherwise 
never have tahen flesh upon Him. 

1. And such or so important a dispensation He did not 
bring about by means of the creations of others, but by His 
own ; neither by those things which were created out of 
ignorance and defect, but by those which had their substance 
from the wisdom and power of His Father. For He was 
neither unrighteous, so that He should covet the property of 
another ; nor needy, that He could not by His own means 
impart life to His own, and make use of His own creation for 

1 Matt. iii. 10. 2 jgr. xxxiii. 29. 

" The Greek is preserved here, and reads, "hioi, ttis hi»; ix,ruusag xZiv 
Xiipuv — literally, "through the divine extension of hands." The old 
Latin merely reads, " per extensionem manuum." 


the salvation of man. For indeed tlie creation could not have 
sustained Him [on the cross], if He had sent forth [simply 
by commission] what was the fruit of ignorance and defect. 
Now we have repeatedly shown that the incarnate Word of 
God was suspended upon a tree, and even the very heretics 
do acknowledge that He was crucified. How, then, could 
the fruit of ignorance and defect sustain Him who contains 
the knowledge of all things, and is true and perfect? Or 
how could that creation which was concealed from the Father, 
and far removed from Him, have sustained His Word ? And 
if this world Avere made by the angels (it matters not whether 
we suppose their ignorance or their cognizance of the Supreme 
God), when the Lord declared, " For I am in the Father, 
and the Father in me,"^ how could this workmanship of the 
angels have borne to be burdened at once with the Father 
and the Son ? How, again, could that creation which is 
bej^ond the Pleroma have contained Him who contains the 
entire Pleroma ? Inasmuch, then, as all these things are 
impossible and incapable of proof, that preaching of the 
church is alone true [wdiicli proclaims] that His own creation 
bare Him, which subsists by the power, the skill, and the 
wisdom of God ; which is sustained, indeed, after an invisible 
manner by the Father, but, on the contrary, after a visible 
manner it bore His Word: and tliis is the true [Word]. 

2. For the Father bears the creation and His own Word 
simultaneously, and the Word borne by the Father grants 
the Spirit to all as the Father wills.- To some He gives 
after the manner of creation what is made;^ but to others 
[He gives] after the manner of adoption, that is, what is 
from God, namely generation. And thus one God the 
Father is declared, who is above all, and through all, and in 
all. The Father is indeed above all, and He is the Head of 

' John xiv. 11. 

- From this passage Harvey infers that Irenaeus held the procession of 
the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son,— a doctrine denied by the 
Oriental Cliui'ch in after times. 

■' Grabe and Harvey msert the words, "quod est conditiouis," but on 
slender authority. 


Christ; but the Word is through all things, and is Himself 
the Head of the Church; while the Spirit is in us all, and 
He is the living water,^ which the Lord grants to those who 
rightly believe in Him, and love Him, and who know that 
" there is one Father, who is above all, and througli all, and 
in us all."^ And to these things does John also, the disciple 
of the Lord, bear witness, when he speaks thus in the 
Gospel : " In the beginning was the Word, and the Word 
was with God, and the Word was God. This was in the 
beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and 
witliout Him was nothing made.""^ And then he said of the 
Word Himself : " He was in the world, and the world was 
made by Him, and the world knew Him not. To His own 
things He came, and His own people received Him not. 
However, as many as did receive Him, to these gave He 
power to become the sons of God, to those that believe in 
His name."^ And again, showing the dispensation with 
regard to His human nature, John said : " And the Word 
was made flesh, and dwelt among us."^ And in continua- 
tion he says, " And we beheld His glory, the glory as of the 
Only-begotten by the Father, full of grace and truth." Ho 
thus plainly points out to those willing to hear, that is, to 
those having ears, that there is one God, the Father over all, 
and one Word of God, who is through all, by whom all 
things have been made ; and that this world belongs to Him, 
and was made by Him, according to the Father's will, and 
not by angels ; nor by apostasy, defect, and ignorance ; nor 
by any power of Prunicus, whom certain of them also call 
" the Mother ;" nor by any other maker of the world igno- 
rant of the Father. 

3. For the Creator of the world is truly the Word of God : 
and this is our Lord, who in the last times was made man, 
existing in this world, and who in an invisible manner con- 
tains all things created, and is inherent in the entire creation, 
since the Word of God governs and arranges all things ; and 

1 John vii. 39. '^ Eph. iv. 6. 

3 John i. 1, etc. ^ John i. 10, etc. 

^ John i. 14. 


therefore He came to His own in a visible^ manner, and was 
made flesh, and hung upon the tree, that He might sum up 
all things in Himself. '• And His own peculiar people did 
,not receive Him," as Moses declared this very thing among 
the people : '• And thy life shall be hanging before thine 
eyes, and thou wilt not believe thy life." ^ Those therefore 
who did not receive Him did not receive life. " But to as 
many as received Him, to them gave He power to become 
the sons of God."^ For it is He who has power from the 
Father over all things, since He is the Word of God, and 
very man, communicating with invisible beings after the 
manner of the intellect, and appointing a law observable to 
the outward senses, that all things should continue each in 
its own order; and He reigns manifestly over things visible 
and pertaining to men ; and brings in just judgment and 
worthy upon all ; as David also, clearly pointing to this, says, 
" Our God shall openly come, and will not keep silence."^ 
Then he shows also the judgment wdiich is brought in by 
Him, saying, " A fire shall burn in His sight, and a strong 
tempest shall rage round about Plim. He shall call upon 
the heaven from above, and the earth, to judge His p.eople." 

Chap, xix.— ^ comparison is instituted hetween the disohcdient 
and sinning Eve mid the Virgin Mary, her patroness. 
Various and discordant heresies are mentioned. 

1. That the Lord .then w^as manifestly coming to His own 
things, and was sustaining them by means of that creation 
which is supported by Himself, and was making a recapitu- 
lation of that disobedience which had occurred in connection 
with a tree, through the obedience which was [exhibited by 
Himself when He hung] upon a tree, [the effects] also of that 
deception being done away with, by which that virgin Eve, 
who was already espoused to a man, was unhappily misled, — 
was happily announced, through means of the truth [spoken] 
by the angel to the Virgin Mary, who was [also espoused] to 

' Tlic text reads " invisibiliter," -which seems clearly an error. 
2 Deut. xxviii. 6G. » John i. 13. * Ps. 1. 3, 4. 


a man.^ For just as the former was led astray by the word 
of an angel, so that she fled from God when she had trans- 
gressed His word ; so did the latter, by an angelic com- 
munication, receive the glad tidings that she should sustain 
(portaret) God, being obedient to His word. And if the 
former did disobey God, yet the latter was persuaded to be 
obedient to God, in order that the Virgin Mary might become 
the patroness (advocata) of the virgin Eve. And thus, as the 
human race fell into bondage to death by means of a virgin, 
so is it rescued by a virgin ; virginal disobedience having 
been balanced in the opposite scale by virginal obedience. 
For in the same way the sin of the first created man (proto- 
plasti) receives amendment by the correction of the First- 
begotten, and the cunning. of the serpent is conquered by 
the harmlessness of the dove, those bonds being unloosed by 
which we had been fast bound to death. 

2. The heretics beino; all unlearned and ignorant of God's 
arrangements, and not acquainted with that dispensation by 
which He took upon Him human nature {inscii ejus qua' est 
secundum Jiominem dispensatiotiis), inasmuch as they blind 
themselves with regard to the truth, do in fact speak against 
their own salvation. Some of them introduce another Father 
besides the Creator ; some, again, say that the world and its 
substance was made by certain angels ; certain others [main- 
tain] that it was widely separated by Horos" from him whom 
they represent as being the Father — that it sprang forth 
{fioruisse) of itself, and from itself was born. Then, again, 
others [of them assert] that it obtained substance in those 
things which are contained by the Father, from defect and 
ignorance ; others still, despise the advent of the Lord mani- 
fest [to the senses], for they do not admit His incarnation ; 
while others, ignoring the arrangement [that He should be 
born] of a virgin, maintain that He was begotten by Joseph. 
And still further, some affirm that neither their soul nor 
their body can receive eternal life, but merely the inner man. 

^ The text is here most uncertain and obscure. 

^ The text reads "porro," which makes no sense; so that Harvey 
looks upon it as a corruption of the reading "per Horum." 


Moreover, tliey will have it that this [inner man] is that 
which is the understanding {sensuni) in them, and which they 
decree as being the only thing to ascend to " the perfect." 
Others [maintain], as I have said in the first book, that while 
the soul is saved, their body does not participate in the 
salvation which comes from God ; in which [book] I have 
also set forward the hypotheses of all these men, and in the 
second have pointed out their weakness and inconsistency. 

CilxVP. XX. — Those jJcistors are to he heca'd to whom, the apostles 
committed the cliurclies., possessing one and the same doc- 
trine of salvation ; the heretics, on the other hand, are to 
he avoided. We must think soLerli/ -with regard to the 
mysteries of the faith. 

1. Now all these [iieretics] are of much later date than the 
bishops to whom the apostles committed the churches ; which 
fact I have in the third book taken all pains to demonstrate. 
It follows, then, as a matter of course, that these heretics 
aforementioned, since they are blind to the truth, and deviate 
from the [right] way, will walk in various roads ; and there- 
fore the footsteps of their doctrine are scattered here and 
there without agreement or connection. But the path of 
those belonging to the church circumscribes the whole world, 
as possessing the sure tradition from the apostles, and gives 
unto us to see that the faith of all is one and the same, 
since all receive one and the same God the Father, and be- 
lieve in the same dispensation regarding the incarnation of 
the Son of God, and are cognizant of the same gift of the 
Spirit, and are conversant with the same commandments, 
and preserve the same form of ecclesiastical constitution,^ 
and expect the same "advent of the Lord, and .await the same 
salvation of the complete man, that is, of the soul and body. 
And undoubtedly the preaching of the church is true and 

^ " Et candcm figuram ejus quae est erga eeclcsiatn ordiuationis custo- 
dieutibus." Grabe supposes this refers to the ordaiued ministry of the 
church, but Harvey thiuks it refers more probably to its general con- 


stedfast, in which one and the same way of salvation is 
shown throughout the whole world. For to her is entrusted 
the light of God; and therefore the "wisdom" of God, by 
means of which she saves all men, " is declared in [its] 
going forth ; it uttereth [its voice] faithfully in the streets, is 
preached on the tops of the walls, and speaks continually in 
the gates of the city."^ For the church preaches the truth 
everywhere, and she is the seven-branched candlestick which 
bears the light of Christ. 

2. Those, therefore, who desert the preaching of the church, 
call in question the knowledge of the holy presbyters, not 
taking into consideration of how much greater consequence is 
a religious man, even in a private station, than a blasphemous 
and imjjudent sophist.^ Now, such are all the heretics, and 
those who imagine that they have hit upon something more 
beyond the truth, so that by following those things already 
mentioned, proceeding on their way variously, inharmoniously, 
and foolishly, not keeping always to the same opinions with 
regard to the same things, as blind men are led by the blind, 
they shall deservedly fall into the ditch of ignorance lying 
in their path, ever seeking and never finding out the truth." 
It behoves us, therefore, to avoid their doctrines, and to 
take careful heed lest we suffer any injury from them ; but 
to flee to the church, and be brought up in her bosom, and 
be nourished with the Lord's Scriptures. For the church has 
been planted as a garden {paradisus) in this world ; there- 
fore says the Spirit of God, " Thou mayest freely eat from 
every tree of the garden,"* that is, Eat ye from every Scrip- 
ture of the Lord ; but ye shall not eat with an uplifted mind, 
nor touch any heretical discord. For these men do pro- 
fess that they have themselves the knowledge of good and 
evil ; and they set their own impious minds above the God 
who made them. They therefore form opinions on what is 
beyond the limits of the understanding. For this cause also 

1 Prov. i. 20, 21. 

^ That is, the private Christian as contrasted with the sophist of the 

3 2 Tim. iii. 7. ^ Gen. ii. 16. 


the apostle says, " Be not wise Leyoncl what it is fitting to be 
wise, but be wise prudently,"^ that we be not cast forth by 
eating of the " knowledge" of these men (that knowledge 
which knows more than it should do) from the paradise of 
life. Into this paradise the Lord has introduced those who 
obey His call, " summing up in Himself all things which 
are in heaven, and which are on earth ;"^ but the things in 
heaven are spiritual, while those on earth constitute the dis- 
pensation in human nature (secundum hominem est dispositio). 
These things, therefore, He recapitulated in Himself : by 
uniting man to the Spirit, and causing the Spirit to dwell in 
man, He is Himself made the head of the Spirit, and gives 
the Spirit to be the head of man : for through Him (the 
Spirit) we see, and hear, and speak. 

Chap. XXI. — Christ is the Head of all things already mentioned. 
It loas fitting that He should he sent hy the Father, the 
Creator of all things, to assume human nature, and shoxdd 
he tempted hy Satan, that He might fulfil the piromises^ 
and carry off a glorious and perfect victory. 

1. He has therefore, in His work of recapitulation, summed 
up all things, both waging war against our enemy, and crush- 
ing him who had at the beginning led us away captives in 
Adam, and trampling upon his head, as thou canst perceive 
in Genesis that God said to the serpent, " And I will put 
enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed 
and her seed ; He shall be on the watch for (obscrvahit^) thy 
head, and thou on the watch for His heel."^ For from that 
timcj He who should be born of a woman, [namely] from 
the Virgin, after the likeness of Adam, was preached as keep- 
ing watch for the head of the serpent. This is the seed of 
which the apostle says in the Epistle to the Galatians, " that 
the law of works was established until the seed should come 
to whom the promise was made."^ This fact is exhibited in 

1 Rom. xii. 3. - Eph. i. 10. 

2 rYip-^,<jc, and npiasi have probably been confounded. 

* Gen. iii. 15. * Gal. iii. 19. 


a still clearer Uglit in the same epistle, where lie thus speaks: 
"But when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth 
His Son, made of a woman. "^ For indeed the enemy would 
not have been fairly vanquished, unless it had been a mr.n 
[born] of woman who conquered liim. For it was by means 
of a woman that he got the advantage over man at first, 
setting himself tip as man's opponent. And therefore does 
the Lord profess Himself to be the Son of man, comprising 
in Himself that original man out of whom the woman was 
fashioned (ex quo ea quce secundum muUerem est ijlasmatio 
facta est), in order that, as our species went down to death 
through a vanquished man, so we may ascend to life again 
through a victorious one ; and as through a man death re- 
ceived the palm [of victory] against us, so again by a man 
we may receive the palm against death. 

2. Now the Lord would not have recapitulated in Himself 
that ancient and primary enmity against the serpent, fulfill- 
ing the promise of the Creator (Demiurgi), and performing 
His command, if He had come from another Father. But 
as He is one and the same, who formed us at the beginning,' 
and sent His Son at the end, the Lord did perform His 
command, being" made of a woman, by both destroying our 
adversary, and perfecting man after the image and likeness 
of God. And for this reason He did not draw the means 
of confounding him from any other source than from the 
words of the law, and made iise of the Father's command- 
ment as a help towards the destruction and confusion of the 
apostate angel. Fasting forty days, like Moses and Elias, 
He afterwards hungered, first, in order that we may perceive 
that He was a real and substantial man — for it belongs to a 
man to suffer hunger when fasting ; and secondly, that His 
opponent might have an opportunity of attacking Him. For 
as at the beginning it was by means of food that [the 
enemy] persuaded man, although not suffering hunger, to 
transgress God's commandments, so in the end he did not 
succeed in persuading Him that was an hungered to take 
that food which proceeded from God. For, when tempting 
1 Gal. iv. 4. 

112 ir.EN^US AGAINST HERESIES. [Book v. 

Him, he said, ''If thou be the Son of God, command that 
these stones be made bread." ^ But the Lord repulsed him 
by the commandment of the law, sapng, " It is written, Man 
doth not live by bread alone." " As to those Avords [of His 
enem}',] " If thou be the Son of God," [the Lord] made no 
remark ; but by thus acknowledging His human nature He 
baffled His adversary, and exhausted the force of his first 
attack by means of His Father's word. The corruption of 
man, therefore, which occurred in paradise by both [of our 
first parents] eating, was done away with by [the Lord's] 
want of food in this world.'" But he, being thus vanquished 
by the law, endeavoured again to make an assault by him- 
self quoting a commandment of the law. For, bringing 
Him to the highest pinnacle of the temple, he said to Him, 
" If thou art the Son of God, cast thyself down. For it is 
written, That God shall give His angels charge concerning 
thee, and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest per- 
chance thou dash thy foot against a stone ;"^ thus conceal- 
ing a falsehood under the guise of Scripture, as is done by 
all the heretics. For that was indeed written, [namely], 
" That He hath given His angels charge concerning Him;" 
but " cast thyself down from hence" no Scripture said in 
reference to Him : this kind of persuasion the devil produced 
from himself. The Lord therefore confuted him out of 
the law, when He said, " It is written again. Thou shalt not 
tempt the Lord thy God;"^ pointing out by the word con- 
tained in the law that which is the duty of man, that he 
should not tempt God ; and in regard to Himself, since He 
appeared in human form, [declaring] that He would not 
tempt the Lord his God.^ The pride of reason, therefore, 
^^•hich was in the serpent, was put to nought by the humility 

^ Matt. iv. 3. - Dent. viii. 3. 

" The Latin of this obscure sentence is : Quse ergo fuit in Paradiso 
repletio hominis per dupHcem gustationem, dissoluta est per earn, quae 
fuit in hoc mundo, iudigentiam. Harvey thinks that repletio is an error 
of the translation reading dvxTrT^'/ipoiai; for »va.Tr-/:oi'">i;. This conjecture 
is adopted above. 

4 Ps. Ixxxix. 11. * Dout. vi. 16. 

^ This sentence is one of great obscurity. 


found in tlie man [Christ] ; and now twice was tlie devil 
conquered from Scripture, when he was detected as. advising 
things conti'arj to God's commandment, and was shown to 
be the enemy of God by [the expression of] his thoughts. 
He then, having been thus signally defeated, and then, as 
it were, concentrating his forces, drawing up in order all 
his available power for falsehood, in the third place " showed 
Him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them,"^ 
saying, as Luke relates, "All these will I give thee, — for they 
are delivered to me ; and to whom I will, I give them, — if thou 
wilt fall down and worship me." The Lord then, exposing 
him in his true character, says, " Depart, Satan ; for it is 
written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him 
only shalt thou serve."" He both revealed him by this name, 
and showed [at the same time] who He Himself was. For 
the Hebrew word " Satan" signifies an apostate. And thus, 
vanquishing him for the third time, He spurned him from 
Him finally as being conquered out of the law ; and there 
was done away with that infringement of God's command- 
ment which had occurred in Adam, by means of tlie precept 
of the law, which the Son of man observed, who did not 
transgress the commandment of God. 

3. Who, then, is this Lord God to whom Christ bears wit- 
ness, whom no man shall tempt, whom all should worship, 
and serve Him alone ? It is, beyond all manner of doubt, 
that God who also gave the law. For these things had been 
predicted in the law, and by the words (sententiam) of the law 
the Lord showed thaf the law does indeed declare the Word 
of God from the Father ; and the apostate angel of God is 
destroyed by its voice, being exposed in his true colours, and 
vanquished by the Son of man keeping the commandment 
of God. For as in the becrinnino; he enticed man to trans- 
gress his Maker's law, and thereby got him into his power ; 
yet his power consists in transgression and apostasy, and 
witli these he bound man [to himself] ; so again, on the other 
hand, it was necessary that through man himself he should, 
when conquered, be bound with the same chains with which 
1 Luke iv. 6, 7. 2 Matt. iv. 10. 



he bad bound man, in order that man, being set free, migbt 
return to his Lord, leaving to him (Satan) those bonds by 
which lie himself had been fettered, that is, sin. For when 
Satan is bound, man is set free ; since " none can enter a 
strong man's house and spoil his goods, unless he first bind 
the strong man himself."^ The Lord therefore exposes him 
as speaking contrary to the word of that God who made all 
things, and subdues him by means of the commandment. 
Now the law is the commandment of God. The ISIan proves 
him to be a fugitive from and a transgressor of the law, an 
apostate also from God. After [the Man had done this], the 
Word bound him securely as a fugitive from Himself, and 
made spoil of his goods, — namely, those men whom he held in 
bondage, and whom he unjustly used for his own purposes. 
And justly indeed is he led captive, who had led men un- 
justly into bondage ; while man, who had been led captive 
in times past, was rescued from the grasp of his possessor, 
according to the tender mercy of God the Father, who had 
compassion on His own handiwork, and gave to it salvation, 
restoring it by means of the Word — that is, by Christ — in 
order that men might learn by actual proof that he receives 
incorruptibility not of himself, but by the free gift of God. 

Chap. xxii. — Tlie true Lord and the one God is declared hy 
the laxc, and manifested hy Christ his Son in the Gospel ; 
loliom alone loe should adore, and from Him we must 
look for all good things, not from Satan. 

1 . Thus then does the Lord plainly show that it was tlie 
true Lord and the one God who had been set forth by the 
law ; for Him whom the law proclaimed as God, the same 
did Christ point out as the Father, whom also it behoves the 
disciples of Christ alone to serve. By means of the state- 
ments of the law, He put our adversary to utter confusion ; 
and the law directs us to praise God the Creator (Demiurgum), 
and to serve Him alone. Since this is the case, we must not 
seek for another Father besides Him, or above Him, since 
1 Matt. xii. 29 and Mark iii. 27. 


there is one God wlio justifies the circumcision by faith, and 
the uncircumcision through faith.^ For if there were any 
other perfect Fatlier above Him, He (Christ) would by no 
means have overthrown Satan by means of His words and 
commandments. For one, ignorance cannot be done away 
with by means of another ignorance, any more than one 
defect by another defect. If, therefore, the law is due to 
ignorance and defect, how could the statements contained 
therein bring to nought the ignorance of the devil, and con- 
quer the strong man ? For a strong man can be conquered 
neither by an inferior nor by an equal, but by one possessed 
of greater power. But the Word of God is the superior 
above all. He who is loudly proclaimed in the law : " Hear, 
O Israel, the Lord thy God is one God;" and, "Thou 
shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart ;" and, " Him 
shalt thou adore, and Him alone shalt thou serve."' Then 
in the Gospel, casting down the apostasy by means of these 
expressions. He did both overcome the strong man by His 
Father's voice, and He acknowledges the commandment of 
the law to express His own sentiments, when He says, "Thou 
shalt not tempt the Lord thy God."'' For He did not con- 
found the adversary by the saying of any othei*, but by 
that belonging to His own Father, and thus overcame the 
strong man. 

2. He taught by His commandment that we who have 
been set free should, wdien hungry, take that food which is 
given by God ; and that, when placed in the exalted position 
of every grace [that can be received], we should not, either 
by trusting to works of righteousness, or when adorned with 
supereminent [gifts of] ministration, by any means be lifted 
up with pride, nor should r/e tempt God, but should feel 
humility in all things, and have ready to hand [this saying], 
"Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God."* As also the 
apostle taught, siiying, " Minding not high things, but con- 
senting to things of low estate ;"^ that we should neither be 
ensnared with riches, nor mundane glory, nor present fancy, 

1 Eom. iii. 30. ^ peut. vi. 4, 6, 13. ^ ^^j^tt. iv. 7. 

* Deut. vi. 16. fi Rom. xii. 16. 


but sliould know that we must " worship the Lord thy God, 
and serve Him alone," and give no heed to him who falsely 
promised things not his own, when he said, " All these will I 
give thee, if, falling down, thou wilt worship me." For he 
himself confesses that to adore him, and to do his will, is 
to fall from the glory of God. And in what thing either 
pleasant or good can that man who has fallen participate ? 
Or what else can such a person hope for or expect, except 
death? For death is next neighbour to him who has fallen. 
Hence also it follows that he will not give what he has 
promised. For how can he make grants to him who has 
fallen ? Moreover, since God rules over men and him too, 
and without the will of our Father in heaven not even a 
sparrow falls to the ground,^ it follows that his declaration, 
" All these things are delivered unto me, and to whomsoever 
I will I give them," proceeds from him when puffed up with 
pride. For the creation is not subjected to his power, since 
indeed he is himself but one amonsj created thino;s. Nor 
shall he give away the rule over men to men ; but both all 
other things, and all human affairs, are arranged according 
to God the Father's disposal. Besides, the Lord declares 
that " the devil is a liar from the beginning, and the truth is 
not in him."" If then he be a liar, and the truth be not in 
him, he certainly did not speak truth, but a lie, when he 
said, " For all these things are delivered to me, and to 
whomsoever I will I give them."'^ 

Chap, xxiii. — The devil is well practised in falsehood, by 
which Adam having been led astray, sinned on the sixth 
day of the creation, in which day also he has been renewed 
by Christ. 

1. He had indeed been already accustomed to lie against 
God, for the purpose of leading men astray. For at the 
beginning, when God had given to man a variety of things 
for food, while He commanded him not to eat of one tree 
only, as the Scripture tells us that God said to Adam : 
i Matt. X. 29. 2 joiin ^iii_ 44, a Luke iv. 6. 


*'From every tree which is in the garden thou shalt eat 
food ; but from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, 
from this ye shall not eat : for in the day that ye shall eat of 
it, ye shall die by death ;"^ he then, lying against the Lord, 
tempted man, as the Scripture says that the serpent said to 
the" woman,: "Has God indeed said this, Ye shall not eat 
from every tree of the garden?"^ And when she had ex- 
posed the falsehood, and simply related the command, as He 
had said, " From every tree of the garden we shall eat ; but 
of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, 
God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch 
it, lest ye die :"^ when he had [thus] learned from the woman 
the command of God, having brought his cunning into play, 
he finally deceived her by a falsehood, saying, " Ye shall not 
die by death ; for God knew that in the day ye shall eat of 
it your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing 
good and evil."^ In the first place, then, in the garden of 
God he disputed about God, as if God was not there, for he 
was ignorant of the greatness of God; and then, in the next 
place, after he had learned from the woman that God had 
said that they should die if tliey tasted the aforesaid tree, 
opening his mouth, he uttered the third falsehood, " Ye shall 
not die by death." Bat that God was true, and the serpent 
a liar, was proved by the result, death having passed upon 
them who had eaten. For along with the fruit they did also 
fall under the power of death, because they did eat in dis- 
obedience ; and disobedience to God entails death. Where- 
fore, as they became forfeit to death, from that [moment] 
they were handed over to it. 

2. Thus, then, in the day that they did eat, in the same did 
they die, and became death's debtors, since it was one day of 
the creation. For it is said, " There was made in the even- 
ing, and there was made in the morning, one day." Now in 
this same day that they did eat, in that also did they die. 
But according to the cycle and progress of the days, after 
which one is termed first, another second, and another third, 
if anybody seeks diligently to learn upon what day out of the 
1 Gen. ii. 16, 17. ^ Qen. iii. 1. s Qe^. jji, 2, 3. * Gen. iii. 4. 


seven it was that Adam died, he will find it by examining the 
dispensation of the Lord. For by summing np in Himself 
the wliole human race from the besinnincp to the end, He 
has also summed up its death. From this it is clear that the 
Lord suffered death, in obedience to His Father, upon that 
day on which Adam died while he disobeyed God. Now he 
died on the same day in which he did eat. For God said, 
" Li that day on which ye shall eat of it, ye shall die bv 
death." The Lord, therefore, recapitulating in Himself this 
day, underwent His sufferings upon the day preceding the 
Sabbath, that is, the sixth day of the creation, on which day 
man was created ; thus granting him a second creation by 
means of His passion, which is that [creation] out of death. 
And there are some, again, who relegate the death of Adam 
to the thousandth year ; for since " a day of the Lord is as a 
thousand years," ^ he did not o\tjrstep the thousand years, but 
died within them, thus bearing out the sentence of his sin. 
Whether, therefore, with respect to disobedience, which is 
death ; whether [we consider] that, on account of that, they 
were delivered over to death, and made debtors to it ; whether 
with respect to [the fact that on] one and the same day on 
which tliey ate they also died (for it is one day of the crea- 
tion) ; whether [we regard this point], that, with respect to 
this cycle of days, they died on the day in which they did 
also eat, that is, the day of the preparation, which is termed 
" the pure supper," that is, the sixth day of the feast, which 
the Lord also exhibited when He suffered on that day ; or 
whether [we reflect] that he (Adam) did not overstep the 
thousand years, but died within their limit, — it follows that, 
in regard to all these significations, God is indeed true. For 
they died who tasted of the tree ; and the serpent is proved a 
liar and a murderer, as the Lord said of him : " For he is a 
murderer from the beoinninir, and the truth is not in him."" 
i 2 Pet. iii. 8. 2 John viii. -14. 


Chap. xxiv. — Of the constant falsehood of the devil, and of 
the 2yoioers and governments of the loorld, which toe ought 
to obey, inasmuch as they are appointed of God, not of 
the devil. 

1. As therefore tlie devil lied at tlie beginning, so did he 
also in the end, when he said, " All these are delivered unto 
me, and to whomsoever I will I give them."^ For it is not 
he who has appointed the kingdoms of this world, but God ; 
for "the heart of the king is in the hand of God."^ And 
the Word also says by Solomon, " By me kings do reign, 
and princes administer justice. By me chiefs are raised up, 
and by me kings rule the earth." ^ Paul the apostle also says 
upon this same subject : " Be ye subject to all the higher 
powers ; for there is no power but of God : now those which 
are have been ordained of God."* And again, in reference 
to them he says, " For he beareth not the sword in vain ; 
for he is the minister of God, the avenger for wrath to him 
who does evil."^ Now, that he spake these words, not in 
regard to angelical powers, nor of invisible rulers — as some 
venture to expound the passage — but of those of actual 
human authorities, [he shows when] he says, " For this cause 
pay ye tribute also : for they are God's ministers, doing 
service for this very thing." ^ This also the Lord confirmed, 
when He did not do what He was tempted to by the devil ; 
but He gave directions that tribute should be paid to the 
tax-gatherers for Himself and Peter ;^ because "they are the 
ministers of God, serving for this very thing." 

2. For since man, by departing from God, reached such 
a pitch of fury as even to look upon his brother as his 
enemy, and engaged without fear in every kind of restless 
conduct, and murder, and avarice ; God imposed upon man- 
kind the fear of man, as they did not acknowledge the fear 
of God, in order that, being subjected to the authority of 
men, and kept under restraint by their laws, they might attain 

^ !Matt. iv. 9 ; Luke iv. 6. ^ Prov. xxi. 1. 3 Prov. viii. 15. 

•* Rom. xiii. 1. ^ Rom. xiii. 4. ^ Rom. xiii. 6. ^ Matt. xvii. 27. 


to some degree of justice, and exercise mutual forbearance 
throuo;li dread of the sword suspended full in their view, as 
the apostle says : " For he beareth not the sword in vain ; 
for he is the minister of God, the avenger for wrath upon 
him who does evil." And for this I'eason too, magistrates 
themselves, having laws as a clothing of righteousness when- 
ever they act in a just and legitimate manner, shall not be 
called in question for their conduct, nor be liable to punish- 
ment. But whatsoever they do to the subversion of justice, 
iniquitously, and impiously, and illegally, and tyrannically, 
in these things shall they also perish ; for the just judg- 
ment of God comes equally upon all, and in -iio case is 
defective. Earthly rule, therefore, has been appointed by 
God for the benefit of nations, and not by the devil, who 
is never at rest at all, nay, who does not love to see even 
nations conducting themselves after a quiet manner, so that 
under the fear of human rule, men may not eat each other 
up like fishes ; but that, by means of the establishment of 
laws, they may keep down an excess of wickedness among 
the nations. And considered from this point of view, tliose 
who exact tribute from us are " God's ministers, serving for 
this very purpose." 

3. As, then, " the powers that be are ordained of God," it 
ie clear that the devil lied when he said, " These are delivered 
unto me ; and to whomsoever I will, I give them." For by 
the law of the same Being as calls men into existence are 
kings also appointed, adapted for those men who are at the 
time placed under their government. Some of these [rulers] 
are given for the correction and the benefit of their subjects, 
and for the preservation of justice ; but others, for the pur- 
poses of fear and punishment and rebuke : others, as._mie 
subjects] deserve it^ are for deception, disgrace, and pride ; 
while the just judgment of God, as I have observed already, 
passes equally upon all. The devil, however, as he is the 
apostate angel, can only go to this length, as he did at the 
beginning, [namely] to deceive and lead astray the mind of 
man into disobeying the commandments of God, and gradu- 
ally to darken the hearts of those who would endeavour to 


serve liim, to the forgetting of the true God, but to the 
adoration of himself as God. 

4. Just as if any one, being an apostate, and seizing in a hos- 
tile manner another man's territory, should harass the inhabi- 
tants of it, in order that he might claim for himself the glory 
of a king among those ignorant of his apostasy and robbery ; 
so likewise also the devil, being one among those angels who 
are placed over the spirit of the air, as the Apostle Paul has 
declared in his Epistle to the Ephesians,^ becoming envious 
of man, was rendered an apostate from the divine law : for 
envy is a thing foreign to God. And ns his apostasy was ex- 
posed by man, and man became the [means of] searching out 
his thoughts (et examinatio sent-entice ejus, homo /actus est), 
he has set himself to this with greater and greater determi- 
nation, in opposition to man, euA'ying his life, and wishing to 
involve him in his own apostate power. The Word«of God, 
however, the Maker of all things, conquering him by means 
of human nature, and showing him to be an apostate, has, 
on the contrary, put him under the power of man. For He 
says, "Behold, I confer upon you the power of treading 
upon serpents and scorpions, and upon all the power of the 
eneniy,"^ in order tliat, as he obtained dominion over man by 
apostasy, so again his apostasy might be deprived of power 
by means of man turning back again to God. 

Chap. xxv. — T7ie fraud, pride, and tyrannical kingdom of 
Antichrist, as described hi/ Daniel and Paul. 

1. And not only by the particulars already mentioned, but 
also by means of the events which shall occur in the time 
of Antichrist is it shown that he, being an apostate and a 
robber, is anxious to be adored as God ; and that, although 
a mere slave, he wishes himself to be proclaimed as a 
king. For he (Antichrist) being endued with all the power 
of the devil, shall come, not as a righteous king, nor as a 
legitimate king, [i.e. one] in subjection to God, but an im- 
pious, unjust, and lawless one ; as an apostate, iniquitous and 
1 Eph. ii. 2. 2 Lui-e ^. 19. 


murderous ; as a robber, concentrating in himself [all] satanic 
apostasy, and setting aside idols to persuade [men] that he 
himself is God, raising up himself as the only idol, having in 
himself the mviltifarious errors of the other idols. This he 
does, in order that they who do [now] worship the devil by 
means of many abominations, may serve himself by this one 
idol, of whom the apostle thus speaks in the second Epistle 
to the Thessalonians : " Unless there shall come a falling 
away first, and the man of sin shall be revealed, the son of 
perdition, who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is 
called God, or that is worshipped ; so that he sitteth in the 
temple of God, showing himself as if he were God." The 
apostle therefore clearly points out his apostasy, and that 
he is lifted up above all that is called God, or that is wor- 
shipped — that is, above every idol — for these are indeed so 
called by men, but are not [really] gods ; and that he will en- 
deavour in a tyrannical manner to set himself forth as God. 

2. Moreover, he (the apostle) has also pointed out this 
which I have shown in many ways, that the temple in Jeru- 
salem was made by the direction of the true God. For the 
apostle himself, speaking in his own person, distinctly called 
it the temple of God. Now I have shown in the third book, 
that no one is termed God by the apostles when speaking for 
themselves, except Him who truly is God, the Father of our 
Lord, by whose directions the temple which is at Jerusalem 
was constructed for those purposes which I have already men- 
tioned ; in which [temple] the enemy shall sit, endeavouring 
to show himself as Christ, as the Lord also declares : " But 
when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, which has 
been spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy 
place (let him that readeth understand), then let those who 
are in Judeaflee into the mountains ; and he who is upon the 
house-top, let him not come down to take anything out of his 
house : for there shall then be great hardship, such as has not 
been from the beginning of the world until now, nor ever 
shall be."^ 

3. Daniel too, looking forward to the end of the last king- 

^ Matt. xxiv. 15, 21. 


clorn, i.e. the ten last kings, amongst whom the khigdom of 
those men shall be partitioned, and upon whom the son of 
perdition shall come, declares that ten horns shall spring 
from the beast, and that another little horn shall arise in the 
midst of them, and that three of the former shall be rooted 
up before his face. He says : " And, behold, eyes were 
in this horn as the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking 
great things, and his look was more stout than his fellows. 
I was looking, and this horn made w^ar against the saints, 
and prevailed against them, imtil the Ancient of days came 
and gave judgment to the saints of the most high God, and 
the time came, and the saints obtained the kingdom."^ Then, 
further on, in the interpretation of the vision, there was said 
to him : " The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon 
earth, which shall excel all other kingdoms, and devour the 
whole earth, and tread it down, and cut it in pieces. And 
its ten horns are ten kings which shall arise ; and after them 
shall arise another, who shall surpass in evil deeds all that 
were before him, and shall overthrow three kings ; and he 
shall speak words against the most high God, and wear out 
the saints of the most high God, and shall purpose to change 
times and laAvs; and [everything] shall be given into his 
hand until a time of times and a half time,"" that is, for three 
years and six months, during which time, when he comes, he 
shall reign over the earth. Of whom also the Apostle Paul 
again, speaking in the second [Epistle] to the Thessalonians, 
and at the same time pi'oclaiming the cause of his advent, thus 
saj^s: "And then shall the wacked one be revealed, whom 
the Lord Jesus shall slay with the spirit of His mouth, and 
destroy by the presence of His coming; whose coming [i.e. 
the wicked one's] is after the working of Satan, in all power, 
and signs, and portents of lies, and with all deceivableness of 
wickedness for those who perish ; because they did not receive 
the love of the truth, that they might be saved. And there- 
fore God will send them the working of error, that they may 
believe a lie ; that they all may be judged who did not be- 
lieve the truth, but gave consent to iniquity."^ 

1 Dan. vii. 8, etc. - Dan. vii. 23, etc. ^ 2 Tliess. il 8. 

124 IEENjEUS against HERESIES. [Book v. 

4. The Lord also spoke as follows to those who did not 
believe in Him : " I have come in my Father's name, and ye 
have not received me : when another shall come in his own 
name, him ye will receive,'"- calling Antichrist "the other," 
because he is alienated from the Lord. This is also the unjust 
judge, whoni the Lord mentioned as one " who feared not 
God, neither regarded man,"^ to whom the widow fled in her 
forgetfulness of God, — that is, the earthly Jerusalem, — to be 
avenged of her adversary. Which also he shall do in the 
time of his kingdom : he shall remove liis kingdom into that 
[city], and shall sit in the temple of God, leading astray those 
who worship him, as if he were Christ. To this purpose 
Daniel says again : " And he shall desolate the holy place ; 
and sin has been given for a sacrifice,^ and righteousness been 
cast away in the earth, and he has been active {fecit), and 
gone on prosperously."^ And the angel Gabriel, when ex- 
plaining his vision, states with regard to this person : " And 
towards the end of their kingdom a king of a most fierce 
countenance shall arise, one understanding [dark] questions, 
and exceedingly powerful, full of wonders; and he shall cor- 
rupt, direct, influence {faciei), and put strong men down, the 
holy people likewise ; and his yoke shall be directed as a 
wreath [round their neck] ; deceit shall be in his hand, and 
he shall be lifted up in his heart : he shall also ruin many 
by deceit, and lead many to perdition, bruising them in his 
hand like eggs."^ And then he points out the time that his 
tyranny shall last, during which the saints shall be put to 
flight,^ they who offer a pure sacrifice unto God : " And in 
the midst of the week," he says, " the sacrifice and the libation 
shall be taken away, and the abomination of desolation [shall 
be brought] into the temple : even unto the consummation of 

^ John V. 43. - Lube xviii. 2, etc. 

^ This may refer to Antioclms Epiplianes, Antichrist's prototype, who 
offered swine upon the altar in the temple at Jerusalem. The LXX. 
version has, iai6;i Itt] rn» Svatccu (k.,uoiprici, i.e. sin has been given against 
(or, upon) the sacrifice. 

■* Dan. viii. 12. 

^ Dan. viii. 23, etc. 


the time shall the desolation be complete."^ Now three years 
and six months constitute the half-week. 

5. From all these passages are revealed to us, not merely 
the particulars of the apostasy, and [the doings] of him who 
concentrates in himself every satanic error, but also that 
there is one and the same God the Father, who was declared 
by the prophets, but made manifest by Christ. For if what 
Daniel prophesied concerning the end has been confirmed by 
the Lord, when He said, " When ye shall see the abomination 
of desolation, which has been spoken of by Daniel the pro- 
phet"^ (and the angel Gabriel gave the interpretation of the 
visions to Daniel, and he is the archangel of the Creator 
(^Demiurgi), who also proclaimed to Mary the visible coming 
and the incarnation of Christ),- then one and the same God 
is most manifestly pointed out, wdio sent the prophets, and 
made promise^ of the Son, and called us into His knowledge. 

Chap. xxvi. — John and Daniel have predicted the dissolution 
and desolation of the Roman Empire, which shall precede 
the end of the loorld and the eternal kingdom of Christ. 
The Gnostics are refuted, those tools of Satan, who invent 
another Father different from the Creator. 

1. In a still clearer light has John, in the Apocalypse, 
indicated to the Lord's disciples what shall happen in the 
last times, and concerning the ten kings who shall then arise, 
among whom the empire which now rules [the earth] shall be 
partitioned. He teaches us what the ten horns shall be which 
were seen by Daniel, telling us that thus it had been said 
to him : " And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, 
who have received no kingdom as yet, but shall receive power 
as if kings one hour with the beast. These have one mind, 
and give their strength and power to the beast. These shall 
make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them, 
because He is the Lord of lords and the King of kings." ^ 

i Dan. ix, 27. - Matt. xxiv. 15. 

3 The Mss. have " prsemisit," but Harvey suggests " promisit," which 
we have adopted. 
* Rev. xvii. 1.2, etc. 


It is manifest, therefore, that of these [potentates], he wlio is 
to come shall slay three, and subject the remainder to his 
])0\ver, and that he shall be himself the eighth among them. 
And they shall lay Babylon waste, and burn her with fire, and 
shall give their kingdom to the beast, and put the church to 
flight. After that they shall be destroyed by the comino- of our 
Lord. For that the kingdom must be divided, and thus come 
to ruin, the Lord [declares when He] says : " Every kingdom 
divided against itself is brought to desolation, and every city 
or house divided against itself shall not stand." -^ It must be, 
therefore, that the kingdom, the city, and the house be divided 
into ten ; and for this reason He has already foreshadowed 
the partition and division [which shall take place]. Daniel 
also says particularly, that the end of the fourth kingdom con- 
sists in the toes of the image seen by Nebuchadnezzar, upon 
which came the stone cut out without hands ; and as lie does 
himself say : " The feet were indeed the one part iron, the 
other part clay, until the stone was cut out without hands, and 
struck the image upon the iron and clay feet, and dashed them 
into pieces, even to the end."" Then afterwards, when inter- 
preting this, he says : " And as thou sawest the feet and the 
toes, partly indeed of clay, and partly of iron, the kingdom 
shall be divided, and there sliall be in it a root of iron, as thou 
sawest iron mixed with baked clay. And the toes were indeed 
the one part iron, but the other part clay."^ The ten toes, 
tlierefore, are these ten kinirs, amonfi; whom the kiniidom shall 
be partitioned, of whom some indeed shall be strong and 
active, or energetic ; others, again, shall be sluggish and use- 
less, and shall not agree ; as also Daniel says : " Some part 
of the kingdom shall be strong, and part shall be broken 
from it. As thou sawest the iron mixed with the baked clay, 
there shall be miuiilinffs amon*r the human race, but no cohe- 
sion one with the other, just as iron cannot be welded on to 
pottery ware." * And since an end shall take place, he says : 
" And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven 
raise up a kingdom which shall never decay, and His king- 

^ Matt. xii. 25. 2 d.^. jj, 33^ 34. 

3 Dan. ii. 41, 42. •* Dan. ii. 42, 43. 


(lorn shall not be left to another people. It shall break in 
pieces and shatter all kingdoms, and shall itself be exalted for 
ever. As thou sawest that the stone was cut without hands 
from the mountain, and brake in pieces the baked clay, the 
iron, the brass, the silver, and the gold, God has pointed out 
to the king what shall come to pass after these things ; and 
the dream is true, and the interpretation trustworthy."^ 

2. If therefore the great God showed future things by 
Daniel, and confirmed them by His Son ; and if Christ is 
the stone which is cut out without hands, who shall destroy 
temporal kingdoms, and introduce an eternal one, which is 
the resurrection of the just ; as he declares, " The God of 
heaven shall raise up a kingdom which shall never be de- 
stroyed," — let those thus confuted come to their senses, who 
reject the Creator (Demiurguni), and do not agree that the 
prophets were sent beforehand from the same Father from 
whom also the Lord came, but who assert that prophecies 
originated from diverse powers. For those things which 
have been predicted by the Creator alike through all the 
prophets has Christ fulfilled in the end, ministering to His 
Father's will, and completing His dispensations with regard 
to the human race. Let those persons, therefore, who 
blaspheme the Creator, either by openly expressed words, 
such as the disciples of Marcion, or by a perversion of the 
sense [of Scripture], as those of Valentinus and all the 
Gnostics falsely so called, be recognised as agents of Satan 
by all those who worship God ; through whose agency Satan 
now, and not before, has been seen to speak against God, 
even Him who has prepared eternal fire for every kind of 
apostasy. For he did not venture to blaspheme his Lord 
openly of himself ; as also in the beginning he led man 
astray through the instrumentality of the serpent, concealing 
himself as it were from God. Truly has Justin remarked:" 

^ DaD. ii. 44, 45. 

^ The Greek text is here preserved by Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. iv. 18 ; 
but we are not told from what work of Justin Martyr it is extracted. 
The work is now lost. An ancient catena continues the Greek for several 
lines further. 


That before the Lord's appearance Satan never dared to 
blaspheme God, inasmuch as he did not yet know his own 
sentence, because it was contained in parables and allegories ; 
but that after the Lord's appearance, when he had clearly 
ascertained from the words of Christ and His apostles- that 
eternal fire has been prepared for him as he apostatized from 
God of his own free-will, and likewise for all who unre- 
pentant continue in the apostasy, he now blasphemes, by 
means of such men, the Lord who brings judgment [upon 
him] as being already condemned, and imputes the guilt of 
his apostasy to his INIaker, not to his own voluntary disposi- 
tion. Just as it is with those who break the laws, when 
punishment overtakes them : they throw the blame upon 
those who frame the laws, but not upon themselves. Li like 
manner do those men, filled with a satanic spirit, bring in- 
numerable accusations against our Creator, who has both 
given to us the spirit of life, and established a law adapted 
for all ; and they will not admit that the judgment of God 
is just. Wherefore also they set about imagining some other 
Father who neither cares about nor exercises a providence 
over our affairs, nay, one who even approves of all sins. 

Chap, xxvii. — The future judgment ly Christ. Communion 
loith and separation from the Divine Being. The eternal 
punishment of unhelievers. 

1. If the Father, then, does not exercise judgment, [it 
follows] that judgment does not belong to Him, or that He 
consents to all those actions which take place ; and if He 
does not judge, all persons will be equal, and accounted in 
the same condition. The advent of Christ will therefore be 
without an object, yea, absurd, inasmuch as [in that case] 
He exercises no judicial power. For " He came to divide a 
man against his father, and the daughter against the mother, 
and the daughter-in-law against the mother-in-law;"^ and 
when two are in one bed, to take the one, and to leave the 
other ; and of two women grinding at the mill, to take one 

1 Matt. X. 25. 


and leave the other :^ [«'^^so] at the time of the end, to order 
the reapers to collect first the tares together, and bind them 
in bundles, and burn them with unquenchable fire, but to 
gather up the wheat into the barn;"" and to call the lambs 
into the kingdom prepared for them, but to send the goats 
into everlasting fire, which has been prepared by His Father 
for the devil and his angels.^ And why is this 1 Has the 
Word come for the ruin and for the resurrection of many ? 
For the ruin, certainly, of those who do not believe Him, to 
whom also He has threatened a greater damnation in the 
judgment-day than that of Sodom and Gomorrah ;"* but for 
tlie resurrection of believers, and those who do the will of 
His Father in heaven. If then the advent of the Son comes 
indeed alike to all, but is for the purpose of judging, and 
separating the believing from the unbelieving, since, as those 
who believe do His will agreeably to their own choice, and 
as, [also] agreeably to their own choice, the disobedient do 
not consent to His doctrine ; it is manifest that His Father 
has made all in a like condition, each person having a choice 
of his own, and a free understanding ; and that He has 
regard to all things, and exercises a providence over all, 
" making His sun to rise upon the evil and on the good, and 
sending rain upon the just and unjust."'' 

2. And to as many as continue in their love towards God, 
docs He grant communion with Him. But communion with 
God is life and light, and the enjoyment of all the benefits 
which He has in store. But on as many as, according to 
their own choice, depart from God, He inflicts that separation 
from Himself which they have chosen of their own accord. 
But separation from God is death, and separation from light 
is darkness ; and separation from God consists in the loss of 
all the benefits which He has in store. Those, therefore, who 
cast away by apostasy these forementioned things, being in 
fact destitute of all good, do experience every kind of punish- 
ment. God, however, does not punish them immediately of 
Himself, but that punishment falls upon them because they 

1 Luke xvii. 34. ^ Matt. xiii. 30. ^ Matt. xxv. 33, etc. 

* Luke X. 12. 5 Matt. v. 45. 



are destitute of all that is good. Now, good things are 
eternal and without end with God, and therefore the loss of 
these is also eternal and never-ending. It is in this matter 
just as occurs in the case of a flood ox light : those who have 
blinded themselves, or have been blinded by others, are for 
ever deprived of the enjoyment of light. It is not, [however], 
that the light has inflicted upon them the penalty of blindness, 
but it is that the blindness itself has brought calamity upon 
them : and therefore the Lord declared, " He that belleveth 
in me is not condemned,"-^ that is, is not separated from God, 
for he is united to God through faith. On the other hand. He 
says, " He that believeth not is condemned already, because 
he has not believed in the name of the only-begotten Son of 
God;" that is, he sepai'ated himself from God of his own 
accord. " For this is the condemnation, that light is come 
into this world, and men have loved darkness rather than 
light. For every one who doeth evil hateth the light, and 
cometh not to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. 
But he that doeth truth cometh to the light, that his deeds 
may be made manifest, that he has wrought them in God." 

Chap, xxviii. — The distinction to he made hetioeen the righteous 
and the wiclced. The future apostasy in the time of Anti- 
christ, and the end of the loorld. 

1. Inasmuch, then, as in this world (alcovt) some persons 
betake themselves to the light, and by faith unite themselves 
with God, but others shun the light, and separate themselves 
from God, the Word of God comes preparing a fit habitation 
for both. ,For those indeed who are in the light, that they 
may derive enjoyment from it, and from the good things 
contained in it; but for those in darkness, that they may 
partake in its calamities. And on this account He says, that 
those upon the right hand are called into the kingdom of 
heaven, but that those on the left He will send into eternal 
fire ; for they have deprived themselves of all good. 

2. And for this reason the apostle says : " Because they 

1 John iii. 18, 21. 



received not the love of God, that they might be saved, 
therefore God shall also send them the operation of error, 
that they may believe a lie, that they all may be judged who 
have not believed the truth, but consented to unrighteous- 
ness."^ For when he (Antichrist) is come, and of his own 
accord concentrates in his own person the apostasy, and 
accomplishes whatever he shall do according to his own will 
and choice, sitting also in the temple of God, so that his 
dupes may adore him as the Christ ; wherefore also shall he 
deservedly "be cast into the lake of fire :" ^ [this will happen 
according to divine appointment], God by His prescience fore- 
seeing all this, and at the proper time sending such a man, 
" that they may believe a lie, that they all may be judged 
who did not believe the truth, but consented to unrighteous- 
ness ;" whose coming John has thus described in the Apoca- 
lypse : '• And the beast which I had seen was like unto a 
leopard, and his feet as of a bear, and his mouth as the 
mouth of a lion ; and the dragon conferred his own j)ower 
upon him, and his throne, and great might. And one of his 
heads was as it were slain unto death ; and his deadly wound 
was healed, and all the world wondered after the beast. And 
they worshipped the dragon because he gave power to the 
beast ; and they worshipped the beast, saying. Who is like 
unto this beast, and who is able to make war with him ? And 
there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things, and 
blasphemy and power was given to him during forty and two 
months. And he opened his mouth for blasphemy against 
God, to blaspheme His name and His tabernacle, and those 
who dwell in heaven. And power was given him over every 
tribe, and people, and tongue, and nation. And all who dwell 
upon the earth worshipped him, [every one] whose name was 
not written in the book of the Lamb slain from the founda- 
tion of the world. If any one have ears, let him hear. If 
any one shall lead into captivity, he shall go into captivity. 
If any shall slay with the sword, he must be slain with the 
sv.'ord. Here is the endurance and the faith of the saints."^ 
After this he likewise describes his armour-bearer, whom he 
1 2 Thess. ii. 10-12. 2 ^ev. xix. 20. ^ Rgy. ^iii. 2, etc. 


also terms a false prophet : " He spake as a dragon, and 
exercised all the power of the first beast in his sight, and 
caused the earth, and those that dwell therein, to adox'e the 
first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. And he shall 
perform great wonders, so that he can even cause fire to 
descend from heaven upon the earth in the sight of men, and 
he shall lead the inhabitants of the earth astray."^ Let no 
one imagine that he performs these wonders by divine power, 
bat by the working of magic. And we must not be surprised 
if, since the demons and apostate spirits are at his service, he 
through their means performs wonders, by which he leads the 
inhabitants of the earth astray. John says further : " And 
he shall order an image of the beast to be made, and he shall 
give breath to the image, so that the image shall speak ; and 
he shall cause those to be slain who will not adore it." He 
says also : " And he will cause a mark [to be put] in the 
forehead and in the right hand, that no one may be able 
to buy or sell, unless he who has the mark of the name of 
the beast or the number of his name; and the number is 
six hundred and sixty-six,"^ that is, six times a hundred, six 
times ten, and six units. [He gives this] as a summing up 
of the whole of that apostasy which has taken place during 
six thousand years. 

3. For in as many days as this world was made, in so many 
thousand years shall it be concluded. And for this reason 
the Scripture says : " Thus the heaven and the earth were 
finislied, and all their adornment. And God brought to a 
conclusion upon the sixth day the Avorks that He had made ; 
and God rested upon the seventh day from all His works." ^ 
This is an account of the things formerly created, as also it is 
a prophecy of what is to come. For the day of the Lord is 
as a thousand years;"* and in six days created things were 
completed : it is evident, therefore, that they will come to an 
end at the sixth thousand year. 

4. And therefore throughout all time, man, having been 
moulded at the beginning by the hands of God, that is, of 

1 Rev. xiii. 11, etc. . ^ Rev. xiii. 14, etc. 

« Geu. ii. 2. ' 4 2 Pet. iii. 8. 


the Son and of the Spirit, is made after the image and likeness 
of God: tlie chaff, indeed, which is the apostasy, being cast 
away ; but the wheat, that is, those who bring forth fruit to 
God in faith, being gathered into the barn. And for this 
cause tribulation is necessary for those who are saved, that 
having been after a manner broken up, and rendered fine, 
and sprinkled over by the patience of the Word of God, and 
set on fire [for purification], they may be fitted for the royal 
banquet. As a certain man of ours said, when he was con- 
demned to the wild beasts because of his testimony with 
respect to God : " I am the wheat of Christ, and am ground 
by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure 
bread of God." ^ 

Chap. xxix. — All things have hecn created for the service 
of man. The deceits, loichednessj a7id apostate power 
of Antichrist. This was prefigured at the deluge, as 
cfterwards hy the persecution of Shadrccch, Meshach, and 

1. In the previous books I have set forth the causes for 
which God permitted these things to be made, and have 
pointed out that all such have been created for the benefit of 
that human nature which is saved, ripening for immortality 
that which is [possessed] of its own free will and its own 
power, and preparing and rendering it more adapted for 
eternal subjection to God. And therefore the creation is 
suited to [the wants of] man ; for man was not made for its 
sake, but creation for the sake of man. Those nations, how- 
ever, who did not of themselves raise up their eyes iTnto 
heaven, nor returned thanks to their Maker, nor wished to 
behold the light of truth, but who were like blind mice con- 
cealed in the depths of ignorance, the word justly reckons 

^ This is quoted from the Epistle of Ignatius to the Eoraans, ch. iv. 
It is found in the two Greek recensions of his works, and also in the 
Syriac. See vol. i. pp. 212 and 282 of this series. The Latin transla- 
tion is here followed : the Greek of Ignatius would give " the wheat of 
God," and omits " of God" towards the end, as quoted by Eusebius. 


" as waste water from a sink, and as the turning- weight of a 
balance — in fact, as nothing;"^ so far useful and serviceable 
to the just, as stubble conduces towards the growth of the 
wheat, and its straw, by means of combustion, serves for 
working gold. And therefore, when in the end the church 
shall be suddenly caught up from this, it is said, " There 
shall be tribulation such as has not been since the beginning, 
neither shall be."^ For this is the last contest of the righteous, 
in which, when they overcome, they are crowned with incor- 

2. And there is therefore in this beast, when he comes, a 
recapitulation made of all sorts of iniquity and of every deceit, 
in order that all apostate power, flowing into and being shut 
up in him, may be sent into the furnace of fire. Fittingly, 
therefore, shall his name possess the number six hundred 
and sixty-six, since ho sums up in his own person all the 
commixture of wickedness which took place previous to the 
deluge, due to the apostasy of the angels. For Noah was 
six hundred years old when the deluge came upon the earth, 
sweeping away the rebellious world, for the sake of that most 
infamous generation which lived in the times of Noah. And 
[Antichrist] also sums up every error of devised idols since 
the flood, together with the slaying of the prophets and the 
cutting off of the just. For that image which was set up by 
Nebuchadnezzar had indeed a height of sixty cubits, while 
the breadth was six cubits ; on account of which Ananias, 
Azarias, and Misael, when they did not worship it, were cast 
into a furnace of fire, pointing out prophetically, by what 
happened to them, the wrath against the righteous which 
shall arise towards the [time of the] end. For that image, 
taken as a whole, was a prefiguring of this man's coming, 
decreeing that he should undoubtedly himself alone be wor- 
shipped by all men. Thus, then, the six hundred years of 
Noah, in whose time the deluge occurred because of the 
apostasy, and the number of the cubits of the image for which 
these just men were sent into the fiery furnace, do indicate 
the number of the name of that man in whom is concon- 
1 Isa. xl. 15. 2 Matt. xxiv. 21. 


trated tlie Avliole apostasy of six thousand years, and nn- 
rigliteousness, and wickedness, and false prophecy, and de- 
ception ; for which things' sake a cataclysm of fire shall also 
come [iipon the earth]. 

Chap. XXX. — Altlwugh certain as to ilie oiumLer of the name 
of Antichrist J yet loe sliould come to no rash conclusions 
as to the name itself, because this number is callable of 
being fitted to many names. Reasons for this point being 
reserved by the Holy Spirit. Antichrists reign and 

1. Such, then, being the state of the case, and this number 
being found in all the most approved and ancient copies^ [of 
the Apocalypse], and those men who saw John face to face 
bearing their testimony [to it] ; while reason also leads us to 
conclude that the number of the name of the beast, [if 
reckoned] according to the Greek mode of calculation by the 
[value of] the letters contained in it, will amount to six hun- 
dred and sixty and six ; that is, the number of tens shall be 
equal to that of the hundreds, and the number of hundreds 
equal to that of the units (for that number which [expresses] 
the digit six being adhered to throughout, indicates the reca- 
pitulations of that aj)ostasy, taken in its full extent, which 
occurred at the beginning, during the intermediate periods, 
and which shall take place at the end), — I do not know how 
it is tliat some have erred following the ordinary mode of 
speech, and have vitiated the middle number in the name, 
deducting the amount of fifty from it, so that instead of six 
decads they will have it that there is but one. [I am in- 
clined to think that this occurred through the fault of the 
copyists, as is wont to happen, since numbers also are expressed 
by letters ; so that the Greek letter which expresses the 
number sixty was easily expanded into the letter Iota of the 

^ sv "noiai ro7; aTTovlxiots xxl dpxcttoi; civriypa(pois. This passage is 
interesting, as showing how very soon the autographs of the New Testa- 
ment must have perished, and various readings crept into the MSS. of 
the canonical books. 


Greeks.]^ Others then received this reading without exami- 
nation ; some in their simplicity, and upon tlieir own respon- 
sibiHty, making use of this number expressing one decad^. 
while some, in their inexperience, have ventured to seek out 
a name which should contain the erroneous and spurious 
number. Now, as regards those who have done this in sim- 
plicity, and without evil intent, we are at liberty to assume 
that pardon will be granted them by God. But as for those 
wdio, for the sake of vainglory, lay it down for certain that 
names containing the spurious number are to be accepted, 
and affirm that this name, hit upon by themselves, is that of 
liira who is to come ; such persons shall not come forth with- 
out loss, because they have led into error both themselves 
and those who confided in them. Now, in the first place, it 
is loss to wander from the truth, and to imagine that as being 
the case which is not; then again, as there shall be no light 
punishment [inflicted] upon him who either adds or subtracts 
anything from the Scripture,^ under that such a person must 
necessarily fall. Moreover, another danger, by no means 
trifling, shall overtake those who falsely presume that they 
know the name of Antichrist. For if these men assume one 
[number], when this [Antichrist] shall come having another, 
they will be easily led away by him, as supposing him not to 
be the expected one, who must be guarded against. 

2. These men, therefore, ought to learn [what really is the 
state of the case], and go back to the true number of the 
name, that they be not reckoned among false prophets. But, 
knowing the sure number declared by Scripture, that is, six 
hundred sixty and six, let them await, in the first place, the 
division of the kingdom into ten ; then, in the next place, 
when these klncjs are relijnlnG;, and beirlnnlno; to set their 
affairs in order, and advance their kingdom, [let them learn] 
to acknowledge that he who shall come claiming the king- 
dom for himself, and shall terrify those men of whom we 

1 That is, S into EI, according to Harvey, who considers the whole of 
this clause as an evident interpolation. It does not occur in the Greek 
here preserved hy Eusebius (^Ulst. Eccl. v. 8). 

2 Kcv. xxii. 19. 


have been speaking, having a name containing the aforesaid 
number, is truly the abomination of desolation. This, too, 
the apostle affirms : " When they shall say, Peace and safety, 
then sudden destruction shall come upon them."^ And Jere- 
miah does not merely point out his sudden coming, but he 
even indicates the tribe from which he shall come, where he 
says, " We shall hear the voice of his swift horses from Dan ; 
the whole earth shall be moved by the voice of the neighing 
of his galloping horses : he shall also come and devour the 
earth, and the fulness thereof, the city also, and they that 
dwell therein."^ This, too, is the reason that this tribe is not 
reckoned in the Apocalypse along with those which are saved. ^ 
3. It is therefore more certain, and less hazardous, to await 
the fulfilment of the prophecy, than to be making surmises, 
and casting about for any names that may present them- 
selves, inasmuch as many names can be found possessing the 
number mentioned ; and the same question will, after all, 
remain unsolved. For if there are many names found pos- 
sessing this numbei', it will be asked which among them shall 
the coming man bear. It is not through a want of names 
containing, the number of that name that I say this, but on 
account of the fear of God, and zeal for the truth : for the 
name Evantlias (ETANGAX) contains the required number, 
but I make no allegation regarding it. Then also Lateinos 
{AATEINOX) has the number six hundred and sixty-six ; 
and it is a very probable [solution], this being the name of 
the last kingdom [of the four seen by Daniel]. For the 
Latins are they who at present bear rule : I will not, how- 
ever, make any boast over this [coincidence]. Teitan too, 
(TEITAN, the first syllable being written with the two Greek 
vowels e and i), among all the names which are found among 
lis, is rather worthy of credit. For it has in itself the pre- 
dicted number, and is composed of six letters, each syllable 
containing three letters ; and [the word itself] is ancient, and 
removed from ordinary use ; for among our kings we find 
none bearing this name Titan, nor have any of the idols 
which are worshipped in public among the Greeks and bar- 
^ 1 Thess. v. 3. ^ j^j.. vii.i. 16. ^ j^gy_ Yii_ 5,7^ 


barians this appellation. Among many persons, too, this 
name is accounted divine, so that even the sun is termed 
" Titan" by those who do' now possess [the rule]. This word, 
too, contains a certain outward appearance of vengeance, and 
of one inflicting merited punishment because he (Antichrist) 
pretends that he vindicates the oppressed.^ And besides this, 
it is an ancient name, one worthy of credit, of royal dignity, 
and still further, a name belonging to a tyrant. Inasmuch, 
then, as this name "Titan" has so much to recommend it, 
there is a strong degree of probability, that from among the 
many [names suggested], we infer, that perchance he who 
is to come shall be called "Titan." We will not, however, 
incur the rkk of pronouncing positively as to the name of 
Antichrist { for if it were necessary that his name should be 
distinctly revealed in this present time, it would have been 
announced by him who beheld the apocalyptic vision. For 
that was seen no very long time since, but almost in our day, 
towards the end of Domitian's reign. \ 

4. But he indicates the number of the name now, that 
when this man comes we may avoid him, being aware who 
he is : the name, however, is suppressed, because it is not 
worthy of being proclaimed by the Holy Spirit. For if it 
had been declared by Him, he (Antichrist) might perhaps 
continue for a long period. But now as " he was, and is not, 
and shall ascend out of the abyss, and goes into perdition,""^ 
as one who has no existence ; so neither has his name been 
declared, for the name of that wliicli does not exist is not 
proclaimed. But ^vhen this Antichrist shall have devastated 
all things in this world, he will reign for three years and six 
months, and sit in the temple at Jerusalem ; and then the 
Lord will come from heaven in the clouds, in the glory of 
the Father, sending this man and those who follow him into 
the lake of fire ; but bringing in for the righteous the times 
of the kingdom, that is, the rest, the hallowed seventh day ; 

^ Massuet here quotes Cicero and Ovid in proof of the sun beiu^j- 
termed Titan. The Titans waged war against the gods, to avenge them- 
selves upon Saturn. 

^ Rev. xvii. 8. 


and restoring to Abraham the promised inheritance, in which 
hingdom the Lord declared, that "many coming from the east 
and from the west should sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob." 1 

CHAr, XXXI. — The preservation of our bodies is confirmed by 
the resurrection and aseetision of Christ : the soids of 
the saints during the intermediate 2ysriod are in a state 
of expectation of that time when they shall receive their 
perfect and consummated glory. 

1. Since, again, some who are reckoned among the ortho- 
dox go beyond the pre-arranged plan for the exaltation of the 
just, and are ignorant of the methods by wdiich they are dis- 
ciplined beforehand for incorruption, they thus entertain 
heretical opinions. For the heretics, despising the handi- 
work of God, and not admitting the salvation of their flesh, 
while they also treat the promise of God contemptuously, 
and pass beyond God altogether in the sentiments they form, 
affirm that immediately upon their death they shall pass 
above the heavens and the Demiurge, and go to the Mother 
(Achamoth) or to that Father whom they have feigned. 
Those persons, therefore, who disallow a resurrection affect- 
ing the whole man (unicersam reprohant resurrectionem), 
and as far ias in them lies remove it from the midst [of the 
Christian scheme], how can they be wondered at, if again 
they know nothing as to the plan of the resurrection ? For 
they do not choose to understand, that if these things are 
as they say, the Lord Himself, in whom they profess to 
believe, did not rise again upon the third day ; but imme- 
diately upon His expiring on the cross, undoubtedly departed 
on high, leaving His body to the earth. But the case was, 
that for three days He dwelt in the place where the dead 
were, as the prophet says concerning Him : " And the Lord 
remembered His dead saints who slept formerly in the 
land of sepulture ; and He descended to them, to rescue and 
save them."" And the Lord Himself says, "As Jonas re- 
1 Matt. viii. 11. 2 gee Book iii. 20, 4. 


mained three clays and three nights in the whale's belly, so 
shall the Son of man be in the heart of the earth ."^ Then 
also the apostle says, " But when He ascended, what is it but 
that He also descended into the lower parts of the earth ?"^ 
This, too, David says when prophesying of Him, " And Thou 
hast delivered my soul from the nethermost hell ;"'^ and on 
His rising again the third day, He said to Mary, who was the 
first to see and to worship Him, " Touch me not, for I have 
not yet ascended to the Father ; but go to the disciples, and 
say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and unto your 

2. If, then, the Lord observed the law of the dead, that 
He miffht become the first-begotten from the dead, and tarried 
until the third day "in the lower parts of the earth ;"^ then 
afterwards rising in the flesh, so that He even showed the 
print of the nails to His disciples," He thus ascended to the 
Father; — [if all these things occurred, I say], how must 
these men not be put to confusion, who allege that " the 
lower parts" refer to this world of ours, but that their inner 
man, leaving the body here, ascends into the super-celestial 
place ? For as the Lord " went aw^ay in the midst of the 
shadow of death," ^ where the souls of the dead were, yet 
afterwards arose in the body, and after the resurrection was 
taken up [into heaven], it is manifest that the souls of His 
disciples also, upon whose account the Lord underwent these 
things, shall go away into the invisible place allotted to them 
by God, and there remain until the resurrection, awaiting 
that event ; then receiving their bodies, and rising in their 
entirety, that is bodily, just as the Lord arose, they shall 
come thus into the presence of God. " For no disciple is 
above the Master, but every one that is perfect shall be as 
his Master."® As our Master, therefore, did not at once 
depart, taking flight [to heaven], but awaited the time of His 
resurrection prescribed by the Father, which had been also 
shown forth through Jonas, and rising again after three days 

1 M;itt. xi. 40. 2 Kph. iv. 9. 8 Ps. Ixxxvi. 23. 

4 John XX. 17. •''• Eph. iv. 9. « John xx. 20, 27. 

' Ps. xxiii. 4. ^ Luke vi. 40. 


was taken up [to heaven] ; so ought we also to await the 
time of our resurrection prescribed by God and foretold by 
the prophets, and so, rising, be taken' up, as many as the 
Lord shall account worthy of this [privilege]/ 

ChxVP. XXXII. — In that fle&li hi loliicli the saints have siifferecl 
so many ajlictions, they shall receive the fruits of their 
labours ; especially since all creation iv aits for tins, and 
God jyromises it to Abraham and his seed. 

Inasmuch, therefore, as the opinions of certain [orthodox 
persons] are derived from heretical discourses, they are both 
ignorant of God's dispensations, and of the mystery of the 
resurrection of the just, and of the [earthly] kingdom which 
is the commencement of incorruption, by means of which 
kingdom those who shall be worthy are accustomed gradually 
to partake of the divine nature (capere Deum~); and it is 
necessary to tell them respecting those things, that it behoves 
the righteous first to receive the promise of the inheritance 
which God promised to the fathers, and to reign in it, when 
they rise again to behold God in this creation which is reno- 
vated, and that the judgment should take place afterwards. 
For it is just that in that very creation in which they toiled 
or were afflicted, being proved in every way by suffering, 
they should receive the reward of their suffering ; and that 
in the creation in which they were slain because of their 
love to God, in that they should be revived again ; and that 
in the creation in which they endured servitude, in that they 
should reign. For God is rich in all things, and all things 
are His. It is fitting, therefore, that the creation itself, being 
restored to its primeval condition, should without restraint be 

^ The five following chapters were omitted ia the earlier editions, but 
added by Feuardentius. Most MSS., too, did not contain them. It is 
probable that the scribes of the middle ages rejected them on account 
of their inculcating millenarian notions, which had been long extinct in 
the church. Quotations from these five chapters have been collected by 
Harvey from Syriac and Armenian MSS. lately come to light. 

^ Or, " gradually to comprehend God." 


under the dominion of the righteous ; and the apostle has 
made this plain in the Epistle to the Romans, when he thus 
speaks : '' For the expectation of the creature ■vvaiteth for the 
manifestation of the sons of God. For the creature has been 
subjected to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who 
hath subjected the same in hope ; since the creature itself 
shall also be delivered from the bondage of corruption into 
the glorious liberty of the sons of God." ^ 

2. Thus, then, the promise of God, which He gave to 
Abraham, remains stedfast. For thus He said : " Lift up 
thine eyes, and look from this place where now thou art, 
towards the north and south, and east and west. For all the 
earth which thou seest, I will give to thee and to thy seed, 
even for ever." "' And again He says, " Arise, and go through 
the length and breadth of the land, since I will give it unto 
thee ;"^ and [yet] he did not receive an inheritance in it, not 
even a footstep, but was always a stranger and a pilgrim 
therein.'* And upon the death of Sarah his wife, when the 
Hittites were willing to bestow upon him a place where he 
might bury her, he declined it as a gift, but bought the 
burying-place (giving for it four hundred talents of silver) 
from Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite.'^ Thus did he 
await patiently the promise of God, and was unwilling to 
appear to receive from men, what God had promised to give 
him, when He said again to him as follows : " I will give 
this land to thy seed, from the river of Egypt even unto the 
great river Euphrates."*' If, then, God promised him the 
inheritance of the land, yet he did not receive it during all 
the time of his sojourn there, it must be, that together with 
his seed, that is, those who fear God and believe in Him, he 
shall receive it at the resurrection of the just. For his seed 
is the church, which receives the adoption to God through 
the Lord, as John the Baptist said : " For God is able from 
the stones to raise up children to Abraham."^ Thus also 
the apostle says in the Epistle to the Galatians : " But ye, 

^ Eom. viii. 19, etc. 

2 Gen. xiii. 13, 14. 

3 Gen. xiii. 17 

•* Acts vii. 5 ; Heb. xi. 13. 

^ Gen. xxiii. 11. 

c Gen. XV. 13. 

7 Luke iii. 8. 


brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of the promise."^ 
And again, in the same epistle, he plainly declares that they 
who have believed in Christ do receive Christ, the promise 
to Abraham thus saying, "The promises were spoken to 
Abraham, and to his seed. Now He does not say, And of 
seeds, as if [He spake] of many, but as of one. And to thy 
seed, which is Christ."^ And again, confirming his former 
words, he says, " Even as Abraham believed God, and it was 
accounted to him for righteousness. Know ye therefore, that 
they which are of faith are the children of Abraham. But 
the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen 
through faith, declared to Abraham beforehand, That in thee 
shall all nations be blessed. So then they which are of faith 
shall be blessed with faithful Abraham."^ Thus, then, they 
who are of faith shall be blessed with faithful Abraham, 
and these are the children of Abraham. Now God made 
promise of the earth to Abraham and his seed ; yet neither 
Abraham nor his seed, that is, those who are justified by 
faith, do now receive any inheritance in it ; but they shall 
receive it at the resurrection of the just. For God is true 
and faithful ; and on this account He said, " Blessed are the 
meek, for they shall inherit the earth." ^ 

Chap, xxxiii. — Further j^'i'oofs of the same ^^'''oposition, 
draicn from the promises made hy Christ, lohen He de- 
clared that He loould drink of the fruit of the vine loith 
His disciples in His Father'' s kingdom, ivhile at the same 
time He promised to reivard them an hundred- fold, and 
to make them partake of banquets. The Messing pro- 
nounced hy Jacob had pointed oid this cdready, as Papias 
and the elders have interpreted it. 

1. For this reason, when about to undergo Ilis sufferings, 
that He mio;ht declare to Abraham and those with him the 
glad tidings of the inheritance being thrown open, [Christ], 
after He had given thanks while holding the cup, and had 

1 Gal. iv. 28. 2 Qal. iii. 16. 

3 Gal. iii. 6, etc. * Matt. v. 5. 


drunk of it, and given it to the disciples, said to them : 
'' Drink ye all of it : this is my blood of the new covenant, 
which shall be shed for many for the remission of sins. But 
I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of the fruit of 
this vine, until that day when I will drink it new with you 
in my Father's kingdom."^ Thus, then. He will Himself 
renew the inheritance of the earth, and will re-organize the 
mystery of the glory of [His] sons ; as David says, " He 
who hath renewed the face of the earth." ^ He promised 
to drink of the fruit of the vine with His disciples, thus 
indicating both these points : the inheritance of the earth in 
which the new fruit of the vine is drunk, and the resurrec- 
tion of His disciples in the flesh. For the new flesh which 
rises again is the same which also received the new cup. 
And He cannot by any means be understood as drinking of 
the fruit of the vine when settled down with His [disciples] 
above in a super-celestial place ; nor, again, are they who 
drink it devoid of flesh, for to drink of that which flows from 
the vine pertains to flesh, and not spirit. 

2. And for this reason the Lord declared, " When thou 
makest a dinner or a supper, do not call thy friends, nor thy 
neighbours, nor thy kinsfolk, lest they ask thee in return, 
and so repay thee. But call the lame, the blind, and the 
poor, and thou shalt be blessed, since they cannot recompense 
thee, but a recompense shall be made thee at the resurrection 
of the just."^ And again He says, "Whosoever shall have 
left lands, or houses, or parents, or brethren, or children be- 
cause of me, he shall receive in this wcvld an hundred-fold, 
and in that to come he shall inherit eternal life."* For what 
are the hundred-fold [rewards] in this woi'ld, the entertain- 
ments given to the poor, and the suppers for which a return 
is made? These are [to take place] in the times of the 
kingdom, that is, upon the seventh day, which has been 
sanctified, in which God rested from all the works which He 
created, which is the true Sabbath of the righteous, in whicli 
they shall not be engaged in any earthly occupation ; but 

1 Matt. xxvi. 27. '^ Ps. civ. 30. 

2 Luke xiv. 12, 13. •* Matt. xix. 29 ; Luke xviii. 29, 30. 


shall have a table at hand prepared for them by God, supply- 
ing them with all sorts of dishes. 

3. The blessing of Isaac with which he blessed his younger 
son Jacob has the same meaning, when he says, " Behold, the 
smell of my son is as the smell of a full field which the Lord 
has blessed."^ But "the field is the world."" And therefore 
he added, " God give to thee of the dew of heaven, and of 
the fatness of the earth, plenty of corn and wine. And let 
the nations serve thee, and kings bow down to thee ; and be 
thou lord over thy brother, and thy father's sons shall bow 
down to : cursed shall be he who shall curse thee, and 
blessed shall be he who shall bless thee." '^ If any one, then, 
does not accept these things as referring to the appointed 
kingdom, he must fall into much contradiction and contra- 
riety, as is the case with the Jews, who are involved in 
absolute perplexity. For not only did not the nations in 
this life serve this Jacob ; but even after he had received 
the blessing, he himself going forth [from his home], served 
his uncle Laban the Syrian for twenty years;* and not 
only was he not made lord of his brother, but he did himself 
bow down before his brother Esau, upon his return from 
Mesopotamia to his father, and offered many gifts to him.^ 
Moreover, in what way did he inherit much corn and wine 
here, he who emigrated to Egypt because of the famine which 
possessed the land in which he was dwelling, and became 
subject to Pharaoh, who was then ruling over Egypt ? The 
jiredicted blessing, therefore, belongs unquestionably to the 
times of the kingdom, when the righteous shall bear rule 
upon their rising from the dead;^ when also the creation, 
having been renovated and set free, shall fructify with an 
abundance of all kinds of food, from the dew of heaven, and 
from the fertility of the earth : as the elders wlio savr John, 

1 Gen. xxvii. 27, etc, ^ jj^^^^^^ xiii. 38. ^ Gou. xxvii. 28, 29. 

* Gen. xxxi. 41. ^ Gen. xxsiii. 3. 

^ From tliis to the end of tlie section there is an Armenian version 
extant, to be found in the SpicU. Solesm. i. p. 1, edited by M. Pitra, Paris 
1852, and which was taken by hun from an Armenian sis. in the Mechi- 
tarist Library at Venice, described as being of the twelfth century. 



the disciple of the Lord, related that they had heard from 
him how the Lord used to teach in regard to these times, 
and say : The days will come, in which vines shall grow, 
each having ten thousand branches, and in each branch ten 
thousand twigs, and in each true^ twig ten thousand shoots, 
and in each one of the shoots ten thousand clusters, and on 
every one of the clusters ten thousand grapes, and every 
grape when pressed will give five and twenty metretes of 
wine. And when any one of the saints shall lay hold of a 
cluster,"' another shall cry out, " I am a better cluster, take 
me ; bless the Lord through me." In like manner [the 
Lord declared] that a grain of wheat would produce ten 
thousand ears, and that every ear should have ten thousand 
grains, and every grain would yield ten pounds {quinque 
hilihres) of clear, pure, fine flour ; and that all other fruit- 
bearing trees," and seeds and grass, would produce in similar 
proportions {secundum congruentiam its consequentem) ; and 
that all animals feeding [only] on the productions of the 
earth, should [in those days] become peaceful and harmonious 
among each other, and be in perfect subjection to man. 

4. And these things are borne witness to in writing by 
Papias, the hearer of John, and a companion of Polycarp, in 
his fourth book ; for there were five books compiled {crvvre- 
Twyixevd) by him. And he says in addition, " Now these 
things are credible to believers." And he says that, " when 
the traitor Judas did not give credit to them, and put the 
question, ' How then can things about to bring forth so 
abundantly be wrought by the Lord?' the Lord declared, 
'■ They who shall come to these [times] shall see.' " When 
prophesying of these times, therefore, Esaias says : " The 
wolf also shall feed with the lamb, and the leopard shall take 
his rest with the kid ; the calf also, and the bull, and the lion 
shall eat together ; and a little boy shall lead them. The ox 

^ This word " true " is not found in the Armenian. 

2 Or, following Arm. vers., "But if any one shall lay hold of an holy 

•" The Arm. vers, is here followed; the old Latin reads, " Et reliqua 
autem poma." 


and the bear sliall feed together, and their young ones shall 
agree together ; and the lion shall eat straw as well as the ox. 
And the infant boy shall thrust his hand into the asp's den, 
into the nest also of the adder's brood ; and they sliall do no 
liarm, nor have power to hurt anything in my holy mountain." 
And again he says, in recapitulation, " Wolves and lambs 
shall then browse together, and the lion shall eat straw like 
the ox, and the serpent earth as if it were bread ; and they 
shall neither hurt nor annoy anything in my holy mountain, 
saith the Lord." ^ I am quite aware that some persons 
endeavour to refer these words to the case of savage men, 
both of different nations and various habits, who come to 
believe, and when they have believed, act in harmony with 
the righteous. But although this is [true] now with regard 
to some men coming from various nations to the harmony 
of the faith, nevertheless in the resurrection of the just [the 
words shall also apply] to those animals mentioned. For 
God is rich in all things. And it is right that when the 
creation is restored, all the animals should obey and be in 
subjection to man, and revert to the food originally given 
by God (for they had been originally subjected in obedience 
to Adam), that is, the productions of the earth. But some 
other occasion, and not the present, is [to be sought] for 
showing that the lion shall [then] feed on straw. And this 
indicates the large size and rich quality of the fruits. For if 
that animal, the lion, feeds upon straw [at that period], of 
what a quality must the wheat itself be Avhose straw shall 
serve as suitable food for lions ? 

Chap, xxxiv. — lie fortifies Ms ojnnions loith regard to the 
temporal and eartldy Mngdom of the saints after their 
resurrection, hy the various testimonies of Isaiah, Ezekiel, 
■ Jeremiah, and Daniel; also by the parable of the servants 
ivatching, to ichom the Lord promised that He loould 

1. Then, too, Isaiah himself has plainly declared that there 
1 Isa. xl. 6, etc. 


shall be joy of this nature at the resurrection of the just, 
when he says : " The dead shall rise again ; those, too, who 
are in the tombs shall arise, and those who are in the earth 
shall rejoice. For the dew from Thee is health to them."^ 
And this again Ezekiel also says : " Behold, I Avill open your 
tombs, and will bring you forth out of your graves ; when I 
will draw my people from the sepulchres, and I will put 
breath in you, and ye shall live; and I will place you on 
your ow^n land, and ye shall know that I am the Lord."^ 
And again the same speaks thus : " These things, saitli the 
Lord, I will gather Israel from all nations whither they have 
been driven, and I shall be sanctified in them in the sight of 
the sons of the nations : and they shall dwell in their own 
land, which I gave to my servant Jacob. And they shall 
dwell in it in peace ; and they shall build houses, and plant 
vineyards, and dwell in hope, when I shall cause judgment 
to fall among all who have dishonoured them, among those 
w'ho encircle them round about ; and they shall know that 
I am the Lord their God, and the God of their fathers."^ 
Now I have shown a short time ago that the church is the 
seed of Abraham; and for this reason, that we may know 
that He who in the New Testament " raises up from the 
stones children unto Abraham,"* is He who will gather, 
according to the Old Testament, those that shall be saved 
from all the nations, Jeremiah says : " Behold, the days 
come, saith the Lord, that they shall no more say, The Lord 
liveth, who led the children of Israel from the north, and 
from every region whither they had been driven ; He will 
restore them to their own land which He gave to their 

2. That the whole creation shall, according to God's will, 
obtain a vast increase, that it may bring forth and sustain 
fruits such [as we have mentioned], Isaiah declares : '*' And 
there shall loe upon every high mountain, and upon every 
prominent hill, water running everywhere in that day, when 
many shall perish, when Avails shall fall. And the light of 

^ Isa. xxvi. 19. - Ezek. xxxvii. 12, etc. ^ Ezek. xxviii. 25, 26. 

* Matt. iii. 9. ^ J or. xxiii. 7, G. 


the moon shall be as the light of the sun, seven times that of 
the day, when He shall heal the anguish of His people, and 
do away with the pain of His stroke." ^ Now " the pain of 
the stroke" means that inflicted at the beginning upon dis- 
obedient man in Adam, that is, death; which [stroke] the 
Lord wull heal when He raises us from the dead, and restores 
the inheritance of the fathers, as Isaiah again says : " And 
thou shalt be confident in the Lord, and He will cause thee 
to pass over the whole earth, and feed thee with the inherit- 
ance of Jacob thy father."" This is what the Lord declared: 
" Happy are those servants whom the Lord when He cometh 
shall find watching. Verily I say unto you, that He shall 
gird Himself, and make them to sit down [to meat], and will 
come forth and serve them. And if He shall come in the 
evening watch, and find them so, blessed are they, because 
He shall make them sit down, and niinister to them ; or if 
this be in the second, or it be in the third, blessed are they."^ 
Again John also says the very same in the Apocalypse : 
" Blessed and holy is he who has part in tlie first resurrec- 
tion."^ Then, too, Isaiah has declared the time when these 
events shall occur; he says : "And I said, Lord, how long? 
Until the cities be wasted without inhabitant, and the houses 
be without men, and the earth be left a desert. And after 
these things the Lord shall remove ns men far away {lomje 
nos faciei Dens homines), and those who shall remain shall 
multiply upon the earth." ^ Then Daniel also says this very 
thing : " And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness 
of those under the heaven, is given to the saints of the Most 
Iligh God, whose kingdom is everlasting, and all dominions 
shall serve and obey Him."'' And lest the promise named 
should be understood as referring to this time, it was declared 
to the prophet : " And come thou, and stand in thy lot at 
the consummation of the days." ^ 

3. Now, that the promises were not announced to the 
prophets and the fathers alone, but to the churches united 

^ Isa. XXX. 25, 26. ^ Isa. Iviii. 14. ^ Liike xii. 37, 38. 

4 Rev. XX. 6. ^ Isa. vi. 11. t^ Dan. vii. 27. 

^ Dan. xii. 13. 

1 5 IRENjTL us a GA INST HERESIES. [Book v. 

to tliese from the nations, whom also the Spu'it terms "tlie 
islands " (both because they are established in the midst of 
turbulence, suffer the storm of blasphemies, exist as a har- 
bour of safety to those in peril, and are the refuge of those 
who love the height [of heaven], and strive to avoid Bythus, 
that is, the depth of error), Jeremiah thus declares : " Hear 
the word of the Lord, ye nations, and declare it to the 
isles afar off ; say ye, that the Lord will scatter Israel, He 
will gather him, and keep him, as one feeding his flock of 
sheep. For the Lord hath redeemed Jacob, and rescued 
him from the hand of one stronger than he. And they shall 
come and rejoice in Mount Zion, and sliall come to wliat is 
good, and into a land of wheat, and wine, and fruits, of 
animals and of sheep ; and their soul shall be as a tree bear- 
ing fruit, and they shall hunger no more. At that time also 
shall the virgins rejoice in the company of the young men : 
the old men, too, shall be glad, and I will turn their sorrow 
into joy ; and I will make them exult, and will magnify them, 
and satiate the souls of the priests the sons of Levi ; and my 
people shall be satiated with my goodness." ^ Now, in the 
preceding book" I have shown that all the disciples of the 
Lord are Levites and priests, they who used in the temple to 
profane the Sabbath, but are blameless.^ Promises of such 
a nature, therefore, do indicate in the clearest manner the 
feasting of that creation in the kingdom of the righteous, 
which God promises that He will Himself serve. 

4. Then again, speaking of Jerusalem, and of Him reign- 
ing there, Isaiah declares, " Thus saith the Lord, Happy is 
he who hath seed in Zion, and servants in Jerusalem. Be- 
hold, a righteous king shall reign, and princes shall rule with 
judgment."* And with regard to the foundation on which 
it shall be rebuilt, he says : " Behold, I will lay In order for 
thee a carbuncle stone, and sapphire for thy foundations ; 
and I will lay thy ramparts with jasper, and thy gates with 
crystal, and thy wall with choice stones : and all thy children 
shall be taught of God, and great shall be the peace of thy 

^ Jer. xxxi. 10, etc. ^ See iv. 8, 0. 

" Matt. xii. 5. * Isa. xxxi. 9, xxxii. 1. 

Book v. ] IREN^ US A GA INST HERESIES. 1 5 1 

children ; and in righteousness shalt thou be built up."^ And 
yet again does he say the same thing : " Behold, I make 
Jerusalem a rejoicing, and my people [a joy] ; for the voice 
of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of 
crying. Also there shall not be there any immature [one], 
nor an old man who does not fulfil his time : for the youth 
shall be of a hundred years ; and the sinner shall die a 
luindred years old, yet shall be accursed. And they shall 
build houses, and inhabit them themselves ; and shall plant 
vineyards, and eat the fruit of them themselves, and shall 
drink wine. And they shall not build, and others inhabit ; 
neither shall they prepare the vineyard, and others eat. For 
as the days of the tree of life shall be the days of the people 
in thee; for the works of their hands shall endure."^ 

ClTAP. XXXV. — He contends that these testimonies already 
alleged cannot he understood allegorically of celestial 
blessings, hut that they shall have their fulfilment after 
the coining of Antichrist, and the resurrection, in the 
terrestrial Jerusalem. To the former prophecies he sub- 
joins others draivn from Isaiah, Jeremiah, and the 
Apocalypse of John. 

1. If, however, any shall endeavour to allegorize [prophe- 
cies] of this kind, they shall not be found consistent with 
themselves in all points, and shall be confuted by the teach- 
ing of the very expressions [in question]. For example : 
"When the cities" of the Gentiles "shall be desolate, so 
that they be not inhabited, and the houses so that there shall 
be no men in them, and the land shall be left desolate."^ 
" For, behold," says Isaiah, " the day of the Loi'd cometli 
past remedy, full of fury and wrath, to Iny waste the city of 
the earth, and to root sinners out of it."^ And again he says, 
" Let him be taken away, that he behold not the glory of 
God."^ And when these things are done, he says, " God will 
remove men far away, and those that are left shall multiply 

1 Isa. liv. 11-14. 2 isa. ]xv. 18. ^ jga. yi, n^ 

* Isa. xiii. 9. " Isa. xxvi. 10. 


in the earth." ^ "And they shall build houses, and shall In- 
habit them themselves : and plant vineyards, and eat of them 
themselves."" For all these and other words were unques- 
tionably spoken in reference to the resurrection of the just, 
which takes place after the coming of Antichrist, and the 
destruction of all nations under his rule ; in [the times of] 
which [resurrection] the righteous shall reign in the earth, 
waxing stronger by the sight of the Lord : and through Him 
they shall become accustomed to partake in the glory of God 
the Father, and shall enjoy in the kingdom intercourse and 
communion with the holy angels, and union with spiritual 
beings; and [with respect to] those whom the Lord shall 
find in the flesh, awaiting Him from heaven, and who have 
suffered tribulation, as well as escaped the hands of the 
V/^icked one. For it is in reference to them tliat the prophet 
says : " And those that are left shall multiply upon the 
earth." And Jeremiah^ the prophet has pointed out, that 
as many believers as God has prepared for this purpose, to 
multiply those left upon earth, should both be under the rule 
of the saints to minister to this Jerusalem, and that [His] 
kingdom shall be in it, saying, " Look around Jerusalem 
towards the east, and behold the joy which comes to thee 
from God Himself. Behold, thy sons shall come whom thou 
hast sent forth : they shall come in a band from the east 
even unto the west, by the word of that Holy One, rejoicing 
in that splendour which is from thy God. O Jerusalem, put 
off thy robe of mourning and of affliction, and put on that 
beauty of eternal splendour from thy God. Gird thyself 
with the double garment of that righteousness proceeding 
from thy God ; place the mitre of eternal glory upon thine 
head. For God will show thy glory to the whole earth 
mider heaven. For thy name shall for ever be called 
by God Himself, the peace of righteousness and glory to 
iiim that worships God. Arise, Jerusalem, stand on high, 
and look towards the east, and behold thy sons from the 

1 Tsa. vi. 12. " Isa. Ixv. 21 

^ The long quotation follo-wiiig is not found in Jeremiah, but in the 
apocryphal book of Buruch, chap. iv. 36, etc., and the whole of chap. v. 


rising of the sun, even to the west, by the word of that Holy- 
One, rejoicing in the very remembrance of God. For the 
footmen have gone forth from thee, while they were drawn 
away by the enemy. God shall bring them in to thee, being 
boi'ne with glory as the throne of a kingdom. For God 
has decreed that every high mountain shall be brought low, 
and the eternal hills, and that the valleys be filled, so that 
the surface of the earth be rendered smooth, that Israel, 
the glory of God, may walk in safety. The woods, too, shall 
make shady places, and every sweet-smelling tree shall be 
for Israel itself by the command of God. For God shall go 
before with joy in the light of His splendour, with the pity 
and righteousness which proceeds from Him." 

2. Now all these things being such as they are, cannot be 
understood in reference to super-celestial matters ; " for God," 
it is said, " will show to the whole earth that is under heaven 
thy glor}'." But in the times of the kingdom, the earth 
has been called again by Christ [to its pristine condition], 
and Jerusalem rebuilt after the pattern of the Jerusalem 
above, of which the prophet Isaiah says, " Behold, I have 
depicted thy walls upon my hands, and thou art always in 
my sight." ■"■ And the apostle, too, writing to the Galatians, 
says in like manner, "But the Jerusalem which is above is 
free, which is the mother of us all." "^ He does not say this 
with any thought of an erratic ^on, or of any other power 
which departed from the Pleroma, or of Prunicus, but of 
the Jerusalem which has been delineated on [God's] hands. 
And in the Apocalypse John saw this new [Jerusalem] 
descending upon the new earth.^ For after the times of the 
kingdom, he says, "I savv^ a great white throne, and Him 
wdio sat upon it, from whose face the earth fled away, and 
the heaven; and there was no more place for them."^ And 
he sets forth, too, the things connected with the general 
resurrection and the judgment, mentioning " the dead, great 
and small." " The sea," he says, " gave up the dead ^Yhich 
it had in it, and death and hell delivered up the dead that 
they contained ; and the books were opened. Moreover," he 

1 Isa. xlix. 16. 2 Gal. iv. 26. s Eev. xxi. 2. ^ jjey. ^x. 11. 


says, '"the Look of life was opened, and the dead were judged 
out of those tliinifs that were written in the books, accordiriij 
to their works ; and death and hell were sent into the lake 
of fire, the second death." ^ Now this is what is called 
Gehenna, which the Lord styled eternal fire.' " And if any 
one," it is said, " was not found written in the book of life, 
he was sent into the lake of fire."^ And after this, he says, 
" I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven 
and earth have passed away ; also there was no more sea. 
And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from 
heaven, as a bride adorned for her husband." " And I 
heard," it is said, " a great voice from the throne, saying, 
Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell 
with them; and they shall be His people, and God Himself 
shall be with them as their God. And He will wipe away 
every tear from their eyes ; and death shall be no more, 
neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more 
pain, because the former things have passed away."* Isaiah 
also declares the very same : " For there shall be a new 
heaven and a new earth ; and there shall be no remembrance 
of the former, neither shall the heart think about them, 
but they shall find in it joy and exultation."^ Now this is 
what has been said by the apostle : " For the fashion of this 
world passetli away."*^ To the same purpose did the Lord 
also declare, "Heaven and earth shall pass away."^ When 
these things, therefore, pass away above the earth, John, the 
Loi'd's disciple, says that the new Jerusalem above shall 
[then] descend, as a bride adorned for her husband ; and that 
this is the tabernacle of God, in which God will dwell with 
men. Of this Jerusalem the former one is an image — that 
Jerusalem of the former earth in which the righteous are 
disciplined beforehand for incorruption and prepared for sal- 
vation. And of this tabernacle Moses received the pattern 
in the mount ;^ and nothing is capable of being allegorized, 
but all things are stedfast, and true, and substantial, having 

1 Kev. XX. 12-11. 2 ]yj,^tt. xxv. 41. ^ Eev. xx. 15. 

4 llev. xxi. 1-4. « Isa. Ixv. 17, 18. « 1 Cor. vii. 01. 

? ]\Iatt. xxvi. 35. « Ex. xxv. 40. 


been made by God for righteous men's enjoyment. For as 
it is God truly who raises up man, so also does man truly 
rise from the dead, and not allegorically, as I have shown 
repeatedly. And as he rises actually, so also shall he be 
actually disciplined beforehand for incorruption, and shall 
go forwards and flourish in the times of the kingdom, in 
order that he may be capable of receiving the glory of the 
Father. Then, when all things are made new, he shall truly 
dwell in the city of God. For it is said, " He that sitteth on 
the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And the 
Lord says. Write all this ; for these words are faithful and 
true. And He said to me, They are done."^ And this is 
the truth of the matter. 

CriAP. XXXVI. — Men shall he actualli/ raised : the luorld shall 
7iot be annihilated ; hid there shall he various mansions 
for the saints, according to the rank allotted to each indi- 
vidiial. All things shall he suhject to God the Father, 
and so shall He he all in all. 

1. For since there are real men, so must there also be 
a real establishment {plantationem), that they vanish not 
away among non-existent things, but progress among those 
which have an actual existence. For neither is the substance 
nor the essence of the creation annihilated (for faithful and 
true is He who has established it), but '■' the fashion of the 
world passeth away;"^ that is, those things among which 
transgression has occurred, since man has jrrown old in 
them. And therefore this [present] fashion has been formed 
temporary, God foreknowing all things ; as I have pointed 
out in the preceding book,^ and have also shown, as far as 
was possible, the cause of the creation of this world of tem- 
poral things. But when this [present] fashion [of things] 
passes away, and man has been renewed, and flourishes in 
an incorruptible state, so as to preclude the possibility of 
becoming old, [then] there shall be the new heaven and the 
new earth, in which the new man shall remain [continually], 
1 Rev. xxi. 5, 6. ^1 Cor. vii. 31. ^ Lib. iv. 5, 6. 


always holding fresli converse with God. And since (or, 
that) these things shall ever continue without end, Isaiah 
declares, " For as the new heavens and the new earth whicli 
I do make, continue in my sight, saith the Lord, so shall your 
seed and your name remain."^ And as the presbyters say. 
Then those who are deemed worthy of an abode in heaven 
shall go there, others shall enjoy the delights of paradise, 
and others shall possess the splendour of the city ; for every- 
where the Saviour^ shall be seen according as they who see 
Him shall be worthy. 

2. [They say, moreover], that there is this distinction 
between the habitation of those who produce an hundred-fold, 
and that of those who produce sixty-fold, and that of those 
who produce thirty-fold : for the first will be taken up into 
the heavens, the second will dwell in paradise, the last will 
inhabit the city ; and that it was on this account the Lord 
declared, " Li my Father's house are many mansions."^ For 
all things belong to God, who supplies all with a suitable 
dwelling-place ; even as His Word says, that a share is 
allotted to all by the Father, according as each person is or 
shall be worthy. And this is the couch on which the guests 
shall recline, having been invited to the wedding.^ The 
presbyters, the disciples of the apostles, affirm that this is 
the gradation and arrangement of those who are saved, and 
that they advance through steps of this nature; also that 
they ascend through the Spirit to the Son, and through the 
Son to the Father, and that in due time the Son will yield 
up His work to the Father, even as it is said by the apostle, 
'• For He must reign till He hath put all enemies under His 
feet. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death." ^ 
For in the times of the kingdom, the righteous man who is 
upon the earth shall then forget to die. "But when He 
saith, All things shall be subdued unto Him, it is manifest 
that He is excepted who did put all things under Him. And 
when all things shall be subdued unto Him, then shall the 

1 Isa. Ixvi. 22. 

2 Thus in a Greek fragment ; in the Old Latin, Dcua. 

8 John xiv. 2. ^ Matt. xxii. 10. * 1 Cor. xx. 25, 26. 


Son also Himself be subject unto Him ■who put all things 
under Him, that God may be all in all."^ 

3. John, therefore, did distinctly foresee the first " resur- 
rection of the just,"^ and the inheritance in the kingdom of 
the earth ; and what the prophets have prophesied concern- 
ing it harmonize [with his vision]. For the Lord also taught 
these things, when He promised that He would have the 
mixed cup riew with His disciples in the kingdom. The 
apostle, too, has confessed that the creation shall be free 
from the bondage of corruption, [so as to pass] into the liberty 
of the sons of God.^ And in all these things, and by them 
all, the same God the Father is manifested, who fashioned 
man, and gave promise of the inheritance of the earth to the 
fathers, who brought it (the creature) forth [from bondage] 
at the resurrection of the just, and fulfils the promises for the 
kingdom of His Son ; subsequently bestowing in a paternal 
manner those things which neither the eye has seen, nor the 
ear has heard, nor has [thought concerning them] arisen 
within the heart of man.* For there is the one Son, who 
accomplished His Father's will ; and one human race also in 
which tlie mysteries of God are wrought, '•' which the angels 
desire to look into ;"^ and they are not able to search out the 
wisdom of God, by means' of which His handiwork, con- 
finned and incorporated with Plis Son, is brought to perfec- 
tion ; that His offspring, the First-begotten Word, should 
descend to the creature (facturam), that is, to what had been 
moulded (plasma), and that it should be contained by Him ; 
and, on the other hand, the creature should contain the Word, 
and ascend to Him, passing beyond the angels, and be made 
after the image and likeness of God.^ 

1 1 Cor. XV. 27, 28. ^ Luke xiv. 14, « Rom. viii. 21. 

* 1 Cor. ii. 9 ; Isa. Ixiv. 4. s i pg^^ i 12. 

^ Grabe and others suppose that some part of the work has been lost, 
so that the above was not its original conclusion. 


x\DJUE.E thee, who shalt transcribe this book,^ 
by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by His glorious 
appearing, when He comes to judge the Hving 
and the dead, that thou compare what tliou hast 
transcribed, and be careful to set it right according to this 
copy from which thou hast transcribed ; also, that thou in 
like manner copy down this adjuration, and insert it in the 


These" opinions, Florinus, that I may speak in mild terms, 
are not of sound doctrine ; these opinions are not consonant 
to the church, and involve their votaries in the utmost im- 
piety ; these opinions, even the heretics beyond the church's 
])ale have never ventured to broach ; these opinions, those 
j)resbyters who preceded us, and who were conversant with 
the apostles, did not hand down to thee. For, while I Avas 
yet a boy, I saw thee in Lower Asia with Poly carp, distin- 
guishing thyself in the royal court,^ and endeavouring to 
gain his approbation. For I have a more vivid recollection 
of what occurred at that time than of recent events (inas- 

^ This fragment is quoted by Eusebiiis, lUtit. Ecd. v. 20. It occurred 
at the close of the lost treatise of Ireneeus entitled Dc Ogdoade. 

2 This interesting extract we also owe to Eusebius, who (ut mtp.) took 
it from the work De Ofjdoade, written after this former friend of Irenteus 
liad lapsed to Valentinianism. Florinus had previously held that God 
was the author of evil, wliich sentiment Ircnaius opposed in a treatise, 
now lost, called Trcpi fiovxpxi^i;- 

3 Comp. vol. i. p. 476, and Phil. iv. 22. 



nmcli as the experiences of cliilclhood, keeping pace Vt'ith the 
growth of the soul, become incorporated with it) ; so that I 
can even describe the place where the blessed Polycarp used 
to sit and discourse — his going out, too, and his coming in — his 
general mode of life and personal appearance, together with 
the discourses which he delivered to the people ; also how he 
would speak of his familiar intercourse with John, and with 
the rest of those who had seen the Lord ; and how he would 
call their words to remembrance. Whatsoever things he had 
heard from them respecting the Lord, both with regard to 
His miracles and His teaching, Polycarp having thus received 
[information] from the eye-witnesses of the Word of life, 
would recount them all in harmony with the Scriptures. 
These things, through God's mercy which was upon me, I 
then listened to attentively, and treasured them up not on 
paper, but in my heart ; and I am continually, by God's 
grace, revolving these things accurately in my mind. And I 
can bear witness before God, that if that blessed and apos- 
tolical presbyter had heard any such thing, he would have 
cried out, and stopped his ears, exclaiming as he was w^ont to 
do : " O good God, for what times hast Thou reserved me, 
that I should endure these things?" And he would have fled 
from the very spot where, sitting or standing, he had heard 
such words. This fact, too, can be made clear, from his 
epistles which he despatched, wdiether to the neighbouring 
churches to confirm them, or to certain of the brethren, ad- 
monishing and exhorting them. 


For^ the controversy is not merely as regards the day, but 

^ See preface to vol. i. p. xviii. We are indebted again to Eusebius 
for this valuable fragment from the Epistle of Irenseus to Victor Bishop 
of Rome (Hist. Eccl. v. 24 ; copied also by Nicephorus, iv. 39). It appears 
to have been a synodical epistle to the head of the Roman church, the 
historian saying that it was Avritten by Ireuasus, " in the name of 
(sx, TrpoauTTov) those brethren over whom he ruled throughout Gaul." 
Neither are these expressions to be limited to the church at Lyons, for 
the same authority records (v. 23) that it was the testimony " of the 
dioceses throughout Gaul, which Irenseus superintended" (Harvey). 


also as regards the form itself of the fast.^ For some con- 

sider themselves bound to fast one day, others two days, 
others still more, while others [do so during] forty : the 
diurnal and the nocturnal hours they measure out together 
as their [fasting] day."' And this variety among the observers 
[of the fasts] had not its origin in our time, but long before 
in that of our predecessors, some of whom probably, being 
not very accurate in their observance of it, handed down to 
posterity the custom as it had, through simplicity or private 
fancy, been [introduced among them]. And yet neverthe- 
less all these lived in peace one with another, and we also 
keep peace together. Thus, in fact, the difference [in ob- 
serving] the fast establishes the harmony of [our common] 
faith. ^ And the presbyters preceding Soter in the govern- 
ment of the church which thou dost now rule — I mean, 
Anicetus and Pius, Hyginus and Telesphorus, and Sixtus — 
did neither themselves observe it [after that fashion], nor 
permit those with them^ to do so. Notwithstanding this, 
those who did not keep [the feast in this v,'ay] were peace- 
fully disposed towards those who came to them from other 
dioceses in which it was [so] observed, although such obser- 
vance was [felt] in more decided contrariety [as presented] to 
those wdio did not fall in with it ; and none were ever cast 
out [of the church] for this matter. On the contrary, those 
presbyters who preceded thee, and who did not observe [this 
custom], sent the Eucharist to those of other dioceses who did 
observe it.'' And when the blessed Polycarp was sojourning 

1,'Accordmg to Harvey, the early paschal controversy resolved itself 
into two particulars : (a) as regards the precise day on wliich our Lord's 
resurrection should be celebrated ; (6) as regards the custom of the fast 
preceding it. 

2 Both reading and punctuation are here subjects of csutroversy. We 
have followed Massuet and Harvey. 

2 " The observance of a day, though not everywhere the same, showed 
unity, so far as faith in the Lord's resurrection was concerned." — Harvey. 

* Following the reading of Rufinus, the ordinary text has f^sr uvTovg, 
i.e. after them. 

'' This practice was afterwards forbidden by the Comicil of liaodicea, 
A.D. 320. 


in Rome in the time of Anicetus, altliougli a slight contro- 
versy had arisen among them as to certain other points, they 
were at once well inclined towards each other [with regard to 
the matter in hand], not willing that any quarrel should arise 
between them upon this head. For neither could Anicetus 
persuade Polycarp to forego the observance [in his own way], 
inasmuch as these things had been always [so] observed by 
John the disciple of our Lord, and by other apostles with whom 
he had been conversant ; nor, on the other hand, could Poly- 
carp succeed in persuading Anicetus to keep [the observance 
in his way], for he maintained that he was bound to adhere 
to the usage of the presbyters who preceded him. And in 
this state of affairs they held fellowship with each other ; and 
Anicetus conceded to Polycarp in the church the celebration 
of the Eucharist, by way of showing him respect ; so that 
they parted in peace one from the other, maintaining peace 
with the whole church, both those who did observe [this cus- 
tom] and those who did not.'^ 


As"^ long as any one has the means of doing good to his 
neighbours, and does not do so, he shall be reckoned a 
stranojer to the love of the Lord.^ 


The^ will and the energy of God is the effective and fore- 
seeing cause of every time and place and age, and of every 

^ It was perhaps in reference to this pleasing episode in the annals of 
the church, that the Council of Aries, A.D. 314, decreed that the holy- 
Eucharist should be consecrated by any foreign bishop present at its 

2 Quoted by Maximns Bishop of Turin, A.D. 422, Serm. vii. de Eleemos., 
as from the Epistle to Pope Victor. It is also found in some other ancient 

3 One of the iiss. reads here zov 0=o5, of God. 

* Also quoted by Maximus Turinensis, Op. ii. 152, who refers it to 
Irenseus' Sermo de Fide, which work, not being referred to by Eusebius 
or Jerome, causes Massuet to doubt the authenticity of the fragment. 
Harvey, however, accepts it. 

lEEN. — VOL. II. L 


nature. The will is the reason (\o7o?) of the intellectual 
soul, which [reason] is within us, inasmuch as it is the facultv 
belonging to it which is endowed with freedom of action. 
The will is the mind desiring [some object], and an appetite 
possessed of intelligence, yearning after that thing wlikii 
is desired. 


Since^ God is vast, and the Architect of the world, and 
omnipotent, He created things that reach to immensity both 
by the Architect of the w^orld and by an omnipotent will, and 
with a new effect, potently and efficaciously, in order that the 
entire fulness of those things which have been produced might 
come into being, although they had no previous existence — 
that is, whatever does not fall under [our] observation, and 
also what lies before our eyes. And so does He contain all 
things in particular, and leads them on to their own proper 
result, on account of which they were called into being and 
produced, in no w'ay changed into anything else than what 
it (the end) had originally been by nature. For this is the 
property of the working of God, not merely to proceed to 
the infinitude of the understanding, or even to overpass [our] 
powers of mind, reason and speech, time and place, and 
every age ; but also to go beyond substance, and fulness or 


This" [custom], of not bending the knee upon Sunday, 

1 "U'e owe this fragment also to Maximus, wlio quoted it from the same 
-work, de Fide, -written by Irenajus to Demetrius, a deacon of Yienne. This 
and the last fragment -«'ere first printed by Feuardentius, who obtained 
them from Faber ; no reference, however, being given as to the source 
from whence the Latin version was derived. The Greek of this Frag- 
ment vi. is not extant. 

- Taken from a work (Qiu>:s. et Ecsp. ad Otliod.) ascribed to Justin 
}ilartyr, but certainly written after the Nicene Council. It is evident 
that this is not an exact quotation from Irentcus, but a summaiy of his 
words. The " Sunday " here referred to must be Easter Sunday, lilas- 
suet's emendation of the text has been adopted, gcr' kv-ov for s^r' cc-jrcov. 


is a symbol of the resurrection, through which we have 
been set free, by the grace of Christ, from sins, and from 
death, which has been put to death under Him. Now this 
custom took its rise from apostohc times, as the blessed 
Irenseus, the martyr and bishop of Lyons, declares in his 
treatise On Easter, in which he makes mention of Pentecost 
also ; upon which [feast] we do not bend the knee, because 
it is of equal significance with the Lord's day, for the reason 
already alleged concerning it. 


For ^ as the ark [of the covenant] was gilded within and 
without with pure gold, so was also the body of Christ pure 
and resplendent ; for it was adorned within by the Word, 
and shielded without by the Spirit, in order that from both 
[materials] the splendour of the natures might be clearly 
sliown forth. 


Ever,^ indeed, speaking w^ell of the deserving, but never 

ill of the undeserving, we also shall attain to the glory and 

kinsfdom of God. 


It is indeed proper to God, and befitting His character, 
to show mercy and pity, and to bring salvation to His 
creatures, even though they be brought under danger of 
destruction. " For with Him," says the Scripture, '' is 
propitiation." ^ 

^ Cited by Leontius of Byzantium, -who flourished about tlii year 
A.D. 600 ; but he does not mention the writing of Irenseus from which 
it is extracted. Massuet conjectures that it is from the De Ogdoade, 
iiddressed to the apostate Florinus. 

2 This fragment and the next three are from the Parallcla of John 
of Damascus. Frag. ix. x. xii. seem to be quotations from the treatise 
of Irenseus on the resurrection. No. xi. is extracted from his Miscel- 
laneous Dissertations^ a work mentioned by Eusebius, fitpTiiov ti hc&'hiU^u 

^ Ps. cxxx. 7. 



The business of the Christian is notliing else than to be 
ever preparing for death (/ieXeray airoOvrjcrKeLv). 


We therefore have formed the behef that [our] bodies 
also do rise again. Tor although they go to corruptioUj yet 
they do not perish ; for the earth, receiving the remains, 
preserves them, even like fertile seed mixed with more 
fertile ground. Again, as a bare grain is sown, and, ger- 
minating by the command of God its Creator, rises again, 
clothed upon and glorious, but not before it has died and 
suffered decomposition, and become mingled with the earth ; 
so [it is seen from this, that] we have not entertained a vain 
belief in the resurrection of the body. But although it is 
dissolved at the appointed time, because of the primeval dis- 
obedience, it is placed, as it were, in the crucible of the 
earth, to be re-cast again; not then as this corruptible [body], 
but pure, and no longer subject to decay: so that to each 
body its own soul shall be restoi'ed ; and when it is clothed 
upon with this, it shall not experience sorrow, but shall 
rejoice, continuing permanently in a state of purity, having 
for its companion a just consort, not an insidious one, pos- 
sessing in every respect the things pertaining to it, it shall 
receive these with perfect accuracy ; ^ it shall not receive 
bodies diverse from what they had been, nor delivered from 
suffering or disease, nor as [rendered] glorious, but as they 
departed this life, in sins or in righteous actions : and such 
as they w^ere, such sliall they be clothed with upon resuming 
life; and such as they were in unbelief, such shall they be 
faithfully judged. 


For" when the Greeks, having arrested the slaves of 

1 This scutcuce in the original seems incomplete ; we have followecl 
the conjectural restoration of Harvey. 

2 " This extract is found in Gicumeuius upon 1 Pet. c. iii. p. 198 ; 


Christian catechumens, then used force against them, in 
order to learn from them some secret thing [practised] 
among Christians, these slaves, having nothing to say that 
would meet the wishes of their tormentors, except that they 
had heard from their masters that the divine communion 
was the body and blood of Christ, and imagining that it 
was actually flesh and blood, gave their inquisitors answer 
to that effect. Then these latter, assuming such to be the 
case with regard to the practices of Christians, gave infor- 
mation regarding it to other Greeks, and sought to compel 
the martyrs Sanctus and Blanclina to confess, under the 
influence of torture, [that the allegation was correct]. To 
these men Blandina replied very admirably in these words : 
" How should those persons endure such [accusations], who, 
for the sake of the practice [of piety], did not avail them- 
selves even of the flesh that was permitted [them to eat] ? " 


How ^ is it possible to say that the serpent, created by 
God dumb and irrational, was endowed with reason and 
speech ? For if it had the power of itself to speak, to 
discern, to understand, and to reply to what was spoken by 
the woman, there would have been nothing to prevent every 
serpent from doing this also. If, however, they say again 
that it was according to the divine will and dispensation 
that this [serpent] spake with a human voice to Eve, they 
render God the author of sin. Neither was it possible for 
the evil demon to impart speech to a speechless nature, 
and thus from that which is not to produce that which is ; 
for if that were the case, he never would have ceased (with 
the view of leading men astray) from conferring with and 
deceiving them by means of serpents, and beasts, and birds. 
From what quarter, too, did it, being a beast, obtain infor- 

and tlie words used by him indicate, as Grabe has justly observed, that 
he only condensed a longer passage." — Harvey. 

^ From the Contemplations of Anastasius Sinaita, "who flourished a.d. 
685. Harvey doubts as to this fragment being a genuine production 
of Irenseus ; and its whole style of reasoning confirms the suspicion. 


mation regarding the injunction of God to the man given to 
him alone, and in secret, not even the woman herself being 
aware of it ? Why also did it not prefer to make its attack 
upon the man instead of the woman ? And if thou sayest 
that it attacked lier as being the weaker of the two, [I reply 
that], on tlie contrary, she was the stronger, since she appears 
to have been the helper of the man in the transgression of 
the commandment. For she did by herself alone resist the 
serpent, and it was after holding out for a while and making 
opposition that she ate of the tree, being circumvented by craft; 
whereas Adam, making no fight whatever, nor refusal, par- 
took of the fruit handed to him by the woman, which is an 
indication of the utmost imbecility and effeminacy of mind. 
And the woman indeed, having been vanquished in the con- 
test by a demon, is deserving of pardon ; but Adam shall 
deserve none, for he was worsted by a woman, — he who, in 
his own person, had received the command from God. But 
the woman, having heard of the command from Adam, 
treated it with contempt, either because she deemed it un- 
worthy of God to speak by means of it, or because she had 
her doubts, perhaps even held the opinion that the command 
was given to her by Adam of his own accord. The serpent 
found her working alone, so that he was enabled to confer 
wuth her apart. Observing her then either eating or not 
eating from the trees, he put before her the fruit of the [for- 
bidden] tree. And if he saw her eating, it is manifest that 
she was partaker of a body subject to corruption. " For 
everything going in at the mouth, is cast out into the 
draught."^ If then corruptible, it is obvious that she was 
also mortal. But if mortal, then there was certainly no curse ; 
nor was that a [condemnatory] sentence, when the voice of 
God spake to the man, " For earth thou art, and unto earth 
shalt thou return,"' as the true course of things proceeds 
[now and always]. Then again, if the serpent observed the 
woman not eating, how did he induce her to eat who never 
had eaten ? And who pointed out to this accursed man- 
slaying serpent that the sentence of death pronounced against 
1 ]\ratt. XV. 17. - Gen. iii. 19. 


them by God would not take [immediate] effect, ■when lie 
said, " For in the day that ye eat thereof, ye shall surely 
die?" And not this merely, but that along with the im- 
punity^ [attending their sin] the eyes of those should bo 
opened who had not seen until then? But with the opening 
[of their eyes] referred to, they made entrance upon the path 
of death. 

Wlien," in times of old, Balaam spake these tilings in 
parables, he was not acknowledged; and now, when Christ has 
appeared and fulfilled them, He was not believed. Where- 
fore [Balaam], foreseeing this, and wondering at it, exclaimed, 
" Alas ! alas ! who shall live when God brings these things 
to pass T'^ 


Expounding again the law to that generation which fol- 
lowed those who were slain in the wilderness, he published 
Deuteronomy ; not as giving to them a different law from 
that which had been appointed for their fathers, but as re- 
capitulating this latter, in order that they, by hearing what 
had happened to their fathers, might fear God with their 
whole heart. 

XVI r. 

By these Christ was typified, and acknowledged, and 
brought into the world ; for He was prefigured in Joseph : 
then from Levi and Judah He Avas descended according to 
the flesh, as King and Priest ; and He was acknowledged by 

^ The Gi'eek reads the barbarous word ddpi^ia, which Massuet thinks 
is a corruption of dSxvxalcc, immortality. We have, however, followed 
the conjecture of Harvey, who would substitute d7r>.yi^ici, which seems 
to agree better with the context. 

^ This and the eight following fragments may be referred to the Mis- 
ccllaneous Dissertations of our author; see note on Frag. ix. They are 
found in three MSS. in the Impei'ial Collection at Paris, on the Pentateuch, 
Joshua, Judges, and Paith. 

^ Num. xxiv. 23. 


Simeon in the temple : through Zehulon He was beheved 
in among the Gentiles, as says the prophet, " the land of 
Zabulon;"^ and through Benjamin [that is, Paul] He was 
glorified, by being preached throughout all the world.^ 


And this was not without meaning; but that by means 
of the number of the ten men," he (Gideon) might appear 
as having Jesus for a helper, as [is indicated] by the com- 
pact entered into with them. And when he did not choose 
to partake witli tliem in their idol-worship, tliey threw the 
blame upon him: for "Jerubbaal" signifies the judgment- 
scat of Baal. 


"Take unto thee Joshua Clijaovv) the son of Xun."^ For 
it was proper that ISIoses should lead the people out of Egypt, 
but that Jesus (Joshua) should lead them into the inheritance. 
Also that Moses, as was the case with the law, should cease 
to be, but that Joshua (^Irjaovv), as the word, and no untrue 
type of the Word made flesh (evvTrocrrdTou), should be a 
preacher to the people. Then again, [it was fit] that !Moses 
should give manna as food to the fathers, but Joshua wheat ;^ 
as the first-fruits of life, a type of the body of Christ, as also 
the Scripture declares that the manna of the Lord ceased 
when the people had eaten wheat from the land.*" 

^ Isa. ix. 1. 

- Compare the statement of Clemens Eomanus, vol. i. p. 11 of tlii^ 
series, where, speaking of St. Paul, he says: "After preaching both 
in the east and west .... having taught righteousness to the whole 
vorld, and come to the extreme limit of the west." 

2 See Judg. vi. 27. It is not very clear how Irenjeus makes out this 
allegory, but it is thought that he refers to the initial letter in the name 
'Ii7o-ovj, which stands for ten in the Greek enumeration. Compare the 
Epistle of Barnabas, vol. i. p. 117 of this series. 

•* Nmn. xxvii. 18. 

^ Harvey conceives the reading here (which is doubtful) to have been 
Toi/ i/iou GiTov, the new wheat ; and sees an allusion to the wave-sheaf 
of the new corn offered in the temple on the morniug of our Lord's 
resurrection. '' Josh. v. 12. 



" And ^ he laid his hands upon him."^ The countenance of 
Joshua was also glorified by the imposition of the hands of 
Moses, but not to the same degree [as that of Moses]. Inas- 
much, then, as he had obtained a certain degree of grace, 
[the Lord] said, " And thou shalt confer upon him of thy 

to beloni? to the aiver 

glory.' For [in this case] the thing given does not cease 


But he does not give, as Christ did, by means of breathing, 
because he is not the fount of the Spirit. 


" Thou shalt not go Avith them, neither shalt thou curso 
the people." ^ He does not hint at anything with regard to 
the people, for they all lay before his view, but [he refers] to 
the mystery of Christ pointed out beforehand. For as He 
was to be born of the fathers according to the flesh, the 
Spirit gives instructions to the man (Balaam) beforehand, 
lest, going forth in ignorance, he might pronounce a curse 
upon the people.^ Not, indeed, that [his curse] could take 
any effect contrary to the will of God ; but [this was done] 
as an exhibition of the providence of God which He exercised 
towards them on account of their forefathers. 


"And he mounted upon his ass."^ The ass was the type 
of the body of Christ, upon whom all men, resting from their 
labours, are borne as in a chariot. For the Saviour has taken 

^ Mcissuet seems to more than doubt the genuineness of this fragment 
and the next, and would ascribe them to the pen of Apollinaris, bishop 
of Hierapolis in Phrygia, a contemporary of Ireuseus. Harvey passes 
over these two fragments. 

2 Num. xxvii. 23. ^ Num. xxvii. 20. * Num. xxii. 12. 

^ The conjectural emendation of Harvey has been adopted here, but 
the text is very corrupt and uncertain. 

6 Num. xxii. 22, 23. 


up the burden of our sins.^ Now the angel who appeared 
to Balaam was the Word Himself ; and in His hand He held 
a sword, to indicate the power which He had from above. 


" God is not as a nian."^ He thus shows that all men are 
indeed guilty of falsehood, inasmuch as they change from 
one thing to another (fieTa^epofjuevoL) ; but such is not the 
case with God, for He always continues true, perfecting 
whatcA'cr He washes. 


" To inflict vengeance from the Lord on Midian."^ For 
this man (Balaam), when he speaks no longer in the Spirit 
of God, but contrary to God's law, by setting up a different 
law with regard to fornication,*^ is certainly not then to be 
counted as a prophet, but as a soothsayer. For he who did 
not keep to the commandment of God, received the just 
recompense of his own evil devices. 



Know ^ thou that every man is either empty or full. For 
if he has not the Holy Spirit, he has no knowledge of the 
Creator ; he has not received Jesus Christ the Life ; he 
knows not the Father who is in heaven ; if he does not live 
after the dictates of reason, after the heavenly law, he is not a 
sober-minded person, nor does he act uprightly : such an one 
is empty. If, on tlie other hand, he receives God, who says, 
'• I will dwell with them, and walk in them, and I will be 
their God,"^ such an one is not empty, but full. 

^ From one of the MSS. Stiereu would insert h tm /B/« aufiari, in Hi;"; 
o-wn body ; see 1 Pet. ii. 24. 

2 Num. xxiii. 19. ^ Num. xxxi. 3. 

4 Num. xxxi. IG. ^ Num. xxxi. 8. 

'^ It is not certain from what work of Ireuseus this extract is derived; 
Harvey thinks it to be from his work Trspi 'i-:7ia7r,fc-/};, «•£• concerning 

'^ Lev. xxvi. 12. 



The little boy, therefore, who guided Samson by the 
hand,^ pre-typified John the Baptist, who showed to the 
people the faith in Christ. And the house in which they 
were assembled signifies the world, in which dwell the vari- 
ous heathen and unbelieving nations, offering saci'ifice to 
their idols. Moreover, the two pillars are the two covenants. 
The fact, then, of Samson leaning himself upon the pillars, 
[indicates] this, that the people, when instructed, recognised 
the mystery of Christ. 


" And the man of God said. Where did it fall ? And he 
showed him the place. And he cut down a tree, and cast it 
in there, and the iron floated."' This was a sign that souls 
should be borne aloft (^6vay(o'yt]<i '\\rv')(Siv) through the instru- 
mentality of wood, upon which He suffered who can lead 
those souls aloft that follow His ascension. This event was 
also an indication of the fact, that when the holy soul of 
Christ descended [to Hades], many souls ascended and were 
seen in their bodies.'^ For just as the wood, which is the 
lighter body, was submerged in the water ; but the iron, the 
heavier one, floated : so, when the Word of God became 
one with flesh, by a physical and hypostatic union, the heavy 
and terrestrial [part], having been rendered immortal, was 
borne up into heaven, by the divine nature, after the re- 


The* Gospel according to Matthew was written to the 
Jews. For they laid particular stress upon the fact that 
Christ [should be] of the seed of David. Matthew also, who 
had a still greater desire [to establish this point], took par- 

'^ Judg. xvi. 2G. - 2 Kings vi. 6. Comp. book v. chap. xvii. 4. 

^ Matt, xxvii. 62. 

■* Edited by P. Possin, in a Catena Patrum on St. Matthew. See 
book iii. chap. xi. 8. 


ticular pains to afford them convincing proof that Christ is 
of the seed of David ; and therefore he commences with [an 
account of] His genealogy. 

"The axe unto the root,""^ he says, urging us to the know- 
led o-e of the truth, and purifying us by means of fear, as 
well as preparing [us] to bring forth fralt in due season. 


Observe^ that, by means of the grain of mustard seed in 
the parable, the heavenly doctrine is denoted which is sown 
like seed in the world, as in a field, [seed] which has an 
inherent force, fiery and powerful. For the Judge of the 
whole world is thus proclaimed, who, having been hidden in 
the heart of the earth in a tomb for three days, and having 
become a great tree, has stretched forth His branches to 
the ends of the earth. Sprouting out from Him, the twelve 
apostles, having become fair and fruitful boughs, were made 
a shelter for the nations as for the fowls of heaven, under 
which boughs, all having taken refuge, as birds flocking to 
a nest, have been made partakers of that wholesome and 
celestial food which is derived from them. 


Josephus says, that when Moses had been brought up 
in the royal palaces, he was chosen as general against the 
Ethiopians ; and having proved victorious, obtained in mar- 
riao'e the daughter of that king, since indeed, out of her 
affection for him, she delivered the city up to him.^ 

1 From tlie same Catena. Compare book v. chap. xvii. 4. 

2 ^latt. iii. 10. 

3 First edited iu Latin by Corderius, afterwards in Greek by Grabc, 
and also by Dr Cramer in his Catena on St. Luke. 

4 Massuet's Fragment xxxii. is here passed over ; it is found in book 
iii. chap, xviii. 7. 

s See Josephus' Antiquities, book ii. chap, x., where we read thfih 
this kind's daughter was called Tharbis. liinnediatcly upon the sur- 


Why was it, that when these two (Aaron and Miriam) 
had both acted with despite towards him (Moses), the latter 
alone was adjudged punishment ?^ First, because the woman 
was the more culpable, since both nature and the law place the 
woman in a subordinate condition to the man. Or perhaps 
it was that Aaron was to a certain degree excusable, in con- 
sideration of his being the elder [brother], and adorned with 
the dignity of high priest. Then again, inasmuch as the 
leper was accounted by the law unclean, while at the same 
time the origin and foundation of the priesthood lay in 
Aaron, [the Lord] did hot award a similar punishment to 
him, lest this stigma should attach itself to the entire [sacer- 
dotal] race ; but by means of his sister's [example] He awoke 
his fears, and taught him the same lesson. For Miriam's 
punishment affected him to such an extent, that no sooner 
did she experience it, than he entreated [Moses], who had 
been injured, that he would by his intercession do away 
with the affliction. And he did not neglect to do so, but at 
once poured forth his supplication. Upon this the Lord, 
who loves mankind, made him understand how He had not 
chastened her as a judge, but as a father ; for He said, " If 
her father had spit in her face, should she not be ashamed ? 
Let her be shut out from the camp seven days, and after that 
let her come in again." ^ 


Inasmuch" as certain men, impelled by what considerations 
I know not, remove from God the half of His creative power, 

render of this city (Saba, afterwards called Meroe) Moses married lier, 
nnd returned to Egypt. Wliiston, in the notes to his translation of 
Josephus, says, " Nor, perhaps, did St. Stephen refer to anything else 
when he said of Moses, before he was sent by God to the Israelites, 
that he w^as not only learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, but 
was also mighty in words and in deeds" (Acts vii. 22). 

^ Num. xii. 1, etc. - Num. xii. 14. 

^ Harvey considers this fragment to be a part of the work of Irensens 
referred to by Photius imder the title Dc Universo, or de Suhslantid 
Mundi. It is to be found in Codex 8011 of the Bodleian Liljrary, 


\)j asserting that He is merely the cause of quality resident 
in matter, and by maintaining that matter itself is uncreated, 
come now let us put the question, What is at any time . . . 
is immutable. Matter, then, is immutable. But if matter be 
immutable, and the immutable suffers no change in regard 
to quality, it does not form the substance of the world. 
For which reason it seems to them superfluous, that God 
has annexed qualities to matter, since indeed matter admits 
of no possible alteration, it being in itself an uncreated thing. 
But further, if matter be uncreated, it has been made alto- 
gether according to a certain quality, and this immutable, so 
that it cannot be receptive of more qualities, nor can it be 
the thing of which the world is made. But if the M'orld be 
not made from it, [this theory] entirely excludes God from 
exercising power on the creation [of the world]. 


"And^ dipped himself," says [the Scripture], "seven times 
in Jordan."^ It was not for nothing that Naaman of old, 
when suffering from leprosy, was purified upon his being 
baptized, but [it served] as an indication to us. For as we 
are lepers in sin, we are made clean, by means of the sacred 
water and the invocation of the Lord, from our old trans- 
gressions ; being spiritually regenerated as new-born babes, 
even as the Lord has declared : " Except a man be born 
again through water and the Spirit, he shall not enter into 
the kingdom of heaven," * 


If the corpse of Elisha raised a dead man,^ how much 
more shall God, when He has quickened men's dead bodies, 
bring them up for judgment ? 

^ This and the next fragment first appeared in the Benedictine edition 
reprinted at Venice, 1734. They were taken from a lis. Catena on the 
books of Kings in the Coislin Collection, 

2 2 Kine-s v. 14. " John iii. 5. * 2 Kings xiii. 21. 



Ti'Lie^ knowledge, then, consists in the understanding of 
Christ, which Paul terms the wisdom of God hidden in a 
mystery, which " the natural man receivetli not," ^ the 
doctrine of the cross ; of which if any man " taste," "" he 
will not accede to the disputations and quibbles of proud and 
puffed-up men,* who go into matters of which they have no 
perception.'^ For the truth is unsophisticated (dcr'^ij/j.aTCcrros:) ; 
and " the word is nigh thee, in thy mouth and in thy heart,'* ^ 
as the same apostle declares, being easy of comprehension 
to those who are obedient. For it renders us like to Christ, 
if we experience "the power of His resurrection and the 
fellowship of His sufferings." ^ For this is the affinity^ of 
the apostolical teaching and the most holy " faith delivered 
unto us," ^ which the unlearned receive, and those of slender 
knowledge have taught, not " giving heed to endless genea- 
logies," ^^ but studying rather [to observe] a straightforward 
course of life ; lest, having been deprived of the Divine 
Spirit, they fail to attain to the kingdom of heaven. For 
truly the first thing is to deny one's self and to follow Christ ; 
and those who do this are borne onward to perfection, having 
fulfilled all their Teacher's will, becoming sons of God by 
spiritual regeneration, and heirs of the kingdom of heaven ; 
those who seek which first shall not be forsaken. 

^ Tliis extract and the next tbree were discovered in the year 1715 by 
Pfaff, a learned Lutheran, in the Royal Library at Turin. The Mss. 
from which they were taken were neither catalogued nor classified, and 
have now disappeared from the collection. It is impossible to say with 
any degree of probability from what treatises of our author these four 
fragments have been culled. For a full account of their history, see 
Stieren's edition of Irenteus, vol. ii. p. 381, 

2 1 Cor. ii. 14. » 1 Pet. ii. 3. 

4 1 Tim. vi, 4, 5. « Col. ii. 18. 

G Rom. X. 8 ; Deut. xxx. 14. ^ Phil. in. 10. 

^ Harvey's conjectural emendation, sTn-prMK'/j for sTri'hoy^,, has been 
adopted here. 

9 Jude 3. . 10 1 Tim. i. 4. 



Those wlio have become acqiiahited with the secondary 
{i.e. under Christ) constitutions of the apostles,^ are aware 
that the Lord instituted a new oblation in the new covenant, 
according to [the declaration of] Malachi the prophet. Foi', 
" from the rising of the sun even to the setting my name has 
been glorified among the Gentiles, and in every place incense 
is offered to my name, and a pure sacrifice;"^ as John also 
declares in the Apocalypse : " The incense is the prayers of 
the saints."^ Then again, Paul exhorts iis "to present our 
bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is 
your reasonable service."'* And again, " Let us offer the 
sacrifice of praise, that is, the fruit of the lips."^ Now those 
oblations are not according to the law, the handwriting of 
which the Lord took away from the midst by cancelling it;^ 
but they are according to the Spirit, for we must worship 
God "in spirit and in truth." ^ And therefore the oblation 
of the Eucharist is not a carnal one, but a spiritual ; and in 
this respect it is pure. For \\Q make an oblation to God of 
the bread and the cup of blessing, giving Him thanks in that 
He has commanded the earth to bring forth these fruits for 
our nourishment. And then, when we have perfected the 
oblation, we invoke the Holy Spirit, that He may exhibit 
this sacrifice, both the bread the body of Christ, and the cup 
the blood of Christ, in order that the receivers of these anti- 
types^ may obtain remission of sins and life eternal. Those 

^ rciig hvripai; ruu dz-oaro'Kuu otaru^ini. Harvey thinks that these 
words imply, "the formal constitution, which the apostles, acting under 
the impulse of the Spirit, though still in a secondary capacity, gave to 
the church." 

2 Mai. i. 11. 

3 Rev. v. 8. The same view of the eucharistic oblation, etc., is found 
in book iv. chap. xvii. : as also in Justin Martyr ; see p. 139 of his works 
in this series. 

* Rom. xii. 1. « Hcb. xiii. 15. « Col. ii. 11. " John iv. 21. 

8 Harvey explains this word «>T/Tt)xiay as meaning an " exact counter- 
part." He refers to the word where it occurs in Co'ntra ILvrcfcs, lib. i. 
chap, xxiv., as confirmatory of his view. See vol. i. p. 24, line 20, where 


persons, then, who perform these oblations in remembrance of 
the Lord, do not fall in with Jewish views, but, performing 
the service after a spiritual manner, they shall be called sons 
of wisdom. 


The^ apostles ordained, that " we should not judge any 
one in respect to meat or drink, or in regard to a feast day, 
or the new moons, or the sabbaths."^ Whence then these 
contentions'? whence these schisms? We keep the feast, 
but in the leaven of malice and wickedness, cutting in pieces 
the church of God ; and we preserve what belongs to its 
exterior, that we may cast away these better things, faith and 
love. We have heard from the prophetic words that these 
feasts and fasts are displeasing to the Lordt'^ 


Christ,* who was called the Son of God before the ages, 
was manifested in the fulness of time, in order that He might 
cleanse us through His blood, who were under the power of 
sin, presenting us as pure sons to His Father, if we yield 
ourselves obediently to the chastisement of the Spirit. And 
in the end of time He shall come to do away with all evil, 
and to reconcile all things, in order that there may be an end 
of all impurities. 

this word is translated " emblem" by bim. Towards the end of bis long 
note be says : " durirvTrog bere conveys tbe idea of identity between tbe 
body of Cbrist and tbe consecrated bread. Tbe two are not co-existent 
as distinct substances, consiibstaiitially ; but tbe bread, tbrougb tbe energy 
of the word, is tbe Lord's body." 

1 Taken apparently from the Epistle to Blostns, de ScMsmate. Com- 
pare a similar passage, lib. iv. chap, xxxiii. 7. 

- Col. ii. 16. 3 Isa. i. 14. 

^ " From tbe same collection at Turin. The passage seems to be of 
cognate matter with the treatise De Resurrec. Pfaff referred it either 
to the oici7\i^eig Oix(popoi or to the STriOn^i; «.-Xd's-zo'hiy.dv x.rtpvyfiotrog.'''' — 

ir.EX. — VOL. ir. M 



"And^ he found the jaw-bone of an ass."' It is to be 
observed that, after [Samson had committed] fornication, 
the holy Scripture no longer speaks of the things happily 
accomplished by him in connection with the formula, " The 
Spirit of the Lord came upon him."^ For thus, according 
to the holy apostle, the sin of fornication is perpetrated 
against the bodv, as involving also sin against the temple of 

. XLI. 

This' indicates the persecution against the church set on 
foot by the nations who still continue in unbelief. But he 
(Samson) who suffered those things, trusted that there would 
be a retaliation against those waging this war. But retalia- 
tion through what means ? First of all, by his betaking 
himself to the Tiock*^ not cognizable to the senses ;^ secondly, 
by the finding of the jaw-bone of an ass. Now the type of 
the jaw^-bone is the body of Christ. 


Speaking always well of the worthy, but never ill of the 
unworthy, we also shall attain to the glory and kingdom of 


In^ these things there was signified by prophecy that the 

^ This and the four following fragments are taken from Mss. in the 
Vatican Library at Rome. They are apparently quoted from the homi- 
letical expositions of the historical books already referred to. 

2 Judg. XV. 15. ^ Judg. xiv. G-19. * 1 Cor. iii. 16, 17. 

^ These words were evidently written during a season of persecution 
in Gaul; but what that persecution was, it is useless to conjecture. 

« Judg. XV. 11. 

"^ That is, when he fled to the rock Etara, he typified the true believer 
tiilving refuge in the spiritual Hock, Christ. 

^ Most probably from a homily upon the third and fourth chapters 
of Ezckicl. It is found repeated in Stieren's and Migue's edition as 
Fracrnunt xlviii. extracted from a Catena on the Book of Judges. 


people, having become transgressors, shall be bound by the 
chains of their own sins. But the breaking of the bonds of 
their own accord indicates that, upon repentance, they shall 
be again loosed from the shackles of sin. 


It^ is not an easy thing for a soul, under the influence of 
error, to be persuaded of the contrary opinion. 


" And" Balaam the son of Beor they slew with the sword." ^ 
For, speaking no longer by the Spirit of God, but setting up 
another la-w of fornication contrary to the law of God,^ this 
man shall no longer be reckoned as a prophet, but as a sooth- 
sayer. For, as he did not continue in the commandment of 
God, he received the just reward of his evil devices. 


" The^ god of the world ; '"^ that is, Satan, who was desig- 
nated God to those who believe not. 


The ^ birth of John [the Baptist] brought the dumbness of 
Zacharias to an end. For he did not burden his father, when 

^ TVe give this brief fragment as it appears in the editions of Stieren, 
Migne, and Harvey, who speculate as to its origin. They seem to have 
overlooked the fact that it is the Greek original of the old Latin, non 
facile est ah errore appreliensam resipiscere animam, — a sentence found 
towards the end of book iii. chap. ii. ; see vol. i. p. 260, lines 23, 24, of 
our translation. 

2 With the exception of the initial text, this fragment is almost iden- 
tical with No. XXV. 

3 Num. xxxi. 8. * Rev. ii. 14. 

' From the Catena on St. Paul's Epistles to the Corinthians, edited 
by Dr. Cramer, and reprinted by Stieren. 

6 2 Cor. iv. 4. 

' Extracted from a MS. of Greek theology in the Palatine Library at 
Vienna. The succeeding fragment in the editions of Harvey, Migne, and 
Stieren, is omitted, as it is merely a transcript of lib. iii. ch. x. 4; see 
vol. 1. p. 285, lines 8-12. 


tlie voice issued forth from silence ; but as when not believed 
it rendered him tongue-tied, so did the voice sounding out 
clearly set his father free, to whom he had both been 
announced and born. Now the voice and the burning light ^ 
were a precursor of the Word and the Light. 


As^ therefore seventy tongues are indicated by number, 
and from^ dispersion the tongues are gathered into one by 
means of their interpretation ; so is that ark declared a type 
of the body of Christ, which is both pure and immaculate. 
For'* as that ark was gilded with pure gold both within and 
without, so also is the body of Christ pure and resplendent, 
being adorned within by the Word, and shielded on the 
outside by the Spirit, in order that from both [materials] the 
splendour of the natures might be exhibited together. 


Now^ therefore, by means of this which has been already 
brought forth a long time since, the Word has assigned an 
interpretation. We are convinced that there exist [so to 
speak] two men in each one of us. The one is confessedly 
a hidden thing, while the other stands apparent ; one is 
corporeal, the other spiritual ; although the generation of 
both may be compared to that of twins. For both are re- 
vealed to the world as but one, for the soul was not anterior 
to the body in its essence ; nor, in regard to its formation, 
did the body precede the soul : but both these were produced 
at one time ; and their nourishment consists in purity and 

^ John V. 35. 

2 This fragment commences a series derived from the Nitrian Col- 
lection of Syriac 5iss. in the British Museum. 

3 The Syriac text is here corrupt and obscure. 

^ See No. viii., which is the same as the remainder of this fragment. 

^ The Syriac MS. introduces this quotation as follows : " From the 
holy Ironseus Bp. of Lyous, from the first section of his interpretation 
of the Song of Songs." 



For^ then there shall in truth be a common joy consummated 
to all those who believe unto life, and in each individual 
shall be confirmed the mystery of the Resurrection, and the 
hope of incorruption, and the commencement of the eternal 
kingdom, when God shall have destroyed death and the 
devil. For that human nature and flesh which has risen 
again from the dead shall die no more ; but after it had been 
changed to incorruption, and made like to spirit, when the 
heaven was opened, [our Lord] full of glory offered it (the 
flesh) to the Father. 


Now," however, inasmuch as the books of these men may 
possibly have escaped your observation, but have come under 
our notice, I call your attention to them, that for the sake of 
your reputation you may expel these writings from among 
you, as bringing disgrace upon you, since their author 
boasts himself as being one of your company. For they 
constitute a stumbling-block to many, who simply and un- 
reservedly receive, as coming from a presbyter, the blasphemy 
which they utter against God. Just [consider] the writer 
of these things, how by means of them he does not injure 
assistants [in divine service] only, who happen to be pre- 
pared in mind for blasphemies against God, but also damages 
those among us, since by his books he imbues their minds 
with false doctrines concerning God. 

^ This extract is introduced as follows: "For Irenseiis Bishop of 
Lyons, who was a contemporary of the disciple of the apostle, Polycarp 
Bishop of Smyrna, and martyr, and for this reason is held in just esti- 
mation, wrote to an Alexandrian to the effect that it is right, with 
respect to the feast of the Eesurrection, that we should celebrate it upon 
the first day of the week." This shows us that the extract must have 
been taken from the work Against Schism addressed to Blastus. 

2 From the same MS. as the jjreceding fragment. It is thus introduced : 
" And Irenseus Bp. of Lyons, to Victor Bp. of Rome, concerning 
Flormus, a presbyter, avIio was a partisan of tlie error of Valentinus, 
and pubhshed an abominable book, thus wrote." 



Tlie^ sacred books acknowledge with regard to Christ, that 
as He is the Son of man, so is tlie same Being not a [mere] 
man ; and as He is flesh, so is He also spirit, and the Word 
of God, and God. And as He was born of Mary in the last 
times, so did He also proceed from God as the First-begotten 
of every creature ; and as He hungered, so did He satisfy 
[others] ; and as He thirsted, so did He of old cause the 
Jews to drink, for the "Rock was Christ"" Himself : thus 
does Jesus now give to His believing people power to drink 
spiritual w'atcrs, which spring up to life eternal.^ And as He 
was the son of David, so was He also the Lord of David. 
And as Pie was from Abraham, so did He also exist before 
Abraham.* And as He was the servant of God, so is He 
the Son of God, and Lord of the universe. And as He was 
spit upon ignominiously, so also did He breathe the Holy 
Spirit into His disciples.^ And as He was saddened, so also 
did He give joy to His people. And as He was capable of 
being handled and touched, so again did He, in a non-appre- 
hensible form, pass through the midst of those who sought 
to injure Him,^ and entered without impediment through 
closed doors.^ And as He slept, so did He also rule the sea, 
the winds, and the storms. And as He suffered, so also is 
He alive, and life-giving, and healing all our infirmity. And 
as He died, so is He also the Resurrection of the dead. He 
suffered shame on earth, wdiile He is higher than all glory 
and praise in heaven ; who, " though He was crucified 
through weakness, yet He liveth by divine power ;"^ who 
" descended into the lower parts of the earth," and wdio 
"ascended up above the heavens;'"' for whom a manger 
sufficed, yet who filled all things; who was dead, yet who 
liveth for ever and ever. Amen. 

^ This extract had already been printed by M. Pctra in his Spicile- 
fj'inm Solesmense, p. 6. 

- 1 Cor. X. 4. 3 John iv. 14. ■* John viii. 58. 

^ John XX. 22. <^ John viii. 59. ''John xx. 26. 

8 2 Cor. xiii. 4. » Eph. iv. 9, 10. 



With ^ regard to Christ, the law and the prophets and the 
evancrelists have proclaimed that He was born of a virgin, 
that He suffered upon a beam of wood, and that He appeared 
from the dead ; tliat He also ascended to the heavens, and 
was glorified by the Father, and is the Eternal King ; that 
He is the perfect Intelligence, the Word of God, who was 
beixotten before the li^ht ; that He was the Founder of the 
universe, along with it (light), and the Maker of man; that 
He is All in all : Patriarch among the patriarchs ; Law in 
the laws ; Chief Priest among priests ; Euler among kings ; 
tlie Prophet among prophets ; the Angel among angels ; the 
!Man among men ; Son in tlie Father ; God in God ; King 
to all eternity. For it is He who sailed [in the ark] along 
with Noah, and who guided Abraham ; who was bounel 
along with Isaac, and was a Wanderer with Jacob ; the 
Shepherd of those who are saved, and the Bridegroom of 
the church ; the Chief also of the cherubim, the Prince of 
the angelic powers; God of God; Son of the Father; Jesus 
Christ ; King for ever and ever. Amen. 


The ^ law and the prophets and evangelists have declared 
that Christ was born of a virgin, and suffered on the cross ; 
was raised also from the dead, and taken up to heaven; 
that He was glorified, and reigns for ever. He is Himself 
termed the Perfect Intellect, the Word of God. He is the 
First-begotten,^ after a transcendent manner, the Creator of 
man; All in all ; Patriarch among the patriarchs; Law in the 
law ; the Priest among priests ; among kings Prime Leader; 

^ This extract from the Syriac is a shorter form of the next fragment, 
•which seems to be interpolated in some places. The latter is from an 
Armenian MS. in the Mechitai'ist Library at Venice. 

^ This fragment is thus introduced in the Armenian copy : "From St. 
Ircnseus, bishop, follower of the apostles, on the Lord's resurrection." 

^ The Armenian text is confused here ; we have adopted the conjec- 
tural emendation of Quatremere. 


the Prophet among the prophets ; the Angel among angels ; 
the Man among men; Son in the Father; God in God; King 
to all eternity. He was sold with Joseph, and He guided 
Abraham ; Avas bound along with Isaac, and wandered with 
Jacob; with Moses He was Leader, and, respecting the 
people, Legislator. He preached in the prophets ; was in- 
carnate of a virgin ; born in Bethlehem ; received by John, 
and baptized in Jordan ; was tempted in the desert, and 
proved to be the Lord. He gathered the apostles together, 
and preached the kingdom of heaven ; gave light to the 
l:;lind, and raised the dead ; was seen in the temple, but was 
not held by the people as worthy of credit ; was arrested by 
the priests, conducted before Herod, and condemned in the 
presence of Pilate ; He manifested Himself in the body, was 
suspended upon a beam of wood, and raised from the dead ; 
shown to the apostles, and, having been carried up to heaven, 
sitteth on the right hand of the Father, and has been glorified 
by Him as the Kesurrection of the dead. Moreover, He is 
the Salvation of the lost, the Light to those dwelling in dark- 
ness, and Redemption to those who have been born ; the 
Shepherd of the saved, and the Bridegroom of the church ; 
the Charioteer of the cherubim, the Leader of the angelic 
host ; God of God ; Jesus Christ our Saviour. 


" Then ^ drew near unto Ilim the mother of Zebedee's 
children, with her sons, worshipping, and seeking a certain 
thing from Him." ^ These people are certainly not void of 
understanding, nor are the words set forth '.n that passage of 
no signification: being stated beforehand like a preface, they 
have some agreement with those points formerly expounded. 

" Then drew near." Sometimes virtue excites our ad- 

1 From an Armenian MS. in the Library of the Mechitarist Convent at 
Vienna, edited by M. Pitra, who considers this fragment as of very 
doubtful authority. It commences with this heading : '' From the 
second series of Homilies of Saint Ircuseus, follower of the Apostles ; 
a Homily upon the Sods of Zebedee." 

2 Matt. XX. 20. 


miration, not merely on account of the display wliicli is 
given of it, but also of the occasion when it was manifested. 
I may refer, for example, to the prematui'e fruit of the 
grape, or of the fig, or to any fruit whatsoever, from which, 
during its process [of growth], no man expects maturity or 
full development ; yet, although any one may perceive that 
it is still somewhat imperfect, he does not for that reason 
despise as useless the immature grape when plucked, but he 
gathers it with pleasure as appearing early in the season ; nor 
does he consider whether the grape is possessed of perfect 
sweetness ; nay, he at once experiences satisfaction from the 
thought that this one has appeared before the rest. Just in 
the same way does God also, when He perceives the faithful 
possessing wisdom though still imperfect, and but a small de- 
gree of faith, overlook their defect in this respect, and there- 
fore does not reject them ; nay, but on the contrary, He kindly 
welcomes and accepts them as premature fruits, and honours 
the mind, whatsoever it may be, which is stamped with 
virtue, although not yet perfect. He makes allowance for it, 
as being among the harbingers of the vintage,^ and esteems 
it highly, inasmuch as, being of a readier disposition than 
the rest, it has forestalled, as it were, the blessing to itself. 

Abraham therefore, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers, are to 
be esteemed before all, since they did indeed afford us such 
early examples of virtue. How many martyrs can be com- 
pared to Daniel? How many martyrs, I ask, can rival the 
three youths in Babylon, although the memory of the former 
has not been brought before us so conspicuously as that of the 
latter ? These were truly first-fruits, and indications of the 
[succeeding] fructification. Hence God has directed their life 
to be recorded, as a model for those who should come after. 

And that their virtue was thus accepted by God, as the 
first-fruits of the produce, hear what He has Himself de- 
clared : " As a grape," He says, '•' I have found Israel in 
the wilderness, and as first-ripe figs your fathers."' Call 

^ That is, the wine which flows from the grapes before they are trod- 
den out. 

2 Hos. ix. 10. 


not therefore tlie faith of Abraham merely blessed because he 
believed. Do you wish to look upou Abraham with admira- 
tion ? Theu behold how that one man alone professed piety 
when in the world six hundred had been contaminated with 
error. Dost thou wish Daniel to carry thee away to amaze- 
ment! Behold that [city] Babylon, haughty in the flower 
and pride of impiousness, and its inhabitants completely 
given over to sin of every description. But he, emerging 
from the depth, spat out the brine of sins, and rejoiced to 
plunge into the sweet waters of piety. And now, in like 
manner, with regard to that mother of Zebedee's children, 
do not admire m.erely what she said, but also the time at 
which she uttered these words. For when was it that she 
drew near to the Bedeemer? Not after the resurrection, 
nor after the preaching of His name, nor after the establish- 
ment of His kingdom ; but it was when the Lord said, 
" Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall 
be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes ; and they 
shall kill Him, and on the third day He shall rise again." ^ 

These things the Saviour told in reference to His sufferincrs 
and cross; to these persons He predicted His passion. Nor 
did He conceal the fact that it should be of a most ignomi- 
^lious kind, at the hands of the chief priests. This woman, 
however, had attached another meaning to the dispensation 
of His sufferings. The Saviour was foretelling death ; and 
she asked for the glory of immortality. The Lord was 
asserting that He must stand arraigned before impious 
judges; but she, taking no note of that judgment, requested 
as of the judge : " Grant," slie said, " that these my two sons 
may sit, one on the right hand, and the other on tlie left, in 
Thy glory." In the one case the passion is referred to, in the 
other the kingdom is understood. The Saviour was speaking 
of the cross, while she had in view the glory which admits no 
suffering. This w^oman, therefore, as I have already said, is 
worthy of our admiration, not merely for what she sought, 
but also for the occasion of her making the request. 

She did indeed suffer, not merely as a pious person, but 
1 Matt. XX. 18. 


also as a woman. For, having been instructed by His words, 
she considered and believed that it would come to pass, that 
the kingdom of Christ should flourish in glory, and walk in 
its vastness throughout the world, and be increased by the 
preaching of piety. She understood, as was [in fact] tlie 
case, that He who appeared in a lowly guise had delivered 
and received every promise. I will inquire upon another 
occasion, when I come to treat upon this humility, whether 
the Lord rejected her petition concerning His kingdom. 
But she thought that the same confidence would not be pos- 
sessed by her, when, at the appearance of the angels, Yla 
should be ministered to by the angels, and receive service 
from the entire heaveidy host. Taking the Saviour, there- 
fore, apart in a retired place, she earnestly desired of Him 
those things which transcend every human nature. 





Gen, i. 1, 

i. 123 

Gen. xxiii. 11, 

i. 142 

i. 2, 

i. 74 

xxiv. 22, 25, 

i. 76 

i. 3, 

ii. 5 

XXV. 23, 

i. 452 

i. 25, 

ii. 98 

XXV. 26, 

i. 452 

i. 26, i. 89, 107, 36 

3, 377, 439 

xxvii. 27, 28, 29, 

ii. 145 

i. 28, 

i. 406 

xxxi. 2, 

i. 67 

ii. 2, 

ii. 132 

xxxi. 11, 

i. 404 

ii. 5, 

i. 358 

xxxi. 41, 

ii. 145 

ii. 7, . i. 253 

439, ii. 96 

xxxiii. 3, 

ii. 145 

ii. 8, 

ii. 66 

XXXV. 22, 

i. 77 

ii. 16, 

ii. 109 


i. 459 

ii. 16, 17, . 

ii. 117 


i. 77 

ii. 25, 

i. 361 

xlix. 10-12, . 

i. 404 

iii. 3, 4, 

ii. 117 

xlix. 18, 

i. 284 

iii. 9, 

ii. 98 

xlix. 28, 

i. 77 

iii. 13, 

i. 366 

Ex. i. 13, 14, 

i. 477 

iii. 14, 

i. 364 

iii. 4, 

i. 404 

iii. 15, 

ii. 50, 110 

iii. 6, 

i. 387 

iii. 16, 

i. 364 

iii. 7, 8, 

i. 396, 411 

iii. 19, 

ii. 98, 166 

iii. 8, 

i. 270 

iv. 7, . i. 3£ 

5, 432, 433 

iii. 14, 

i. 270 

iv. 10, 

ii. 92 

iii. 19, 

i. 475 

vi. 15, 

i. 77 

vii, 1, 

i. 272 

vi. 18, 

i. 76 

vii. 9, 

i. 357 

ix. 5, 6, 

ii. 92 

viii. 19, 

i. 357 

ix. 27, 

i. 268 

ix. 35, 

i. 474 

xii. 3, 

i. 451 

xi. 2, 

i. 476 

xiii. 13, 14, 15, 17, 

ii. 142 

xiii. 2, 

i. 14 

XV. 5, 

i. 278, 395 

xvii. 11, 

ii. 11 

XV. 13, 

ii. 142 

xvii. 16, 

i. 328 

XV. 19, 

i. 76 

XX. 5, 

i. 103 

xvii. 9-11, . 

i. 422 

XX. 12, 

i. 403 

xvii. 12, 

i. 76 

xxi. 13, 

i. 422 

xvii. 17, 

i. 394 

xxiv. 4, 

i. 77 

xviii. 1, 

i. 396 

XXV. 10, 

i. 207 

xviii. 30, 

i. 404 

XXV. 17, 

i. 207 

xix. 22, 

i. 388 

XXV. 23, 

i. 207 

xix. 24, 

i. 269 

XXV. 31, 

i. 207 

xix. 31, 32, . 

ii. 2 

XXV. 32, 

i. 207 

xix. 33, 

ii. 2 

XXV. 40, . i. 

418, ii. 154 

xix. 35, 

ii. 2 

xxvi. 1, . i. 

75, 76, 208 

xxii. 6, 

i. 388 

xx\a. 2, 

i. 208 





vnr.. PACE 

Ex. xxvi. 7, 

i. 208 

Deut. xviii. 1, 

i. 399 

xxvi. 8, 

i. 77 

xxi. 23, 

i. 339 

xxvi. 16, 

i. 208 

xxviii. QQ, . i. 

405, ii. 106 

xxvi. 26, 

i. 208 

XXX. 14, 

ii. 175 

xxvi. 37, 

i. 210 

XXX. 19, 20, . 

i. 424 

xxvii. 1, 

i. 210 

xxxii. 1, 

i. 379 

xxviii. 1, 

i. 210 

xxxii. 4, 

i. 344 

xxviii. 2, 

i. 77 

xxxii. 6, 

i. 405, ii. 2 

xxviii. 5, 

i. 210 

xxrdi. 8, LXX., 

i. 307 

xxviii. 17, 

i. 76 

xxxii. 9, 

i. 307 

XXX. 23, 

i. 208 

xxxiii. 9, 

i. 398 

XXX. 34, 

i. 208 

Josb. iii. 12, 

i. 77 

xxxii. 6, 

i. 469 

iv. 3, 

i. 77 

xxxiii. 2, 3, . 

i. 420 

V. 12, 

ii. 168 

xxxiii. 7, 

i. 463 

X. 17, 

i. 210 

xxxiii. 20, 

i. 78, 442 

Judg. vi. 27, 

ii. 168 

xxxiii. 20-22, 

i. 446 

vi. 37, 

i. 335 

xxxiv. 6, 7, . 

i. 445 

xiv. 6-19, 

ii. 178 

XXX vi. S, 

i. 76 

XV. 11, 

ii. 178 

xxxvi. 21, 

i. 76 

XV. 15, 

ii. 178 

Lev. X. 1, 2, 

i. 462 

xvi. 26, 

ii. 171 

xi. 2, 

ii. 74 

1 Sam. ix. 22, 

i. 76 

xxvi, 12, 

ii. 170 

xi. 27, 

i. 465 

Num. xii. 1, 

ii. 173 

xii. 1, 

i. 466 

xii. 7, 

i. 272 

xii. 3, 

i. 464 

xii. 8, 

i. 406 

XV. 22, 

i. 426 

xii. 14, 

ii. 173 

xvi. 10, 

i. 76 

xiv. 30, 

i. 474 


i. 465 

XV. 32, 

i. 398 

XX. 5, 

i. 76 

xvi. 15, 

i. 464 

2 Sam. V. 7, 

i. 384 

xvi. 33, 

i. 463 

1 Ivings iv. 34, 

i. 467 

xviii. 20, 

i. 399 

viii. 27, 

i. 467 

xxi. 8, 

i. 382 

X. 1, 

i. 467 

xxii. 12, 22, 23, 

ii. 169 

xi. 1, 

i. 467 

xxiii. 19, 

ii. 170 

xi. 31, 

i. 76 

xxiv. 17, 

i. 279 

xiv. 10, 

i. 463 

xxiv. 23, 

ii. 167 

xviii. 21, 

i. 271 

xxvii. 18, 

ii. 168 

xviii. 36, 

i. 271 

xxvii. 20, 23, 

ii. 169 

xix. 11, 12, . 

i. 446 

xxxi. 3, 

ii. 170 

2 Kings v. 14, 

ii. 17-1 

xxxi. 8, 

ii. 170 

vi. 6, 

ii. 102, 174 

xxxi. 16, 

ii. 170 

xiii. 21, 

ii. 174 

xxxviii. S, 

ii. 179 

Ps. ii. 8, 

i. 453 

Deut. iv. 14, 

i. 424 

iii. 5, 

ii. 16 

iv. 19, 

i. 272 

iii. 6, 

ii. 3 

iv. 24, 

i. 445 

viii. ], 

i. 63 

V. 2, 

i. 423 

viii. 3, 

i. 407 

V. 8, 

i. 272 

ix. 12, 

i. 341 

v. 22, 

i. 419, 424 

xiv. 3, 

i. 78 

V. 24, 

i. 443 

xviii. 45, 

ii. T)! 

vi. 4, 6, 13, . 

i. 379 

xix. 1, 

i. 63 

vi. 16, 

ii. 112, 115 

xix. 6, 

ii. 16 

viii. 3, . i. 

424, ii. 112 

xxi. 4, 

i. 2.V2 

X. 12, 

i. 424 

xxii. 7, 

ii. 15 

X. 16, 

i. 423 

xxii. 15, . i 

445, ii. 15 

xiv. 3, etc., . 

ii. 74 

xxii. 18, 

ii. 15 

xvi. 6, 

i. 432 

xxii. 31, LXX., 

ii. 71 

xvi. 56, 

i. 404 

xxiii. 4, 

ii. 140 





Ps. xxiv. 7, 

ii. 16 

Ps. cxlviii. 5, 6, . 

i. 252 

xxxii. 1, 2, . 

ii. 102 

cxlix. 5, 

ii. 51 

xxxii. 11, 

i. 324 

Prov. i. 7, 

i. 366 

xxxiii. 6, 

i. 85, 276 

i. 20, 21, 

ii. 109 

xxxiii. 9, 

i. 123 

iii. 19, 20, 

ii. 441 

xxxiv. 1, 

ii. 33 

V. 22, 

i. 280 

xxxiv. 13, 14, i 

429, ii. 28 

viii. 15, 

ii. 119 

XXXV. 9, 

i. 407 

viii. 22-25, . 

i. 441 

xxxviii. 11, . 

ii. 15 

viii. 27-31, . 

i. 441 

xl. C, 

i. 426 

ix. 10, 

i. 366 

xlv. 2, 3, 4, 7, 

ii. 13 

xix. 17, 

i. 436 

xlv. 6, 

i. 269 

xxi. 1, 

ii. 119 

xlv. 11, 

ii. 47 

Isa. i. 2, 

i. 379, ii. 51 

xlv. 17, 

i. 362, 387 

i. 3, 

i. 7S 

xlix. 12, 

i. 385 

i. 8, 

i. 385 

xlix. 20, 

ii. 74 

i. S, 9, 

ii. 16 

xlix. 21, 

ii. 52 

i. 10, 16, 

ii. 52 

1. 1, 3, 

i. 269 

i. 11, 

i. 427 

1. 3, 4, 

ii. 106 

i. 14, 

ii. 177 

1. 9, 

i. 427 

i. 17-19, 

ii. 28 

1. 14, 15, 

i. 427 

i. 22, 

i. 409 

li. 12, 

i. 334 

i. 23, 

i. 381 

li. 17, 

i. 426 

ii. 17, 

ii. 16 

Iviii. 3, 

i. 282 

ii. 34, 

ii. 21 

Iviii. 3, 4, 

ii. 52 

iv. 4, 

ii. 454 

Ixviii. 18, 

i. 192 

v. 6, 

i. 335 

Ixix. 21, . i 

346, ii. 15 

V. 12, 

i. 197, 380 

bcix. 26, 

i. 297 

vi. 1, 

ii. 13 

Ixix. 27, 

i. 360 

vi. 5, 

i. 445 

Ixxii. 1, 

i. 269 

vi. 10, 

i. 474 

Ixxvi. 1, . i 

279, ii. 14 

vi. 11, 

ii. 149, 151 

Ixxviii. 5, 

i. 326 

vi. 12, 

ii. 152 

Ixxx. 1, 

i. 293 

vii. 4, 

i. 349 

Ixxxi. 9, 

i. 270 

vii. 10-17, 

i. 355 

Ixxxii. 6, 

i. 270 

vii. 11, 

i. 366 

Ixxxii. G, 7, . i 

344, ii. 45 

vii. 13, 

i. 346, 355 

Ixxxiv. 16, . 

i. 471 

vii. 14, 

. i. S4G, 351, ii. 14 

Ixxxv. 11, 

i. 266 

viii. 3, 

1. 327, ii. 14 

Ixxxvi. 23, . 

ii. 140 

viii. 4, 

i. .327 

Ixxxix. 11, . 

ii. 112 

viii. 14. 

i. 338 

xci. ].3, 

i. 367 

ix. 1, 

ii. 168 

xcv. 4, 

i. 285 

ix. 6, 

, i. 326, 346, ii. 14 

xcv. 8, 

i. 297 

xi. 1, 

i. 280 

xcvi. 1, 

i. 400 

xi. 2, 

i. 334, 336 

xcvi. 2, 

ii. 35 

xi. 12, 

ii. 6 

xcvi. 5, 

i. 270 

xii. 2, 

i. 284 

xcviii. 2, 

i. 284 

xii. 4, 

i. 386, ii. 7 

xcix. 1, 

ii. 16 

xiii. 9, 

ii. 151 

cii. 25-27, . 

i. 383 

XXV. 3, 

i. 350 

civ. 2, 4, 

i. 231 

XXV. 8, 

ii. S3 

cix. 8, 

i. 191, 297 

XXV. 9, 

i. 401 

ex. 1, i. 22S, 2( 

9, 287, 327 

xxvi. 10, 

ii. 151 

cxviii. 22, 

ii. 6 

xxvi. 19, 

ii. 14, 95, 148 

cxxiv. 8, 

i. 285 

xxvii. 6, 

i. 384 

cxxx. 7, 

ii. 163 

xxviii. 16, 

i. 357 

cxxx. 11, 

i. 279 

xxix. 13, 

i. 411 

cxxxiv. 8, 

i. 379 

XXX. 1, 

. i. 433 

cxlviii. 5, 

i. 123 

XXX. 25, 

ii. 149 




Vol.. rAGR 

Isa. xxxi. 9, 

ii. 150 

Jer. vi. 17, 18, . 

ii. 28 

xxxii. 1, 

ii. 150 

vi. 20, 

i. 428 

xxxiii. 20, 

i. 350 

vii. 2, 3, . 

i. 428 

XXXV. 3, 

ii. 14 

vii. 3, 

ii. 28 

xxxv. 5, 6. 

ii. 14 

vii. 21, 

i. 428 

xl. 6, 

ii. 147 

vii. 25, 

ii. 32 

xl. 12, 

i. 437 

vii. 29, 30, . 

ii. 28 

xl. 12, 22, . 

i. 231 

viii. 16, 

ii. 137 

xl. 15, 

ii. 134 

ix. 2, 

i. 460 

xlii. 3, 

i. 416 

ix. 24, 

i. 428 

xlii. 5, 

i. 379, ii. 83 

X. 11, 

i. 271 

xlii. 10, 

i. 400 

xi. 15, 

i. 429 

xliii. 5, 

i. 417 

XV. 9, 

ii. 16 

xliii. 10, 

i. 270, 386 

xvii. 9, . i. 239 

345, ii. 14 

xliii. 19, 27, . 

ii. 17 

xxii. 17, 

i. 413 

xliii. 23, 24, . 

i. 429 

xxii. 24, 25, . 

i. 357 

xliv. 9, 

i. 270 

xxii. 28, etc., 

i. 357 

xlv. 5, G, 

. i. 23, 103 

xxiii. 7, 6, 

ii. 148 

xlv. 7, 

ii. 49 

xxiii. 20, 

i. 461 

xlvi. 2, 

i. 429 

xxiii. 23, 

i. 438 

xlvi. 9, 

, i. 23, 143 

xxxi. 10, 

ii. 150 

xlviii. 32, 

i. 71 

xxxi. 11, 

i. 276 

xlix. 16, 

ii. 153 

xxxi. 26, 

ii. 3 

1. 6, 

ii. 15 

xxxi. 31, 

i. 400 

Ii. 6, 

i. 383 

xxxi. 31, 32, 

ii. 17 

liii. 2, 

i. 346 

xxxiii. 29, 

ii. 103 

liii. 3, 

. ii. 6, 15 

XXXV. 15, 

ii. 32 

liii. 4, 

ii. 14 

xxxvi. 30, 31, 

i. 358 

liii. 7, 

. ii. 6, 15 

Lam. iv. 20, 

i. 284 

liii. 7, 8, 

i. 305 

Ezek. i. I, 

i. 407 

liii. 8, 

i. 224, 345 

ii. 1, 

i. 407 

liv. 1, 

i. 45 

XX. 12, 

i. 422 

liv. 11-14, 

ii. 151 

XX. 24, 

i. 419 

Ivdi. 1, 

ii. 21 

xxvii. 1, 

ii. 95 

Ivii. 16, 

ii. 83 

xxviii. 25, 26, 

ii. 148 

Iviii. S, 

i. 155 

xxx\d. 26, 

ii. 17 

Iviii. 6, 

i. 429 

xxxvii. 12, . 

. ii. 96, 148 

Iviii. 14, 

ii. 149 

Dan. ii. 33, 34, . 

ii. 126 

Ix. 17, 

i. 464 

ii. 34, 

i. 356 

Ixi. 1, i. 

280, 334, 336, 456 

ii. 41, 42, 

ii. 126 

Ixi. 2, 

i. 196 

ii. 42, 43, 

ii. 126 

Ixiii. 9, 

i. 350 

ii. 44, 45, 

ii. 127 

Ixiv. 4, 

ii. 157 

iii. 19, 

ii. 25, 67 

Ixv. 1, 

i. 209, 279 

iii. 26, 

i. 448 

Ixv. 2, 

ii. 15 

vii. 4, 

i. 448 

Ixv. 17, 18, 

ii. 154 

vii. 8, 23, . 

ii. 123 

Ixv. 18, 

ii. 151 

Adi. 10, 

i. 138 

Lxv. 22, 

ii. 96 

vii. 13, . i. 3 

45, ii. 7, 13 

Ixvi. 1, 

i. 381 

vii. 13, 14, . 

i. 448 

Ixvi. 3, 

i. 434 

viii. 12, 23, . 

ii. 124 

Ixvi. 13, 

ii. 95 

ix. 27, 

ii. 125 

Ixvi. 22, 

ii. 156 

xii. 3, 

i. 462 

Jer. i. 5, 

ii. 97 

xii. 4, 7, 

i. 461 

ii. 13, 


xii. 9, 10, . 

i. 79 

ii. 19, 

ii. 41 

Hos. i. 2, 3, 

i. 449 

iv. 22, 

i. 38 1 

i. 6-9, 

i. 450 

\. 3, 

ii. 74 

ii. 23, 

i. 45 

V. 8, 

ii. 52 

iv. 1, 

i. 78 





Hos. vi. 6, 

i. 430 

Matt. V. 14, 

i. 395 

vii. 27, 

ii. 149 

V. 16, 

i. 142, ii. 37 

ix. 10, 

ii. 185 

V. 17, 18, . 

ii. 19 

xii. 10, 

i. 310, 443 

V. 18, 

i. 13 

xii. 13, 

ii. 149 

V. 20, 

i. 413 

Joel ii. 28, 

i. 297 

V. 21, 

i. 243, 413 

iii. 16, 

i. 351, ii. 14 

V. 22, 

i. 425, ii. 27 

Amos i. 2, 

i. 351 

V. 23, 24, . 

i. 431 

V. 25, 26, 

i. 420 

V. 26, 27, . 

i. 95 

viii. 9, 11, . 

ii. 15 

V. 27, 28, . 

i. 413 

ix. 11, 12, . 

i. 312 

V. 28, 

i. 425 

.Jonah i. 9, , 

i. 348 

V. 33, 

i. 413 

ii. 2, 

i. 348 

V. 34, 

i. 381 

ii. 11, 

ii. 66 

V. 35, 

i. 383, ii. 35 

iii. 8, 9, 

i. 347 

V. 39, 

i. 342, ii. 21 

Mic. iv. 23, 

ii. 21 

V. 41, 

i. 414 

vii. 9, 

i. 350 

V. 44, 

i. 342 

Hab. ii. 4, 

ii. 19 

V. 45, L 

142, 197, 372, 414, 

iii. 2, 

i. 330 

ii. 34, 59, 129 

iii. 3, 

ii. 14 

vi. 3, 

i. 479 

iii. 5, 

i. 351 

vi. 9, 

i. 142 

Zech. vii. 9, 10, , 

i. 429, ii. 28 

vi. 12, 

ii. 100 

vii. 16, 17, 

i. 429 

vi. 19, 

i. 422 

viii. 17, 

ii. 28 

vi. 24, 

i. 275 

ix. 9, 

i. 346, ii. 6, 15 

vii. 1, 2, 

i. 478 

xii. 10, 

ii. 13 

vii. 5, 

i. 478 

Mai. i. 2, 

i. 452 

vii. 7, 

i. 160, 181, 232 

i. 10, 11, 

i. 430 

vii. 15, 

i. 2 

i. 11, 

ii. 176 

vii. 19, 

ii. 78 

ii. 10, 

i. 440 

vii. 25, 

i. 219 

iii. 1, 

i. 290 

viii. 9, 

i. 31 

iv. 1, 

i. 385, ii. 7 

viii. 11, 

i. 397 

Matt. i. 1, 

i. 324 

viii. 11, 12, 

ii. 36 

i. 1, 18, 

i. 294 

viii. 13, 

ii. 39 

i. 12-16, 

i. 357 

ix. 2, 

ii. 101 

i. 18, 

i. 324, 354 

ix. 6, 

ii. 102 

i. 20, 

i. 279 

ix. 8, 

ii. 101 

i. 20, etc., 

i. 456 

ix. 17, 

ii. 17 

i. 23, 

i. 279, 354 

ix. 29, 

ii. 39 

ii. 2, 

i. 279 

X. 6, 

i. 315, 382 

ii. 15, 

i. 279 

X. 8, 

. i. 18, 246 

ii. 16, 

i. 328 

X. 10, 

i. 399 

iii. 3, 

i. 278 

X. 15, 

i. 472 

iii. 7, 

i. 278 

X. 17, 18, 

i. 341 

iii. 9, 

i. 395, 459, ii. 148 

X. 20, 

i. 334 

iii. 10, i. S 

99, ii. 30, 103, 172 

X. 21, 

i. 14 

iii. 11, 

i. 385 

X. 24, 

. i. 14, 224 

iii. 12, 

. ii. 7, 13 

X. 25, 

ii. 128 

iii. 16, 

i. 279 

X. 26, 

i. 2 

iv. 3, 

i. 392, ii. 112 

X. 28, 

i. 341 

iv. 7, 

ii. 115 

X. 29, 

i. 216, ii. 116 

iv. 9, 

ii. 119 

X. 30, 

i. 215 

iv. 10, 

ii. 113 

xi. 9, 

i. 281, 290 

V. 5, 

. i. S59, ii. 77, 143 

xi. 11, 

i. 281 

V. 8, 

i. 401, 442 

xi. 12, 

ii. 40 

V. 12, 

ii. 12 

xi. 19, 

ii. 3 

V. 13, 

ii. 3 

xi. 23, 24, 

. ii. 29, 30 

V. 13, 14, 

i. 25 

xi. 25, 

i. 379 

lEEX. — VOL 

. II. 




Matt. xi. 25-27, 
xi. 27, 
xi. 28, 
xi. 40, 
xii. 5, 
xii. 6, 
xii. 7, 
xii. 18, 
xii. 25, 
xii. 29, i. 2: 
xii. 31, 
xii. 3G, 
xii. 41, 
xii. 41, 42, 
xii. 43, 
xiii. 11-16, 
xiii. 17, 
xiii. 25, 
xiii. 30, 
xiii. 34, 
xiii. 38, i. 
xiii. 40-43, 
xiii. 43, 
xiii. 44, 
xiii. 52, 
xiv. 19, 21, 
XV. 3, 
XV. 3, 4, 
xvi. 6, 
xvi. 13, 
xvi. IG, 
xvi. 17, 
xvi. 21, 
xvi. 24, 25, 
xvii. 1, etc., 
xvii. 3, etc., 
xvii. 7, 
xvii. 27, 
xviii. S, 9, 
xviii. 10, 
xviii. 12, 
xix. 7, 8, 
xix. 17, IS, 
xix. 21, 
xix. 29, 
xix. 30, 


XX. 1-lG, 
XX. 16, 
XX. \S, 
xxi. 8, 
xxi. 13, 
xxi. 10, 
xxi. 23, 
xxi. 31, 
xxii. 1, etc., 
xxii. 7, 
xxii. 10, 11, 

6, 342, 

4G1, ii. 

i. 315, 

1. 3G 



i. SO 

Matt. xxii. 13, 

ii. 32 

i. 133 

xxii. 14, 

ii. 33 

i. 80 

xxii. 21, 

i. 275 

ii. 140 

xxii. 29, 

i. 386, 387, ii. 9 

ii. 150 

xxii. 33-4], 

ii. 26 

i. 400 

xxii. 42-44, 

ii. 27 

i. 430 

xxii. 43, 

i. 357, ii. 9 

i. 292 

xxiii. 2-4, 

i. 410 

ii. 126 

xxiii. 9, 

i. 378 

363, ii. 114 

xxiii. 13. 

ii. 52 

i. 296 

xxiii. 24; 

i. 341, ii. 10 

i. 184, 425 

xxiii. 26, 

i. 433 

ii. 9 

xxiii. 27, 

i. 433 

i. 357 

xxiii. 34, 

i. 400 

i. 72 

xxiii. 35, 

ii. 92 

i. 474 

xxiii. 37, 

ii. 35, 36, 39 

i. 405, 454 

xxiv. 15, 21, 

ii. 122, 125 

ii. 79 

xxiv. 21, 

ii. 16, 134 

ii. 129 

xxiv. 28, 

i. 417 

ii. 50 

xxiv. 42, 

. ii. 29, 79 

51, 53, 145 

xxiv. 45, 46, 

i. 464 

ii. 49 

xxiv. 48, 

i. 463, ii. 38 

i. 243 

XXV. 2, 

i. 209 

i. 461 

XXV. 5, 

i. 218 

i. 399, 462 

XXV. 13, 

ii. 79 

i. 209 

XXV. 14, 

i. 336 

i. 409 

XXV. 21, 

i. 407 

i. 403 

XXV. 32, 34, 

ii. 49 

ii. 52 

XXV. 34, 

i. 436, 472 

ii. 340 

XXV. 35, 36, 

i. 479 

i. 345 

XXV. 41, 

. i. 138, 243, 470, 

357, ii. 166 

ii. 13, 48, 53 

i. 340 

xxvi. 24, 

i. 193, 472 

i. 340 

xxvi. 26, 

i. 430 

i. 209 

xxvi. 27, 

ii. 144 

i. 446 

xxvi. 35, 

ii. 154 

i. 61 

xxvi. 38, 

. i. 33, 360 

ii. 119 

xxvi. 39, 

i. 33 

i. 470 

xxvi. 41, 

ii. 76 

i. 58 

xxvii. 46, 

i. 33 

i. 88 

xxvii. 52, 

ii. 171 

i. 420 

xxviii. 19, 

i. 334 

i. 411 

Mark i. 1, 

i. 326 

i. 414 

i. 24, 

i. 392 

ii. 144 

iii. 27, 

ii. 114 

i. 362 

iv. 28, 

i. 4.35 

ii. 34 

V. 22, 

i. 87 

i. 6 

V. 31, 

i. 13 

j2, 420, 470 

vi. 42, 44, 

i. 209 

ii. 180 

viii. 31, 

i. 328 

i. 381 

ix. 2, 

i. 67 

i. 407 

X. 17, 

i. 79 

i 407 

X. 38, 

i. 81 

i. SO 

xiii. 32, 

i. 224 

i. 451 

xiii. 33, 

ii. 79 

ii. 31 

xiv. 21, 

i. 193 

ii. 33 

xvd. 19, 

i. 287 

ii. 156 

Luke i. 2, 

i. 318, 376 





Luke i. 6, 


i. 281 

Luke X. 12, 

ii. 30, 129 

i. 8, . 


i. 281 

X. 1,3, 

ii. 121 

i. 15, 

i. 281 

X. 16, 

i. 25S 

i. 17, 


287, 290 

X. IS, 

i. 33G 

i. 26, 

i. 282 

X. 19, : 

. 192, 367, ii. 121 

1. 32, 


282, 327 

X. 21, 

i. 379 

i. 33, 

i. 279 

X. 22, 

i. 389, 393, 396 

i. 35, 

i. 3 

54, ii. 57 

X. 35, 

i. 336 

i. 38, 

i. 361 

X. 60, 

ii. 76 

i. 42, 


i. 357 


i. 319 

i. 46, 


282, 394 

xi. 21, 22, . 

ii. 9 

i. 68, 


i. 283 

xi. 40, 

i. 225 

i. 69, 


i. 326 

xi. 50, 

ii. 92 

i. 71, 75, 


i. 442 

xii. 20, 

i. 319 

i. 76, 

i. 283 

xii. 35, 30, 

ii. 38 

i. 78, 

i. 283, ii. 101 | 

xii. 37, 38, . 

i. 149 

ii. 8, . 

i 394 

xii. 45, 46, 

i. 463, ii. 38 

ii. 11, 


i. 284 

xii. 47, 

ii. 38 

ii. 20, 


i. 285 

xii. 50, 

i. 81 

ii. 22, 

i. 286 

xii. 58, 

i. 95 

ii. 23, 

i. 14 


i. 319, 320 

ii. 28, 

i. 35, 327 

xiii. 6, 

ii. 35 

ii. 29, 

i. 286, 

327, 394 

xiii. 15, 16, . 

i. 397 

ii. 36, 


i. 35 

xiii. 16, 

i. 204 

ii. 38, 


i. 286 

xiii. 28, 

i. 397 

ii. 42, 


i. 12 

xiii. 32, 

ii. 53 

ii. 49, 


i. 79 

xiii. 34, 

ii. 35 

iii. 8, 


ii. 142 

xiv. 12, 

ii. 144 

iii. 11, 


i. 479 

xiv. 14, 

ii. 157 

iii. 17, 


ii. 7 

xiv. 27, 

i. 14 

iii. 23, 

i. 6, 201 

XV. 4, 

i. 69 

iv. 6, 


116, 119 

XV. 4-8, 

i. 35 

iv. 6, 7, 

ii. 113 

XV. 8, 

i. 69 

iv. IS, 


i. 456 

XV. 11, 

ii. 34 



i. 319 

XV. 22 23 

i. 418 

V. 20, 


ii. 101 


i. 319 

V. 31, 32, . 


i. 267 

xvi. 9, 

i. 479 

V. 36, 37, 


ii. 23 

xvi. 11, 

i. 253 

vi. 3, 4, 


i. 398 

xvi. 16, 

i. 385 

vi. 1.3, 

i. 12 

xvi. 19, 

i. 251, 380 

vi. 24, 


i. 319 

xvi. 28, 

i. 209 

vi. 29, 


i. 414 

xvi. 31, 

i. 380 

vi. 40, 


ii. 140 


i. 319 

vi. 46, 

ii. ?:S, 75 

xvii. 5, 

i. 319 

vii. . 

, , 

i. 319 

xvii. 24, 

ii. 129 

vii. 8, 

. , 

i. 31 

xvii. 26, 

ii. 29 

vii. 12, 

. , 

ii. 87 


i. 319, 320 

vii. 26, 

, , 

i. 290 

xviii. 2, 

ii. 124 

vii. 35, 

. , 

i. 35 

xviii. 8, 

ii. 13 

vii. 43, 

, . 

i. 348 

xviii. 10, 

ii. 35 

viii. 41, 


i. 33 

xviii. 18, 

i. 79 

viii. 51, 

. , 

i. 209 

xviii. 27, 

. i. 146, 442, ii. 67 

ix. 13, 14, 

, , 

i. 209 

xviii. 29, 30, 

ii. 144 

ix. 22, 

, , 

i. 328 


i. 319 

ix. 57, 5S, 

^ ^ 

i. 33 

xix. 5, 

i. .34 

ix. 60, 

■ • 

i. 34 

xix. 8, 

i. 412 

ix. 61, 62, 

^ ^ 

i. .34 

xix. 26, 

i. 27 

X. 1, . 

• • 

i. 194 

xix. 42, 

i. 80 



Luke xxi. 4, 

xxi. 34, 

xxi. 34, 35, 

xxiii. 24, 


xxiv. 25, 

xxiv. 30, 

xxiv. 44, 
Johai i. 1, 

i. 1, 2, 3, 4, 

i. 3, i. 85, 

i. 6, . 

i. 6, . 

i. 10, 11, 

i. 13, 

i. 13, 14, 

i. 14, i. 284, 

i. 15, 16, 

i. 18, 

i. 29, 

i. 47, 

i. 49, 

i. 50, 

ii. 3, 

ii. 4, 

ii. 19-21, 

ii. 23, 

ii. 25, 

iii. 5, 

iii. 14, 

iii. 18-21, 

iv. 6, 

iv. 14, 

iv. 24, 

iv. 35, 

iv. 37, 

iv. 41, 

iv. 50, 

V. 1, 

v. 5, 

v. 14, 

v. 28, 

v. 35, 

V. 39, 40, 

V. 43, 

V. 46, 

V. 46, 47, 

vi. 1, 

vi. 9, 

vi. 11, 

vi. 69, 

vii. 30, 

vii. 39, 

viii. 34, 

viii. 36, 

viii. 4-4, 

viii. 56, 

viii. 56, 57, 



i. 432 

Jolin viii. 58, . i. 

416, ii. 182 

ii. 37 

viii. 59, 

ii. 182 

ii. 29 

ix. 1, 

1. 177 

i. 341 

ix. 3, 

ii. 96 

i. 320 

ix. 7, 

ii. 97 

i. 328 

ix. 30, 

ii. 87 

ii. 60 

xi. 25, 

i. 387 

"i. 328 

xi. 54, 

i. 199 

i. 288, 293, ii. 305 

xii. 1, 

i. 99 

i. 36 

xii. 27, 

i. 33 

123, 276, 358, ii. 5 

xii. 32, 

i. 382 

i. 37 

xiii. 5, 

i. 454 

i. 290 

xiv. 2, . i. 

347, ii. 156 

i. 289, ii. 105 

xiv. 6, 

i. 266 

. i. 245, ii. 58, 106 

xiv. 6, 7, . 

i. 395 

i. 325 

xiv. 7, 9, 10, 

i. 315 

289, 290, 

ii. 10, 105 

xiv. 11, 

ii. 104 

i. 284 

xiv. 16, 

i. 295 

*. i. 29 

1, 444, 447 

xiv. 28, 

i. 227 

i. 283 

XV. 15, 

i. 415 

i. 292 

XV. 16, 

i. 417 

i. 292 

xvi. 7, 

i. 335 

i. 401 

xvii. 5, 

i. 416 

i. 291 

xvii. 12, 

i. 193 

i. 330 

xvii. 16, 

i. 27 

ii. 69 

xvii. 24, 

i. 417 

i. 198 

xix. 11, 

i. 434 

i. 280 

xix. 15, 

i. 452 

ii. 174 

xix. 34, 

ii. 7 

i. 382 

XX. 17, 

ii. 140 

ii. 130 

XX. 20, 27, . 

ii. 140 

i. 360 

XX. 22, 

ii. 182 

ii. 29, 182 

XX. 24, 

i. 77 

ii. 176 

XX. 25-27, . 

ii. 70 

i. 455 

XX. 26, 

ii. 182 

i. 460 

XX. 31, 

i. 328 

i. 382 

Acts i. 7, 

i. 362 

i. 198 

i. 16, 

i. 297 

i. 198 

i. 20, 

i. 191 

i. 204 

ii. 22-27, 

i. 297 

ii. 33, 96 

ii. 30-37, 

i. 298 

ii. 88 

ii. 37, 38, . 

i. 298 

ii. 180 

ii. 41, 

i. 457 

i. 403 

iii. 6, 

i. 299 

ii. 124 

iii. 12, 

i. 300 

i. 403 

iii. 15, 

i. 200 

i. 379 

iv. 2, 

i. 300 

i. 199 

iv. 4, 

i. 457 

i. 209 

iv. 8, etc., 

i. 300 

i. 291 

iv. 22, 

i. 301 

i. 292 

iv. 24. 

i. 301 

i. 330 

iv. 31, 

i. 302 

ii. 105 

iv. 33, 

i. 302 

i. 275 

V. 30, 

i. 302 

i. 344 

v. 42, 

i. 302 

ii. 116, 118 

vii. 2-8, 

i. 308 

i. 3SS 

vii. 5, 6, 

ii. 142 

i. 202 

vii. 38, 

i. 420 



Acts vii. 56, 

viii. 9-11, 

viii. 9, IS, 

viii. 20, 21, 23, 

viii. 27, 

viii. 32, 

viii. 37, 

ix. 15, IG, 

ix. 20, 

X. 1, 

X. 15, 

X. 28, 29, 

X. 34, 35, 

X. 37-44, 

X. 47, 

xiv. 15-17, 

XV. 14, 

XV. 15, 

xvi. 8, 

xvi. 13, 

xvii. 24, 

XX. 5, G, 

XX. 25, 


xxii. 8, 

xxvi. 15, 


xxviii. 11, 
Eom. i. 1-4, 

i. 3, 4, 

i. 17, 

i. IS, 

i. 21, 

i. 25, 

i. 28, 

ii. 5, 

ii. 27, 

iii. 8, 

iii. 1], 

iii. 21, 

iii. 23, 

iii. 30, 

iv. 3, 

iv. 12, 

V. 14, 

v. 17, 

V. 19, 

V. 2«, 

vi. 3, 4, 

vi. 7, 

vi. 9, 

vi. 12, 13, 

vii. 18, 

vii. 24, 

viii. 3, 

viii. 5, 

viii. 8, 

viii. 9, 


i. 310 

i. 86 
i. 246 

i. 86 
i. 456 
i. 405 
i. 405 
i. 321 
i. 306 
i. 303 
i. 304 
i. 313 
i. 304 
i. 304 
i. 313 
i. 307 
312, 349 
i. 311 
i. 316 
i. 316 
i. 307 
i. 316 
i. 318 
i. 317 
i. 321 
i. 321 
i. 317 
i. 317 
i. 326 
i. 380 
ii. 19 
i. 471 

ii. 6 
i. 143 
i. 475 
ii. 18 
i. 412 
ii. 94 

i. 78 

ii. 19 

i. 468 

455, ii. 115 

i. 39G 

i. 395 

i. 243, 360 

i. 332 

i. 244, 358 

i. 368 

i. 332 

i. 367 

i. 333 

ii. 94 

349, ii. 34 

i. 351 

i. 349 

ii. SO 

ii. 80 

ii. 73, 80 


Kom. viii. 10, 

ii. 80, 175 

viii. 11, . i 

. 333, ii. 70 

viii. 13, 

ii. 80 

viii. 15, . i. 270 

, 404, ii. 73 

viii. 19, 

ii. 142 

viii. 21, 

ii. 157 

viii. 34, 

i. 333 

viii. 36, 

i. 198, 422 

ix. 5, 

i. 326 

ix. 10-13, 

i. 452 

ix. 13, 

i. 452 

ix. 25, 

i. 44, 278 

ix. 25, 26, . 

i. 450 

X. 3, 4, 

i. 411 

X. 6, 7, 

i. 338 

X. 9, 

i. 338 

X. 15, 

i. 314 

xi. 16, 

i. 34 

xi. 17, 

ii. 78 

xi. 21, 17, . 

i. 468 

xi. 26, 

i. 382 

xi. 32, 

i. 44, 349 

xi. 33, 

i. 45 

xi. 34, 

i. 55 

xi. 36, 

i. 14 

xii. 1, 

ii. 176 

xii. 3, 

ii. 110 

xii. 16, 

ii. 115 

xiii. 1, 

ii. 119 

xiii. 1-7, 

ii. 34 

xiii. 4, 

ii. 119 

xiii. C, 

ii. 119 

xiii. 10, 

i. 410 

xiv. 1;. 

i. 338 

xiv. 15, 

i. 339 

1 Cor. i. IS, 

i. 15 

i. 23, 

i. 338 

i. 26-28, 

i. 189 

i. 29, 

i. 348 

ii. 6, . i. 35 

259, ii. 68 

ii. 9, 

ii. 157 

ii. 10, 

i. 226 

ii. 14, . i. 34 

ii. 75, 175 

ii. 15, . i. 

U, ii. 6, 18 

iii. 1, 

ii. 75 

iii. 2, 

ii. 42 

iii. 3, 

ii. 43 

iii. 7, 

ii. 460 

iii. 16, 

ii. 69 

iii. 16, 17, . 

ii. 178 

iii. 17, . i 

399, ii. 70 

iv. 4, 

i. 401 

V. 6, 

i. 470 

V. 11, 

i. 470 

vi. 9, 10, 

i. 470 

vi. 9-11, 

ii. 81 

vi. 11, 

ii. 39 

vi. 12, 

ii. 38 





1 Cor. vl. 13, 

ii. 70 

2 Cor. iv. 11, 

ii. 91 

vi. 20, 

ii. 89 

V. 4, i. 

188, ii. 32, 72, 89 

vii. 5, 

i. 420 

vii. 2, 

i. 464 

vii. 6, 

i. 420 

viii. 1, 

ii. 11 

vii. 12, 

i. 420 

X. 5, 

ii. 33 

vii. 14, 

i. 450 

xii. 2, 3, 4, . 

i. 235 

vii. 25, 

i. 421 

xii. 3, 

i. 236, ii. 60 

vii. 31, 

i. 3S3, ii. 154, 155 

xii. 4, 

ii. 66 

viii. 1, 

i. 215 

xii. 7-9, 

ii. 61 

viii. 4, etc., . 

i. 272 

xii. 9, 

i. 347 

viii. 11, 

i. 339 


ii. 11 

ix. 24, 

ii. 40 

xiii. 4, 

ii. 179 

X. 1, etc., 

i. 469 

Gal. i. 1, 

i. 315 

X. 4, 

ii. 182 

i. 15, 16, 

■ . ii. 85, 97 

X. 11, 

i. 418 

ii. 1, 2, 

i. 315 

X. 16, 

i. 336, ii. 59 

ii. 5, 

i. 315 

xi. 4, 5, 

i. 296 

ii. 8, 

i. 314 

xi. 10, 

i. 33 

ii. 12, 13, . 

i. 313 

xii. 4, 5, 6, 

i. 226 

iii. 5-9, 

i. 451 

xii. 4-7, 

i. 443 

iii. 6, 

ii. 143 

xii. 28, 

i. 291, 370, 464 

iii. 13, 

i. 339 

xiii. 2, 

i. 410 

iii. 16, . 

ii. 143 

xiii. 9, 

i. 226, 227 

iii. 19, 

i. 274, ii. 110 

xiii. 9, 10, 

i. 401 

iii. 24, i 

i. 382 

xiii. 9, 12, 

ii. 172 

iv. 4, 

i. 330, 358, ii. Ill 

xiii. 13, 

i. 222, 410 

iv. 5, 

i. 326 

xiv. 20, 

i. 474 

iv. 8, 

i. 143 

XV. 3. 4, 

i. 339 

iv. S, 9, 

i. 272 

XV. 8, 

i. 33 

iv. 24, 

i. 45 

XV. 10, 

i. 457 

iv. 26, 

ii. 153 

XV. 11, 

i. 314 

iv. 28, 

i. 395 

XV. 12, 

i. 339 

V. 19, 

ii. 81 

XV. 13, 

ii. 91 

V. 21, 

i. 26 

XV. 20-22, 

i. 362 

vi. 14, 

i. 15 

XV. 22, 

i. 3GS, ii. 58 

Eph. i. 7, 

ii. 93 

XV. 25, 26, 

ii. 156 

i. 10, 

i. 14, 42, 110 

XV. 26, 

i. 367 

i. 13, 

ii. 72 

XV. 27, 28, 

ii. 157 

i. 21, 

i. 438, 458 

XV. 30, 

i. Ill 

ii. 2, 

ii. 121 

XV. 36, 

ii. 71 

ii. 7, 

i. 387 

XV. 41, 

i. 175 

ii. 13, 

i. 339, ii. 93 

XV. 42, 

ii. 71 

ii. 15, 

ii. 93 

XV. 43, 

ii. 71 

ii. 17, 

i. 268 

XV. 44, 

i. 188, ii. 72 

ii. 20, 

i. 459 

XV. 45, 

ii. 85 

iii. 21, 

i. 12 

XV. 46, 

ii. 82 

iv. 5, 6, 

. ii. 5, 105 

XV. 48, 

i. 34, ii. 76 

iv. 6, 

i. 123, 440 

XV. 49, 

. ii. 77, 83 

iv. 8, 

i. 192 

XV. 50, 

ii. 75, 79, 80 

iv. 9, 

i. 454, ii. 140 

XV. 52, 

ii. 87 

iv. 9, 10, 

ii. 182 

XV. 53, 

. ii. 60, 80, 88, 91 

iv. 25, 29, 

ii. 38 

XV. 54, 

i. 44 

V. 6, 7, 

i. 470 

XV. 54, 55, 

i. 367 

V. 13, 

i. 37 

2 Cor. ii. 15, 16, 

i. 473 

V. 30, 

ii. 60 

ii. 17, 

i. 464 

V. 32, 

i. 35 

iii. 3, 

ii. 90 

vi. 12, 

i. 42 

iv. 4, 

i. 272, 475, ii. 179 

Col. i. 14, 

! . ii. 59 

iv. 10, 

ii. 90 

i. 14, 15, 

L 326 





Col. i. 16, 

i. 19 

Jas. i. 18, . 1 , 

ii. 56 

i. 18, 

i. 200, 440 

i. 21, 

ii. 79 

i. 21, 

ii. 93 

ii. 23, 

i. 416, 423 

ii. 9, 

i. 14 

1 Pet. i. 8, . i. 

401, ii. 72 

ii. 11, 

i. 422 

i. 12, . i. 177 

ii. 19, 157 

ii. 14, 

ii. 102, 176 

ii. 3, 

ii. 175 

ii. 16, 

ii. 177 

ii. 5-9, 

i. 398 

ii. IS, 

ii. 175 

ii. 16, . i 

425, ii. 38 

ii. 19, 

. ii. 5, 94 

ii. 23, 

i. 333, 440 

iii. 5, 

ii. 85 

ii. 24, 

ii. 170 

iii. 9, 

ii. 84 

iii. 20, 

i. 76 

iii. 10, 

ii. 85 

iv. 14, 

ii. 12 

iii. 11, 

i. 14 

2 Pet. iii. 8, 

ii. lis, 132 

iv. 14, 

i. 317 

1 John ii. 1, 

i. 33G 

Pliil. i. 22, 

ii. 85 

ii. 18, 

i. 339 

ii. 8, 

i. 458, ii. m 

v. 1, 

i. 332 

ii. 9, 

ii. 175 

2 John 7, 8, 

i. 331 

ii. 10, 11, 

i. 42 


i. 71 

ii. 15, 

i. 388 

Jude 3, 

ii. 175 

iii. 2, 9, 

ii. 89 


ii. 30 

iii. 11, 

ii. 90 

Rev. i. 5, 

i. 362 

iv. 17, 

i. 399 

i. 12, 

i. 448 

iv. 18, 

i. 434 

i. 15, 

i. 418 

1 Thess. ii. 10-12, 

ii. 69 

i. 17, 

i. 448 

V. 3, 

ii. 137 

ii. 6, 

i. 98 

V. 23, 

ii. 69 

ii. 17, 

ii. 79 

2 Thess. i. 6-10, . 

i. 471 

iii. 7, 

i. 440 

i. 9, 10, 

ii. 13 

iv. 7, 

i. 293 

ii. 4, 

i. 272 

v. 6, 

i. 449 

ii. 8, 

i. 274, ii. 123 

V. 8, . i. 

431, ii. 176 

ii. 11, 

i. 475 

vi. 2, . 

i. 452 

1 Tim. i. 1, 

ii. 175 

vii. 5-7, 

ii. 137 

i. 9, 

i. 423 

xi. 19, 

i. 436 

ii. 5, 

ii. 100 

xii. 14, 

i. 242 

iii. 15, 

i. 293 

xiii. 2, 

ii. 131 

iv. 2, 

i. 196 

xiii. 11, 14, . 

ii. 132 

vi. 4, 

i. 308 

XV. xvi. 

i. 480 

vi. 4, 5, 

ii. 175 

xvii. 8, 

ii. 138 

vi. 20, 

. i. 89, 116 

xvii. 12, 

ii. 125 

2 Tim. ii. 17, IS, 

i. 241 

xix. 11-17, . 

i. 449 

ii. 23, 

i. 376 

xix. 20, 

ii. 131 

iii. 6, 

i. 56 

XX. 6, 

ii. 149 

iii. 7, 

i. 402, ii. 109 

XX. 11, 

ii. 153 

iv. 3, 

i. 195 

XX. 12-14, . 

ii. 154 

iv. 10, 11, . 

i. 317 

XX. 15, 

i. 154 

Tit. iii. 10, 

. i. 71, 263 

xxi. 1-4, 

ii. 154 

Heb.i. 3, 

i. 238 

xxi. 2, 

ii. 153 

iii. 5, 

, ' . i. 272 

xxi. 5, 6, 

ii. 155 

X. 9, 

i. 426 

xxii. 17, 

i. 264 

xi. 13, 

ii. 142 

xxii. 19, 

ii. 136 

xiii. 15, 

ii. 142 




Aaron and Miriam, tlieir sin against 
Moses, and its punishment, ii. 173. 

Abel and Cain, the offerings of, i. 

Abominations, the, practised by the 
Valentinians, i. 26, etc. 

Abraham, saw the day of Christ, 
388, 394, etc.; vain attempt of 
Marcion to exclude him from 
Christ's salvation, 395, etc.; had 
faith identical with ours, 451 ; 
both covenants prefigured in, 459, 
460 ; waited for the promises of 
God, ii. 142, 143. 

Abraxas, Easilides' doctrine of, i. 93. 

Acceptable year of the Lord, the, i. 

Achamoth, an account of, i. 16 ; 
origin of the visible world from, 
17, etc.; shall at last enter the 
Pleroma, 28 ; asserted to be re- 
ferred to in Scripture, 33-35. 

Adam and Eve, the stoiy of, accord- 
ing to the Ophites, i. 107, 108. 

Adam, the first, made a partaker of 
salvation, i. 362 ; his repentance 
signified by the girdle which he 
made, 336 ; why driven out of 
Paradise, 367 ; in Paradise, ii. 66; 
sinned on the sixth day of crea- 
tion, 116-118 ; death of, 118. 

Adam, analogy between the first and 
the second, i. 359. 

iEon, the twelfth, the sufferings of, 
not to be deduced from Scripture, 
i. 190 ; nor typified by the woman 
with the issue of blood, 203. 

^ons, the thirty, of Valcntinus, i. 
4, etc. ; English equivalents of the 
Greek names of, 5, 6, note ; how 
the thirty are said to be indicated 
in Scripture, 12 ; the production 
of, 152, etc., 168, etc.; further in- 
quiry into and refutation of the 
speculations respecting, 172-179 ; 
the theory of, further exposed, 
180, etc., 184, etc.; the twelve 
apostles not types of the twelve, 
194 ; the thirty, not typified by 
the baptism of Jesus iix His thii-- 
tieth year, 196. 

Agape, i. 212. 

A'lo/v, meaning of the term, i. 444. 

Aletheia, the ^on so called, i. 5, 7 ; 
how her passion is said to be indi- 
cated in Scripture, 13 ; of Ptolemy, 
49 ; revealed by Tetrad, 59, etc. 

Aletheia, the numerical value of, does 
not square with Valentinianism, i. 

Anaxagoras, i. 162. 

Anaximander, i. 162. 

Angels, the world not made by, i. 
120, 121 ; could not be ignorant of 
the Supreme God, 132. 

Angels of the de\'il, ii. 50, etc. 

Animal men, the, of the Valen- 
tinians, i. 25, 33. 

Animals, clean and unclean, ii. 74. 

Anthropos and Ecclesia, the ..Eons 
so named, i. 5, 7, 50, 106. 

Antichrist, the fraiid, pride, and 
tyranny of the Idngdom of, ii. 
121-125 ; concentrates in himself 
the apostasy, 131 ; the number of 
the name of, 135. 

Antiphanes, the theogony of, i. 160. 

Apator, i. 21. 

Ajjocryphal Scriptures, the, of the 
Marcosians, i. 79. 

Apostles, the twelve, not types of 
the twelve iEons, i. 194. 

Apostles, the, did not begin to preach 
till endued with the Holy Spirit, 
i. 258; preached one God, 259; 
the doctrine of, 296-314 ; the la- 
bours of, lessened by their prede- 
cessors, 455. 

Aquila and Theodotian, their inter- 
pretation of Isa. vii. 14 referred 
to, i. 351, .352. 

Ark of the covenant, i. 207, ii. 163. 

Autogenes, i. 102. 

Axe, the, made to float by means of 
wood, ii. 171. 

Axe, the, laid at the root, ii. 172. 

Balaam, ii. 167 ; forbidden to curse 

Israel, 169 ; his ass a type, 169, 

170 ; slain, 170. 
Baptism of Jesus in his thirtieth 

year not a type of the thirty 

/Eons, i. 196. 
Barbeliotea or Borborians, the, i. 101. 



Basilide5, tlie doctrines of, i.90, etc. ; 

absurd notion of, as to the deatli 

of Jesus, 91 ; this notion of, re- 
futed, 253. 
Beast, the, ii. 131, etc., 134, etc. 
Bishops, a succession of, in various 

churches, i. 261, etc.; first, of 

Eome, 261, 262. 
Blandina, the martyr, ii. 165. 
Blood, the, of Christ, redeems, ii. 5S 

Blood, the Christians accused of eat 

ing, how the calumny originated 

ii. 165. 
Bodies, the, of men, temples of th( 

Holy Ghost, ii. 69 ; from the earth 

Body and soul, the views of heretics 

respecting the future destiny of. 

refuted, i. 228. 
Bread and Mine in the Eucharist, ii. 59, 
Breath of life, the, ii. S3. 
By thus, i. 4, 7, 49; absurdity of, 124 

Gain, i. 365 ; and Abel, the respec 
tive offerings of, 432. 

Cainites, the doctrines of the, i. 113 

Carnal and spiritual, ii. 80, etc. 

Carpocrates, the doctrines of, i. 93 
the followers of, practised magic 
and incantations, 94; immorality 
of the system of, 94, 95 ; his views 
of the devil, 95 ; his followers 
branded with external marks, and 
have images of Jesus, etc., 96. 

Centurion, the, of the Gospels, as- 
serted by the Valentinians to be 
the Demiurge, i. 30. 

Cerdo, the docti-ines of, i. 98. 

Cerinthus, the doctrines of, i. 97. 

Christ, Valentinus' views of, i. 14, 25, 
28, 29, 46, 51 ; the origin of, ac- 
cording to the Ophites, 104; the 
descent of, upon Jesus, accord- 
ing to the Ophites, 111, 112 ; 
the apostles of, their preaching, 
266 ; and Jesus, the same, the 
only-begotten Son of God, 223- 
233 ; not, but the Holy Spirit, 
descended upon Jesus, 334 ; and 
Jesus of Nazareth proved from the 
writings of Paul to be one and the 
same, 337, etc. ; did not flee away 
from Jesus at the cross, 340 ; did 
not suffer in appearance merely, 
342 ; assiimed actual flesh, con- 
ceived and born of the Virgin, 
359, etc.; the advent of, foretold, 

404 ; the advent of, foreknown and 
desired by righteous men, 405 ; did 
not abolish the law, 408 ; is the 
end of the law, 411 ; did not abro- 
gate the natural precepts of the 
law, but removed the bondage, 
412 ; came for the sake of men of 
all ages, 433, etc. ; is the treasure 
hid in the fleld, 461 ; descended 
into regions beneath the earth, 
467 ; foreseen and foretold by the 
prophets, ii. 13-17 ; the prophets 
referred all their predictions to, 
18, etc. ; alone able to redeem us, 
55, etc. ; took flesh, not seemingly, 
but really, 56 ; conferred on our 
flesh the capacity of salvation, 58- 
61 ; his i-esurrection a proof of 
ours, 70, etc. ; the dead raised by, 
a proof of the resurrection, 87 ; 
fitting that He should take human 
nature and be tempted by the 
dovil, 110, etc.; His victory over 
Satan, ibid.; temptation of, 111, 
etc.; His kingdom eternal, 127, 
128 ; the resurrection of, 139, 140 ; 
how prefigured, 167, 108 ; testi- 
mony of the sacred books to, 182, 
183, 184. 

Christians, calumnies against the, ii. 

Church, the, her gifts, i. 246 ; per- 
forms nothing by incantations or 
curious art?, ibid. ; of Eome, 
founded by Peter and Paul, 261 ; 
the catholic, the depository of 
truth, 264, etc. 

Clean and unclean, ii. 74. 

Colorbasus, the doctrines of, i. 49, etc. 

Commandment, the first and greatest, 
i. 411. 

Communion with God, ii, 129. 

Cosmocrator, the, i. 23, 

Covenant, the new, ii. 19, 20, 

Covenants, one author and one end 
to both, i. 399, etc. ; the oneness 
of both proved by Jesus' reproof 
of customs repugnant to the for- 
mer, 408. 

Created things, made after the image 
of invisible things, according to 
the Marcosians, i. 72, etc. 

Created things, not images of u^ons 
within the Pleroma, i. 134-140 ; not 
a shadow of the Pleroma, 140-142. 

Creation, the, of all things out of 
nothing by God, i. 144-146. 

Creator, but one, of the world, i, 142. 



Creator, tlie, made all things, spiri- 
tual and material, i. 237, 2;»9 ; is 
the Word, ii. 105. 

Creator, the, could not be ignorant 
of the Supreme God, i. 132, 133. 

Day, the, does not square -n-ith the 

theory of Valentinus, i. 211. 
Day of retribution, the, i. 197. 
Dead, the, raised by Christ, a proof 

of the resurrection, ii. 87. 
Death, the, and life, ii. 82. 
Decalogue, the, at first inscribed on 
the hearts of men, i. 419 ; not 
cancelled by Christ, 424, 425. 
Demiurge, the, the formation of, 
according to Valentinus, i. 20 ; the 
creator of all things outside the 
Pleroma, 21 ; ignorant of what he 
created, 22 ; ignorant of the oif- 
spring of his mother Achamoth, 
24 ; passes into the intermediate 
habitation, 28 ; instructed by the 
Saviour, 20 ; is the centurion of 
the Gospels, thld. ; views of the 
heretics respecting, exposed and 
confuted, 184, etc. ; declared by 
the heretics to be animal, 231 ; if 
animal, how could he mate things 
spiritual ? 237, 239. 
Devil, views of the Carpocratians 

respecting, i. 95. 
Devil, practised in falsehoods, he 
tempted man, ii. 110, 117 ; his lis 
in regard to the government of the 
world, 119, 120. 
Devil, the sons of the, ii. 51. 
Deuteronomy, ii. 1G7. 
Diatheses, the, of Ptolemj', i. 40. 
Discijales, the true spiritual, ii. 0, etc. 
Discriminating faculty, the, in man, 

ii. 45. 
Disobedient, the, are the angels of 

the devil, ii. 49. 
Duodecad, the, of Valentinus, how said 
to be indicated in Scripture, i. 12. 
Dyad, the, of Valentinus, i. 45. 

Earthly things, types of heavenly, 
i. 436. 

Ebionites, the, i. 97 ; refutation of, 
who disparaged the writings of 
Paul, 320, etc. ; strictures on, ii. 57. 

Ecclesia, the, of the Valentinians, i. 
24 ; of Ptolemy, 50. 

Egyptians, the Israelites commanded 
to spoil the goods of, an exposition 
and vindication, i. 475-480. 

Elements, the twenty-four, of Mar- 
cus, i. 04, etc. 

Elijah, ii. 06. 

Elisha, ii. 102. 

Emanations, the, of Valentinus and 
others, an account of, 4-35, 45, 
etc., 49, etc., 64, etc. ; ridicule 
poured on, 47, 48. 

Encratites, the, i. 100. 

Enmity, the, put between Eve and 
the serpent, i. 367. 

Ennoffi, i. 4, 5, 49, 101, etc., 104. 

Enoch, the translation of, ii. 05, 66. 

Enthymesis, the, of Sophia or Acha- 
moth, i. 9, 21 ; the absurdity of, 
180, etc.; the treachery of Judas 
not a type of, 191-193. 

Error, how often set off, i. 2. 

Eucharist, the, i. 435, ii. 59. 

Evantlicis, ii. 137. 

Eve and the Virgin Mary compared, 
ii. 106, etc. 

Eve, the story of, according to the 
Ox^hites, i. 107. 

Faith, the unity of the, in the uni- 
versal church, i. 42, etc. 

Faith of Abraham, the, the same as 
ours, i. 45. 

Father, the, the world made by, 
through the Word, i. 120-123. 

Father, the, how no one knows, but 
the Son, i. 389; reveals the Son, 391. 

Fear produces (according to Valen- 
tinus) animal substances, i. 22, 23. 

Five, the number, the frequent use 
of, in Scripture, i. 208-210. 
1 Flesh, the, as nom-ished by the body 
of the Lord, incoi-ruptible, i. 435 ; 
made capable of salvation, ii, 59- 
04 ; quickened, 84, etc. ; saved by 
the Word taking flesh, 91 ; the 
saints having suffered in, shall re- 
ceive their rewards in, 141, etc., 
143, etc. 

Flesh and blood, ii. 75-78. 

Flesh, the works of the, ii. 80, etc. 

Florinus, ii. 158. 

Free-will, man endowed with, ii. 

Fruit of the belly and of the loins, i. 

Gentiles, the conversion of, more 
difficult than that of the Jews, i. 

Gideon, a type, i. 335, ii. 68. 

Gifts, the, of the Holy Spirit, ii. 72. 



Gnostics, tlie hypocrisy and pride of, 
i. 321. 

God, but one, proved against Mar- 
cion and others, i. 117-120 ; the 
world made by, 120-123 ; created 
all things out of nothing, 144-146 ; 
not to be sought after by means 
of syllables and letters, 212, etc. ; 
many things, the knowledge of 
which must be left in His hands, 
221, 222 ; alone knows all things, 
224 ; all things made by, 235 ; 
different names of, in the Hebrew 
Scriptures, 254, 255 ; one, pro- 
claimed by Christ and the apostles, 
2G6 ; the Holy Ghost throughoiit 
the Old Testament mentions but 
one, 268 ; objection to the doctrine 
of one, deduced from 2 Cor. iv. 5, 
answered, 273 ; objection from 
Matt. vi. 24 answered, 275 ; proved 
to be one and the same, the Crea- 
tor, from the Gospel of ]\Iatthew, 
277 ; from Mark and Luke, 28 1 ; 
from John, 287-292, 296, etc. ; 
showed Himself to be merciful and 
mighty to save, after the fall of 
man, 347, etc. ; His pro^^dential 
rule over the world, 371 ; just to 
punish and good to save, 371, 372 ; 
but one, who is the Father, 377, 
378 ; the unity of, proved from 
Moses, the proj^hets, and Christ, 
378-382 ; imraiitable and eternal, 
382 ; the destriiction of Jerusalem 
derogates nothing from His ma- 
jesty, 383; but one, announced by 
the law and the prophets, whom 
Christ confesses as His Father, 
386, etc.; has placed man iinder 
law for man's own benefit, 416, 
etc. ; needs nothing from man, 426, 
427 ; formed all things by the 
Word and Spirit, 439-444 ; de- 
clared by the Son, 444 ; seen by 
men, 426, 427 ; yet invisible, 446 ; 
not the author of sin, 471 ; the 
author of both testaments, ii. 4, 
etc. ; attributes of, 43 ; the misery 
of departure from, 47 ; one and 
the same, inflicts punishments and 
bestows rewards, 48, etc. ; His 
power and glory will shine forth 
■ in the resurrection, 61, etc.; those 
deceived who feign another, 64, 
etc. ; the image of, in which man 
was made, 99 ; unity of, reaffirmed, 
100 ; pardons our sins, 100, etc. ; 

and the Word, foi-med all things 
by their own power, 103, etc. ; de- 
clared by the law and manifested 
in Christ, 114, etc. ; communion 
with, 129, 130 ; His infinitude, 162 ; 
always ti'ue and faithful, 170. 

God of this world, the, i. 273. 

Gods, the so-called, in the Old Testa- 
ment, i. 270. 

Good works not necessary for Valen- 
tinian heretics, i. 26. 

Gospels, the four, there can be 
neither more nor fewer, i. 293 ; 
symbolized by the four living 
creatures, 293, 294 ; respective 
characteristics of, 294 ; those who 
destroy the form of, vain and un- 
learned, 295. 

Government, civil, of God, and to be 
obeyed, ii. 119, etc. 

Grain of mustard seed, the, ii. 172. 

Greater and less, application of the 
phrase, i. 400-403. 

Grief, evil spirits said by Valentinus 
to derive their origin from, i. 23. 

Heaven, the, of Valentinus, i. 21, 22. 

Heavens, the new, different abodes 
in, ii. 155, 156. 

Helena and Simon Magus, i. 87, 88. 

Henotes, i. 47. 

Heresies, of recent origin, i. 265, 266. 

Heretics, the, resort to Scripture to 
support their opinions, i. 11, 74, 
78, 79 ; modes of initiation prac- 
tised by, 28-84 ; deviation of, from 
the truth, 84, etc. ; their perverse 
interpretations of Scripture, 144 ; 
have fallen into an abyss of error, 
146, etc. ; the first order of produc- 
tions maintained by (viz.^ons), in- 
defensible, 152, etc. ; borrow their 
systems from the heathen, 160-168 ; 
miracles claimed to be wrought by, 
241, etc.; blasphemous doctrines 
of, further exposed, 242, etc. ; fol- 
low neither Scripture nortradition, 
259 ; refutation of, from the or- 
derly sviccession of bishops in the 
churches, 260 ; tossed about by 
every wind of doctrine, 269-271 ; 
unlearned, ignorant, and divided 
in opinion, ii. 107 ; to be avoided, 
108, etc. 

Holy Spirit, the, descended on Jesus 
at His baptism, not Christ nor the 
Saviour, i. 334. 

Holy Spirit, gifts of the, ii. 172. 



Homer, laid under contribution by 
tbeValentinians, curious instances 
of, i. 40, 41. 

Hope, i. 211. 

Horos and Stauros, i. S, 9, 14. 

laldabaotb, i. 106, 107. 

I AM THAT I AM, 1. 270. 

lao, i. 17. 

Ignorance, human, of divine things, 

i. 219-228. 
Image of God, the, in which man 

was created, ii. 99. 
Immorality, the, of the Valentiniaii 

heretics, i. 26, 27. 
Initiation, modes of, practised by the 

heretics, i. 82. 
Intermediate state, the, ii. 140. 
Isaac, the history of, symbolical, i. 

451, 452 ; the blessing of, ii. 145. 
Isaiah, his prophecy respecting the 

virgin conceiving, vindicate I 

against Theodotian, Aquila, and 

the Ebionites, 351, etc. 

Jacob, the actions of, typical,, i. 452. 

Jerusalem, the destruction of, dero- 
gates nothing from the majesty of 
God, i. 383, etc. 

Jesus, the significance of the letters 
of the name, i. 215. 

Jesus, how certain JEons are said to 
be indicated by the name of, i. 13 ; 
meaning of the letters of the name 
of, 60 ; the generation of, accord- 
ing to Marcus, 60 ; according to 
Basilides, was not crucified, but 
Simon of Gyrene in His stead, 91 ; 
descent of the Christ upon, accord- 
ing to the Ophites, 111, 112; His 
baptism when .thirty years old, 
not a type of the thirty Jllons, 
197 ; passed through every stage 
of life, to sanctify all, 199; the 
ministry of, extended over ten 
years, 201, 202 ; lived at least till 
near fifty years old, 202; His 
teaching, 242, 243; the baptism 
of, 279 , the same with Christ, the 
only-begotten Son of God, perfect 
God and perfect man, 323; with 
Him nothing incomplete — His 
time, 330, 331 ; neither Christ nor 
Saviour, but the Holy Spirit de- 
scended iipon Him at His bap- 
tism, 334, etc. ; and Christ, proved 
from the writings of Paul to be 
one and the same, 337, etc.; not 

a mere man, but verj^ God, 344 ; 

became man so as to be capable of 

being tempted and crucified, 346 ; 

His birth foretold by Isaiah, 354 ; 

His reply to the Sadducees, 386, 

387. [See Christ.] 
John, and Cerinthus, a curious story 

relating to, i. 2C3. 
Joshua, ii. 168. 
Judas not an emblem of the twelfth 

^on, i. 191-193. 
Judgment, the future, by Jesus 

Christ, ii. 49, 128, etc. 
Justin quoted against Marcion, i. 390. 

Krltae, the, i. 3. 

Kingdom, the, of Christ, eternal, ii. 

127, 128. 
Kingdom, the earthly, of the saint» 

after their resurrection, ii. 147- 

151 ; the prophecies respecting, 

not allegorical, 151, etc. 
Knee, bending the, a symbol of the 

resurrection, ii. 163. 
Knowledge, puffs up, i. 215 ; perfect, 

not attainable in this hfe, 219-228. 
Knowledge, the true, ii. 11, 175. 

Lateinos, ii. 137. 

Law, the old and the new, has but 
one author, i. 399, etc. ; Christ did 
not abrogate the natural precepts 
of, but removed the bondage of, 
412, etc. ; man was placed under, 
for his OTvn benefit, 416 ; originally 
inscribed on the hearts of men, 
but afterwards, as the Mosaic, 
made by God to bi-idle the desires 
of the Jews, 419-421 ; perfect 
righteousness not obtained by, 

Letters and syllables, the absurd 
theories of Marcion respecting, i. 
56-64, 65-71 ; absurdity of argu- 
ments derived from, 2G4 ; God 
not to be sought after by means 
of, 212, etc. 

Levitical dispensation, the, not ap- 
pointed by God for His own sake, 
i. 425, etc. 

Life and death, ii. 82, etc, 

Linus, bishop of Eome, i. 261._ 

Living creatures, the symbolic im- 
port of the four, i. 293. 

Logos, the /Eon so called, and Sige, 
i. 150 ; absurdity of the Valen- 
tinian account of the generation 
of, 175, etc., 224. 



Lor<l, the, is one God, the Father, i. 
377 ; testimony of Moses to, 378, 

Lot and his daughters, the typical 
import of the story of, ii. 1-3; 
the wife of, turned into a pillar 
of salt, 3, 4. 

Luke, and Paul, i. 316 ; refutation of 
the Ebionites who tried to dis- 
parage the authority of Paul from 
the writings of, 320. 

Magic, our Lord's miracles not per- 
formed by, i. 245. 

Magical practices, the, of Marcus, 
i. 51, etc. 

Man, the first, according to the 
Ophites, i. 104, 105. 

Man, God's mercy to, after the fall, 
i. 347 ; the object of God's loug- 
suifering, 348; needs a greater than 
man to save, 349, 350 ; why not 
at first made perfect, ii. 42, etc.; 
endowed with the faculty of dis- 
tinguishing good and evil, 45 ; the 
whole natux'e of, has salvation 
conferred on it, 67, etc. ; unfruit- 
ful, without the Holy Spirit, 78, 
etc. ; all things created for the 
service of, 133 ; every, either 
empty or full, 170. 

Man, the threefold kind, feigned by 
the heretics, i. 24; the respective 
destinations of the threefold kind 
of, 28, 33, 34. 

Mansions, the many, ii. 156. 

Marcion, the doctrines of, i. 98 ; 
mutilates the Gospels, ibid.; vain 
attempt of, to exclude Abraham 
from Christ's salvation, 396, etc. 

Marcionites, the, refuted, in relation 
to prophecy, ii. 18, etc. 

Marcosiaus, the, absiird interpreta- 
tions of, i. 69-72 ; absurd theories 
of, respecting things created, 72- 
74; appeal of, to Moses, 74-77; 
cite Scripture to prove that the 
Father was unknown before the 
coming of Christ, 78 ; the apocry- 
phal Scriptures of, 79 ; pervert 
the Gospels, 79, 80 ; views of, 

, respecting redemption, 81-84; de- 
parture of, from the truth, 84-86. 

Marcus, the deceitful arts and nefa- 
rious practices of, i. 51; pretends 
to confer the gift of prophecy, 52, 
53 ; corrupts women, 64 ; hypo- 
thesis of, respecting letters a,ud 

syllables, 56-64; pretended reve- 
lations of Sige to, 64-69. 
Mary, would hasten on Jesus, but is 

checked by Him, i. 330; and Eve, 

compared, ii. 106. 
Matter, ii. 173, 174. 
Men possessed of free-will, ii. 36; 

not true that some are by nature 

good, and some bad, 37. 
Men, spiritual, ii. 6, etc., 73-80, etc. 
Men, the three kinds of, feigned by 

the heretics, i. 24-27! 
]Menander, successor to Simon Ma- 
gus, i. 89. 
Mercy, not to be exaggerated at the 

expense of justice, i. 471. 
Metropator, i. 21. 
Miracles claimed to be performed 

by heretics, i. 241 ; performed by 

Christ and His disciples, 245. 
Moral faculty, the, in man, ii. 45. 
Monogenes, the, of Yalentinus, i. 5, 

7 ; of Ptolemy, 49. 
Monotes, i. 47. 
Months, the, do not fall in with the 

Valentinian theories of .^llons, i. 

Moses, ii. 172; Aaron and Miriam 

sin against, 173. 
Mother, the, of the Valentinian 

heresy, i. 185-190. 

]^aaman cleansed of his leprosy, ii. 

Names of God, different, in the 

Hebrew Scriptures, i. 254, 255. 
Names of our Lord, i. 205, 206. 
New covenant, the, ii. 19, 20. 
Nicolaitanes, the, i. 97. 
Nous, or Monogenes, i. 5, 7, 49, 106. 
Numijer of the beast, the, ii. 135- 

Numbers and letters, the folly of 

deriving arguments from, i. 204- 


Oblation, the new, instituted by 
Christ, ii. 76. 

Oblations and sacrifices, i. 431, etc. 

Ogdoad, the first, of Yalentinus, i. 
5, 21 ; .John asserted to have set 
forth, 34-38, 45, 46, 47. 

Old Testament, the, everywhere 
mentions and predicts the advent 
of Christ, i. 403. 

Olive, the wild, the symbolical sig- 
nificance of, ii. 78, etc. 

Ophites, the, i. 104. 



Papias, quoted, ii. 146. 

Parables, ii. 34, 35. 

Parables, the proper mode of inter- 
preting, i. 217. 

Paschal solemnities, differences in 
the observance of, ii. 159, 100. 

Passion of the twelfth ^'Eon, how 
said to be indicated in Scripture, 
i. 13 ; not to be proved from Scrip- 
ture, 190-193. 

Passions, animal, produce, accord- 
ing to Valentinus, material sub- 
stances, i. 22. 

Pastors, the, to whom the apostles 
committed the churches, to be 
heard, ii. 108, etc. 

Patriarchs and prophets foretold the 
advent of Christ, i. 455. 

Paul, caught up into the third 
heavens, i. 335, 336 ; and Peter, 
founders of the church of Rome, 
261 ; sometimes uses words not in 
their grammatical sequence, 273 ; 
knew no mysteries unrevealed to 
the other apostles, 316 ; refuta- 
tion of the Ebionites who dispa- 
raged the wi'itings of, 320, etc. 

Perfect, why man was not made, ii. 

Persecution foretold, ii. 12. 

Pharaoh's heart hardened, how, ii. 

Plato, quoted, i. 373. 

Pleroma, the, of Valentinus, i. 5, 14 ; 
shown to be absurd, 124, 168, 170. 

Polycarp, conversed with the apostles, 
i. 262, 263 ; his reply to Marcion, 
263 ; the epistle of, 263, 264 ; Ire- 
nteus' testimony respecting, 158, 

Predictions of the prophets, the, ii. 
12, etc.; all uttered under the 
same inspiration, 22. 

Presbyters, the, ought to be obeyed, 
i. 462 ; false, 463 ; faithful, 463, 

Proarche, the, of Valentinus, i. 

Production, the first order of, main- 
tained by heretics proved to be 
indefensil)le, i. 152, etc. ; and 
absurd, 168, ISO. 

Prophets, the, refutation of the 
notion that they uttered their 
pi-edictions under the inspiration 
of different "gods, i. 254, ii. 22 ; 
their i)redictions, 12, etc. ; referred 
all their predictions to Christ, 18, 

etc. ; sent by the same Father who 
sent the Son, 26, etc. 

Propator, the, of Valentinus, i. 4, 
7 ; of Ptolemy, 50. 

Protarchontes, i. 103. 

Providence of God, the world ruled 
by, i. 371. 

Prunicus, i. 104, 106, 107, 108. 

Ptolemy the heresiarch, the doctrines 
of, i. 49, etc. 

Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, procures 
a translation of the Jewish Scrip- 
tures to be made, i. 352, 353. 

Pythagoras, the heretics borrow 
from, i. 164. 

lledemption, the views of, enter- 
tained by heretics, i. 81, etc. 

Resurrection, the, of the dead, as- 
serted by Jesus against the Sad- 
ducees, i. 3S6, 387 ; of the flesh 
asserted, ii. 61, etc. ; of the body, 
64, etc.; various proofs of, from 
the Old Testament, 63, etc.; 
proved by the resurrection of 
Christ, 70, etc., 87, etc.; proofs 
of, from Isaiah and Ezekiel, 94 ; 
an actual, 155, etc. ; illustrated, 

Retribution, the day of, i. 197. 

Ridicule, poured upon the emana- 
tions and nomenclature of Valen- 
tinus, i. 47, etc. 

Righteous, the, and the wicked, ii. 

Righteousness, perfect, not con- 
ferred by the law, i. 421-425. 

Rod, the, of Moses, i. 357. 

Roman empire, the dissolution of 
the, predicted, ii. 125. 

Rome, the church of, founded and 
organized by Peter and Paul, i. 
261 ; the first bishops of, 261, 202. 

Sabaoth, i. 255 and note. 
Sabbath-day, the law did not pro- 
hibit the hungiy eating food ready 

to hand on the, i. 398. 
Sacrifices, not required by God for 

their own sake, i. 420, 427-431 ; 

further remarks on, 431. 
Sadducees, the reply of Jesus to the 

question asked by the, i. 387. 
Samson, and the boy who guided him, 

types, ii. 171 ; further reference 

to, 178. 
Satan, ii. 113 ; blasphemes God, 127, 




Saturninus, the doctrines of, i. 89, 

Saviour, the, asserted by the Valen- 
tinians to be derived from all the 
^-Eons, i. 14, 25; various opinions 
of, among the heretics, 50. 

Scriptures, the, appealed to by the 
heretics, i. 11, 15 ; how perverted 
by the heretics, 31, etc.; refuta- 
tion of false interpretations of, 38, 
etc. ; perverted by the Marcosians 
to siipport their absurdities, 74- 
80 ; perverse interpretations of the 
heretics, 144 ; proper method of 
interpreting the obscure passages 
of, 217-219; translation of the 
Hebrew, into Greek, 251 ; inter- 
preted \vith fidelity by the LXX. 
translators, 253. 

Seed, Valentinian absurdities re- 
specting, exposed, i. 184-190. 

Seeing God, i. 441, 442, 443, 444, 
445, 446, 447. 

Separatists, to be shunned, i. 463, 

Septuagint, the story of the origin 
of, i. 352, 353. 

Serpent, the, cursed, i. 366 ; specu- 
lations respecting, ii. 165, 166. 

Sethians, the doctrines of the, i. 104. 

Shadrach, etc., in the fiery furnace, 
ii. 66. 

Sige, i. 4 and note, 7 ; pretended 
revelation made by, to Marcus, 
65; and Logos, mutually contra- 
dictory and repugnant, 150. 

Simeon and Jesus, i. 327. 

Simon of Gyrene, curious opinion of 
Basilides respecting, i. 91. 

Simon Magus, i. 86 ; the pretensions 
of, 86, 87 ; honoured with a statue, 
87; and Helena, 87, 88; the priests 
of, 88; succeeded by Menander, 

Sin, God not the author of, refuta- 
tion of the Marcionites, 474, etc. 

Sin, the pardon of, ii, 100, 101. 

Sins of former times, recorded in 
Scripture for a warning to us, i. 

Son, meaning of the term, ii. 51. 

Son of God, the, not made man in 
appearance only, i. .342-344; every- 
where set forth in the Old Testa- 
ment, 403, etc. 

Son, the, reveals the Father, i. 390, 
395 ; revealed by the Father, 391. 

Sons of the devil, ii. 51. 

Soul and body, views of the heretics 
relating to the future destruction 
of, refuted, i. 228, etc. 

Souls, absurdity of the doctrine of 
the transmigration of, i. 247-250 ; 
■ existence of, after death, 250, 251; 
immortal, although they had a be- 
ginning, 251-253. 

Soter, i. 205. 

Sophia, the ^-Eon so called, i. 6 ; her 
passion, 7, 8; another name of 
Achamoth, 16, 103 ; could have 
produced nothing apart from her 
consort, 149; exposure of the ab- 
surdity of the whole Valentinian 
theory respecting, 180, etc. 

Spirit, the Holy, gifts of the, ii. 72. 

Spiritual, the absurdity of heretics 
claiming to be, while they declare 
the Demiurge to be animal, i. 331. 

Spiritual men, ii. 6, 73 ; and animal, 
80, etc. 

Spoiling the Egyptians, the act ex- 
amined and vindicated, i. 475. 

Stauros and Horos, i. 14, 15, 29. 

Stesichorus, the story of, i. 87, 88. 

Stone, the, cut out without hands, 
i. 356. 

Tatian, the doctrines of, i. 100; re- 
futed in his denial of the salva- 
tion of Adam, 368. 

Teaching, the, of Jesus, opposed to 
the opinions of heretics, i. 242, 

Teitan, ii. 137. 

Temptation, the, of Christ, ii. Hi- 
ll. 3. 

Testaments, the two, God the author 
of both, ii. 4. 

Tetrad, the first, i. 5 ; of Marcus 
reveals Aletheia, 59. 

Thamar, her labour typical, i. 459, 

Thelesis, i. 49. 

Theodotian and Aquila, their inter- 
pretation of Isa. vii. 14 refuted, 
i. 351, 352. 

Translation, the, of Enoch and 
Elijah, ii. 00. 

Transmigration of souls, the, the 
absurdity of the doctrine of, i. 247- 

Treasure hid in a field, the, i. 461. 

Triacontad, the, of the heretics, i. 

Truth, the, to be found in the catho- 
lic church, i. 264. 



Types, eartlily, of heavenly things, 
i. 436, etc. 

Unity, the, of the faith of the uni- 
versal church, i. 42. 

Unity, the, of God, i. 268, etc., ii. 
100, 114. 

Utter emptiness, the, of Valentinus, 
i. 48. 

Vacuum, the absurdity of the, of the 
heretics, i. 125. 

Valentinian views of Jesus refuted 
from the apostolic wiitings, i. 32.3. 

Valentinians, the, their immoral 
opinions and practices, i. 26, 27 ; 
how they pervert Scripture to 
support their own opinions, 31, 
etc.; refutation of their false in- 
terpretations of Scripture, 38, etc. ; 
quote Homer to support their 
views, 40, 41; the inconsistent and 
contradictory opinions of, 45, etc. 

Valentinus, the absurd ideas held 
by, i. 4 ; his system derived from 
the heathen, with only a change 
of terms, 160-167 ; recapitulation 
of arguments against the views of, 
239, etc. 

Virgin, Jesus born of a, i. 346, 359- 
362 ; prophecy of Isaiah relating 
to, 351, etc. 

Virgin Mary, the, and Eve, a com- 
parison between, ii. 106. 

Visions of God, i. 446, 447, 448, 449, 

Will, the freedom of the, in man, 
ii.'36, etc. 

Wine, and water, the mixture of, ii. 
57; and bread, in the Eucharist, 59. 

Woman, the, with the issue of blood, 
not a type of the suffering Mon, 
i. 203. 

Word, the, the world made through, 
i. 122; reveals the Father, 390, 
391 ; always with the Father, 
440 ; all things created by, 441 ; 
declares God, 444; takes flesh to 
save the flesh, ii. 91 ; the image 
of God, 99 ; the Creator, 105. 

Works of the flesh, the, ii. 80. 

World, the, not made by angels, but 
by God through the Word, i. 120- 
123, 124, 125; not formed by any 
other beings within the territory 
contained by the Father, 129, etc. ; 
the Creator of, one, 142 ; ruled by 
the providence of God, SJl; to be 
annihilated, ii. 80. 

Year, the divisions of, do not really 
suit the Valentinian theory of 
^ons, i. 210, 212. 

Year of the Lord, the acceptable, ii. 

Zoe, i. 5. 

















Treatise on Cliiist and Antielirist, .... 3 

Expository Treatise against the Jews, .... 41 

Fragment of tlie Discourse of St. Hippolytus against the Greeks, 46 

Against the Heresy of one- Noetus, .... 51 

Against Beron and Helix, ..... 71 

The Discourse on the Holy Theophany, .... 80 

Fragments of Discourses or Homilies by Hippolytus, . 88 

Fragments from other Writings of Hippolytus, . . 94 

The Story of a Maiden of Corinth, and a certain Person 

]\Ia.gistrianus, ...... 95 

Appendix to Part ii. of the Works of Hippolytus — 

A Discourse by the most blessed Hippolytus, Bishop and 
]\Iartyr, on the End of the World, and on Antichrist, 

and on the Second Coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, 98 

Hippolytus on the Twelve Apostles, . . . 130 

The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles, . . 132 

Heads of the Canons of Abulides or Hij^polytus, . . 135 

Canons of the Church of Alexandria, . . . 137 


The Epistles of Pope Zephyrinus- 

Introductory Notice, 
The First Epistle, . 
The Second Epistle, 



Fkagments of Caius — 

Introductory Notice, .... 

1. From a Dialogue or Disputation against Proclus, a De 

fender of the Sect of the Cataphrygians, 

2. Fragments of an Anonymous Work against the Heresy 

of Artemon, ascribed by some to Caius, 

3. Canon Muratorianus — an Acephalous Fragment on the 

Canon of the Sacred Scriptures, ascribed by some to 
Caius, . . 

The Extant 'Wpjtixgs of Julius Africanus— 

Introductory Notice, .... 

1. The Epistle of Africanus to Aristides, 

2. The Extant Fragments of the Five Books of the Chrono 

graphy of Julius Africanus, 
The Passion of St. Symphorosa and her Seven Sons, 
Africanus' Narrative of Events happening in Persia on thi 

Bhth of Christ, .... 

The Epistles of Pope Callistus — 

The First Epistle, ..... 
The Second Epistle, .... 

The Epistle of Pope Urban First, 

The Extant Writings of Asterius Urbanus, . 

The Epistles of Pope Pontianus — 

The First Epistle, ..... 
The Second Epistle, ..... 

Pope Anterus — 

The Epistle, ..... 

The Epistles of Pope Fabian — 

The First Epistle, ..... 
The Second Epistle, .... 

The Third Epistle, ..... 

Decrees of Fabian, ..... 

Fragments of the Epistles of Alexander, 

Index of Texts, ...... 

Index of Subjects, ..... 























[Gallandi, Bibl vet. Patr. ii. p. 417, Venice 1765.] 

|S it was your desire, my beloved brother Tlieo- 
pliilus/ to be thoroughly informed on those 
topics which I put summarily before you, I 
have thought it rio;ht to set these matters of 
inquiry clearly forth to jour view, drawing largely from the 
holy Scriptures themselves as from a holy fountain, in order 
that you may not only have the pleasure of hearing them on 
the testinKiny of men,- but may also be able, by surveying 
them in the light of (divine) authority, to glorify God in all. 
For this will be as a sure supply furnished you by us for your 
journey in this present life, so that by ready argument apply- 
ing things ill understood and apprehended by most, you may 
sow them in the ground of your heart, as in a rich and clean 
soil." By these, too, you will be able to silence those who 

^ Perhaps the same Theophilus -whom Methodius, a contemporary of 
Hippoly.tus, addresses as Epiphanius, vol. i. pp. 640, 560, 590. From this 
introduction, too, it is clear that they are in error who take this book 
to be a homily. (Fabricius.) 

2 In the text the reading is rZv 6'vrav, for which tui/ uray = of tJie ears, 
is proposed by some, and ccvSpuvntu = of men, by others. In the manu-, 
scripts the abbreviation avuv is often found for dvdpuTruv. 

^ In the text we find u; ttIuv x,a.6a.poi yjj, for which grammar requires 
ij "TTiovt x.cc6xpos. yvi. Combefisius proposes ua'Trspoi'V xudxp» yyi = as in 
clean ground. Others would read u; Trvpot/, etc. = lilce grain in clean 



oppose and gainsay the word of salvation. Only see that you 
do not give these things over to unbelieving and blasphemous 
tongues, for that is no common danger. But impart them 
to pious and faithful men, Avho desire to live holily and 
righteously with fear. For it is not to no purpose that the 
blessed apostle exhorts Timothy, and saj-s, " O Timothy, keep 
that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and 
vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called ; 
which some professing have erred concerning the faith." ^ 
And again, "Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace 
that is in Christ Jesus. And the things that thou hast heard 
of me in many exhortations, the same commit thou to faith- 
ful men,^ who shall be able to teach others also." ^ If, then, 
the blessed (apostle) delivered these things with a pious 
caution, which could be easily known by all, as he perceived 
in the spirit that " all men have not faith," ^ how much greater 
will be our danger, if, rashly and without thought, we commit 
the revelations of God to profane and unworthy men ? 

2. For as the blessed prophets were made, so to speak, eyes 
for us, they foresaw through faith the mysteries of the word, 
and became ministers of these ^ things also to succeedinii 
generations, not only reporting the past, but also announc- 
ing the present and the future, so that the prophet might 
not appear to be one only for the time being, but might 
also predict tlie future for all generations, and so be reckoned 
a (true) prophet. For these fathers were furnished with the 
Spirit, and largely honoured by the Word Himself ; and just 
as it is with instruments of music, so had they the Word 
always, like the plectrum,^ in union with them, and when 
moved by Him the prophets announced what God willed. 

1 1 Tim. vi. 20, 21. 

2 This reading, ■zrupuKTvy^ueijv for f^aprvpuv (= 'witnesses), whicli is 
peculiar to Hippolytus alone, is aU the more remarkable as so thoroughly 
suiting Paul's meaning in the passage. 

3 2Tim. u. 1, 2. ■* 2 Thess. iii. 2. 
^ The text reads ccrrjo. = yrluch. Gudius proposes rtva, = some. 

^ The plectrum was the instrument with which the lyre was struck. 
The text is in confusion here. Combcfisius corrects it, as we render it, 


For tliey spake not of their own power ^ (let there be no mis- 
take as to that"), neither did they declare what pleased them- 
selves. But first of all they were endowed with Avisdom by 
the Word, and then again were rightly instructed in the 
future by means of visions. And then, when thus themselves 
fully convinced, they spake those things which ^ were revealed 
by God to them alone, and concealed from all others. For 
Avith what reason should the prophet be called a prophet, un- 
less he in spirit foresaw the future? For if the prophet spake 
of any chance event, he would not be a prophet then in 
speaking of things which were under the eye of all. But 
one who sets forth in detail things yet to be, was rightly 
judged a prophet. Wherefore prophets were with good reason 
called from the very first " seers." ^ And hence we, too, who 
are rightly instructed in what was declared aforetime by them, 
speak not of our own capacity. For we do not attempt to 
make any change one way or another among ourselves in the 
words that were spoken of old by them, but we make the 
Scriptures in which these are written public, and read them 
to those who can believe rightly ; for that is a common 
benefit for both parties : for him who speaks, in holding in 
memory and setting forth correctly things uttered of old;'^ 
and for him who hears, in giving attention to the things 
spoken. Since, then, in this there is a work assigned to both 
parties together, viz. to him who speaks, that he speak forth 
faithfully without regard to risk,*^ and to him who hears, 
that he hear and receive in faith that which is spoken, I be- 
seech you to strive together with me in prayer to God. 

3. Do you wish then to know in what manner the Word 
of God, who was again the Son of God,'^ as He was of old 

1 2 Pet. i. 21. 

- The text reads ^»j i^' (= that I may not deceive). Some pro- 
pose ug ■TT'ha.voi = as deceivers. 

^ This is according to the emendation of Combefisius. 

^ 1 Sam. ix. 9. 

^ In the text it is z-po^cet/^ivx (= things before us or proposed to us), 
for which Combefisius proposes, as in our rendering, Trpoitpyjfiivx. 

^ The original is dx-hlvvov. 

^ Isa. xlii. 1 ; Matt. xii. 18. The text is ctvrog xaX^j/ 6 toZ Qiov 


the Word, commuuicated His revelations to the blessed 
prophets in former times ? Well, as the Word shows liis 
compassion and His denial of all respect of persons by 
all the saints, He enlightens them/ and adapts them to 
that which is advantageous for us, like a skilful physician, 
understanding the weakness of men. And the ignorant He 
loves to teach, and the erring He turns again to His own 
true way. And by those who live by faith He is easily 
found ; and to those of pure eye and holy heart, who desire 
to knock at the door. He opens immediately. For He casts 
away none of His servants as unworthy of the divine mys- 
teries. He does not esteem the rich man more highly than 
the poor, nor does He despise the poor man for his poverty. 
He does not disdain the barbarian, nor does He set the eunuch 
aside as no man. He does not hate the female on account 
of the woman's act of disobedience in the beginning, nor does 
He reject the male on account of the man's transgression. 
But He seeks all, and desires to save all, wishing to make all 
the children of God, and calling all the saints unto one perfect 
man. For there is also one Son (or Servant) of God, by 
whom we too, receiving the regeneration through the Holy 
Spirit, desire to come all unto one perfect and heavenly 

4. For whereas the Word of God was without flesh,^ He 
took upon Himself the holy flesh by the holy Virgin, and pre- 
pared a robe which He wove for Himself, like a bridegroom, 
in the sufferings of the cross, in order that by uniting His 
own power with our mortal body, and by mixing* the incor- 
ruptible with the corruptible, and the strong with the weak. 
He might save perishing man. The web-beam, therefore, is 
the passion of the Lord upon the cross, and the warp on it 

-Tiretlg. ScG Macarius, Divinitas D. N. S. C. book iv. cli. xiii. p. IGO, and 
Grabe on Bull's Defcn.f. Fid. Nic. p. 101. 

^ Reading uvrovg for «.vtou. " Epb. iv. 13. 

^ The text has uu = being, for wbicli read ^u = was. 

* l^i^ug. Thomassin, De Incarnatione Verhi, iii. 5, cites the most dis- 
tinguished of the Greek and Latin fathers, who taught that a mingling 
(commislio), without confusion indeed, but yet most thorough, of the two 
natures, is the bond and nexus of the personal unity. 


is the power of the Holy Spirit, and the woof is the holy 
flesh wrought (woven) by the Spirit, and the thread is the 
grace which by the love of Christ binds and unites the two 
in one, and the combs (or rods) are the Word ; and the 
workers are the patriarchs and prophets who weave the fair, 
long, perfect tunic for Christ; and the Word passing through 
these, like the combs (or rods), completes through them that 
which His Father willeth. 

5. But as time now presses for the consideration of the 
question immediately in hand, and as what has been already 
said in the introduction with regard to the glorj' of God, may 
suffice, it is proper that we take the holy Scriptures them- 
selves in hand, and find out from them what, and of what 
manner, the coming of Antichrist is ; on what occasion and at 
what time that impious one shall be revealed ; and whence 
and from what tribe (he shall come) ; and what his name is, 
which is indicated by the number in the Scripture ; and how 
he shall work error among the people, gathering them from 
the ends of the earth ; and (how) he shall stir up tribulation 
and persecution against the saints ; and how he shall glorify 
himself as God ; and what his end shall be ; and how the 
sudden appearing of the Lord shall be revealed from heaven ; 
and what the conflagration of the whole world shall be ; and 
what the glorious and heavenly kingdom of the saints is to 
be, when they reign together with Christ ; and what the 
punishment of the wicked by fire. 

6. Now, as our Lord Jesus Christ, who is also God, was 
prophesied of under the figure of a lion,^ on account of His 
royalty and glory, in the same way have the Scriptures also 
aforetime spoken of Antichrist as a lion, on account of his 
tyranny and violence. For the deceiver seeks to liken him- 
self in all things to the Son of God Christ is a lion, so 
Antichrist is also a lion; Christ is a king,"' so Antichrist is also 
a king. The Saviour was manifested as a lamb f so he too, 
in like manner, will appear as a lamb, though within he is a 
wolf. The Saviour came into the world in the circumcision, 
and he will come in the same manner. The Lord sent 

^ Rev. V. 5. - John xviii. 37. ^ John i. 29. 


apostles among all the nations, and lie in like manner will 
send false apostles. The Saviour gathered together the 
sheep that were scattered abroad/ and lie in like manner 
will bring together a people that is scattered abroad. The 
Lord gave a seal to those who believed on Him, and he will 
give one in like manner. The Saviour appeared in the form 
of man, and he too will come in the form of a man. The 
Saviour raised up and showed His holy flesh like a temple," 
and he will raise a temple of stone in Jerusalem. And his 
seductive arts we shall exhibit in what follows. But for the 
present let us turn to the question in hand. 

7. Now the blessed Jacob speaks to the following effect 
in his benedictions, testifying prophetically of our Lord and 
Saviour: '"'Judah, let thy brethren praise thee: thy hand 
shall be on the neck of thine enemies ; thy father's children 
shall bow down before thee. Judah is a lion's whelp : from 
the shoot, my son, thou art gone up : he stooped down, he 
couched as a lion, and as a lion's whelp ; who shall rouse 
him up ? A ruler shall not depart from Judah, nor a leader 
from his thighs, until he come for whom it is reserved ; and 
he shall be the expectation of the nations. Binding his ass 
to a vine, and his ass's colt to the vine tendril ; he shall wash 
his garment in wine, and his clothes in the blood of the 
grapes. Plis eyes shall be gladsome as with wine, and his 
teeth shall be whiter than milk." ^ 

8. Knowing, then, as I do, how to explain these things in 
detail, I deem it right at present to quote the words them- 
selves. But since the expressions thcniselves urge us to 
speak of them, I shall not omit to do so. For these are truly 
divine and glorious things, and things well calculated to 
benefit the soul. The prophet, in using the expression, a 
lions lohelp, means him who sprang from Judah and David 
according to the flesh, who was not made indeed of the seed 
of David, but was conceived by the (power of the) Holy 
Ghost, and came forth "^ from the holy shoot of earth. For 

1 John xi. 52. - John ii. 19. ^ Gen. xlix. 8-12. 

* The text lias zov-ov—Trprjip-^x^oix.ivov^ for which we read, with Combe- 
fisius, 7cpotpx,6[^iyov. 


Isaiah says, " There shall come forth a rod out of the root of 
Jesse, and a flower shall grow up ovit of it."^ That which is 
called by Isaiah a fioioer, Jacob calls a shoot. For first he 
shot forth, and then he flourished in the world. And the 
expression, " he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as a 
lion's whelp," refers to the three days' sleep (death, couching) 
of Christ ; as also Isaiah says, " How is faithful Sion be- 
come an harlot ! it was full of judgment ; in which right- 
eousness lodged (couched) ; but nov/ murderers." " And 
David says to the same effect, " I laid me down (couched) 
and slept ; I awaked : for the Lord will sustain me ;" ^ in 
M-hich words he points to the fact of his sleep and rising 
again. And Jacob says, "Who shall rouse him up?*' And 
that is just what David and Paul both refer to, as when 
Paul says, " and God the Father, who raised Him from the 
dead." ^ 

9. And in saying, " A ruler shall not depart from Judali, 
nor a leader from his thighs, until he come for whom it is 
reserved; and he shall be the expectation of the nations," he 
referred the fulfilment (of that prophecy) to Christ. For He 
is our expectation. For we expect Him, (and) by faith we 
behold Him as He comes from heaven with power. 

10. "Binding his ass to a vine:" that means that He unites 
His people of the circumcision with His own calling (voca- 
tion). For He was the vine;^ " And his ass's colt to the 
vine-tendril :" that denotes the people of the Gentiles, as He 
calls the circumcision and the uncircumcision unto one faith. 

11. "He shall wash his garment in wine," that is, accord- 
ing to that voice of His Father which came down by the 
Holy Ghost at the Jordan." " And his clothes in the blood 

^ Isa. xi. 1. . 2 iga. i. 21. 3 Ps. iii. 5. 

-* Gal. i. 1. s John xv. 1. 

'■ The text gives simply, tsji/ to5 a-yiov^ etc. ^ih.Q paternal voice o/ tiie 
Ilohj GJwst, etc. As this would seem to represent the Holy Ghost as the 
Father of Christ, Combefisius proposes, as in our rendering, ;c«t« t'/jj/ 
oioi rou ckyiov, etc. The icine, therefore, is taken as a figure of His deitij, 
and the garment as a figure of His Immanity ; and the sense would be, 
that He has the latter imbued with the former in a way peculiar to 
Himself — even as the voice at the Jordan declared Him to be the 


of the grape." In the blood of what grape, then, but just 
His own flesh, which hung upon the tree like a cluster of 
grapes ? — from whose side also flowed two streams, of blood 
and water, in which the nations are w'ashed and purified, 
which (nations) He may be supposed to have as a robe about 

12. " His eyes gladsome with wine." And what are the 
eyes of Christ but the blessed prophets, wdio foresaw in the 
Spirit, and announced beforehand, tlie sufferings that were to 
befall Him, and rejoiced in seeing Him in power with spiritual 
eyes, being fm'nished (for their vocation) b}^ the word Him- 
self and His grace % 

13. And in saying, '•' And his teeth (shall be) whiter than 
milk," he referred to the commandments that proceed from the 
holy mouth of Christ, and which are pure (purify) as milk. 

14. Thus did the Scriptures preach beforetime of this 
lion and lion's whelp. And in like manner also we find it 
written regarding Antichrist. For Moses speaks thus : " Dan 
is a lion's whelp, and he shall leap from Bashan." '" 'But that 
no one may err by supposing that this is said of the Saviour, 
let him attend carefully to the matter. " Dan," he says, " is 
a lion's whelp ;" and in naming the tribe of Dan, he declared 
clearly the tribe from which Antichrist is destined to spring. 
For as Christ springs from the tribe of Judah, so Antichrist 
is to spring from the tribe of Dan. And that the case stands 
thus, we see also from the words of Jacob : " Let Dan be a 
serpent, lying upon the ground, biting the horse's heel." " 
What, then, is meant by the serpent but Antichrist, that 
deceiver who is mentioned in Genesis,^ who deceived Eve and 
supplanted Adam . (inepvLaa^, bruised Adam's heel) ? But 
since it is necessary to prove this assertion by sufficient testi- 
mony, we shall not shrink from the task. 

15. That it is in reality out of the tribe of Dan, then, that 

Father's Son, not His Son by adoption, but His own Son, anointed as 
man with divinity itseK. 

^ The nations are compared to a robe about Christ, as something 
foreign to Himself, and deriviag all their gifts from Him. 

2 Deut. xxxiii. 22. ^ Gen. xlix. 17. * Gen. iii. 1. 


that tyrant and king, that dread judge, that son of the devil, 
is destined to spring and arise, the prophet testifies when ho 
says, "Dan shall judge his people, as (he is) also one tribe in 
Israel." ^ But some one may say that this refers to Samson, 
who sprang from the tribe of Dan, and judged the people 
twenty years. Well, the prophecy had its partial fulfilment 
in Samson, but its complete fulfilment is reserved for Anti- 
christ. For Jeremiah also speaks to this effect : " From Dan 
we are to hear the sound of the swiftness of his horses : the 
whole land trembled [at the sound of the neighing, of the 
driving of his horses" "^]. And another prophet says: "He 
shall gather together all his strength, from the east even to 
the west. They whom he calls, and they whom he calls not, 
shall go with him. Ete shall make the sea white with the 
sails of his ships, and the plain black with the shields of his 
armaments. And whosoever shall oppose him in war shall 
fall by the sword." '' That these things, then, are said of no 
one else but that tyrant, and shameless one, and adversary of 
God, we shall show in what follows. 

16. But Isaiah also speaks thus : " And it shall come to 
pass, that when the Lord hath performed His whole work 
upon Mount Zion and on Jerusalem, He will punish (visit) 
the stout mind, the king of Assyria, and the greatness 
(height) of the glory of his eyes. For he said, By my 
strength will I do it, and by the wisdom of my understanding 
I will remove the bounds of the peoples, and will rob them of 
their strength : and I will make the inhabited cities tremble, 
and will gather the whole world in my hand like a nest, and 
I will lift it up like eggs that are left. And there is no one 
that shall escape or gainsay me, [and open the mouth and 
chatter. Shall the axe boast itself without him that heweth 
therewith ? or shall the saw magnify itself without him that 
shaketh (draweth) it ? As if one should raise a rod or a staff, 
and the staff should lift itself up] : and not thus. But the 
Lord shall send dishonour unto thy honour ; and into thy 
glory a burning fire shall burn. And the light of Israel shall 

^ Gen. xlix. 16. - Jer. viii. 16. 

^ Perhaps from an apocryphal book, as also below in ch. liv. 


be a fire, and shall sanctify him in flame, and shall consume 
the forest like grass." ^ 

17. And again he says in another place : '*' How hath the 
exactor ceased, and how hath the oppressor ceased ! " God hath 
broken the yoke of the rulers of sinners, He who smote the 
people in wrath, and with an incurable stroke : He that strikes 
the people with an incurable stroke, which Pie did not spare. 
He ceased (rested) confidently : the whole earth shouts with 
rejoicing. The trees of Lebanon rejoiced at thee, and the 
cedar of Lebanon, (saying), Since thou art laid down, no 
feller is come up against us. Hell from beneath is moved at 
meeting thee : all the mighty ones, the rulers of the earth, 
are gathered together — the lords from their thrones. All 
the kings of the nations, all they shall answer together, and 
shall say. And thou, too, art taken as we ; and thou art 
reckoned among us. Thy pomp is brought down to earth, 
thy great rejoicing : they will spread decay under thee ; and 
the worm shall be thy covering.'^ How art thou fallen from 
heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning {lit. that risest early) ! 
He is cast down to the ground who sends off to all the 
nations. And thou didst say in thy mind, I will ascend into 
heaven, I will set my throne above the stars of heaven : I 
will sit down upon the lofty mountains towards the north : 
I will ascend above the clouds : I will be like the Most High. 
Yet now thou shalt be brought down to hell, and to the 
foundations of the earth ! They that see thee shall wonder 
at thee, and shall say, This is the man that excited the earth, 
that did shake kings, that made the whole world a wilderness, 
and destroyed the cities, that released not those in prison.'* 
All the kings of the earth did lie in honour, every one in his 
own house ; but thou shalt be cast out on the mountains like 
a loathsome carcase, with many who fall, pierced througli 
with the sword, and going down to hell. As a garment 
stained with blood is not pure, so neither shalt thou be comely 
(or clean) ; because thou hast destroyed my land, and slain 

^ Isa. X. 12-17. " sff/o-wotiBflSffT'/j?. 

^ x.u.ra.x.a.'KviA^at, ; other reading, x.a.Tu'hitf^ = remains. 

•* The text gives iTruyo)'/^. Combefisius prefers ciTrxyiiyyi = trial. 


my people. Thou shalt not abide, enduring for ever, a wicked 
seed. Prepare thy cliildren for slaughter, for the sins of thy 
father, that they rise not, neither possess my land."^ 

18. Ezekiel also speaks of him to the same effect, thus : 
" Thus saith the Lord God, Because thine heart is lifted up, 
and thou hast said, I am God, I sit in the seat of God, in the 
midst of the sea ; yet art thou a man, and not God, (though) 
thou hast set thine heart as the heart of God. Art thou 
wiser than Daniel ? Have the w4se not instructed thee in 
their wisdom ? With thy Avisdom or with thine understand- 
ing hast thou gotten thee power, and gold and silver in thy 
treasures ? By thy great wisdom and by thy traffic^ hast 
thou increased thy power? Thy heart is lifted up in thy 
power. Therefore thus saith the Lord God : Because thou 
hast set thine heart as the heart of God : behold, therefore I 
will bring strangers ^ upon thee, plagues from the nations : 
and they shall draw their swords against thee, and against 
the beauty of thy wisdom ; and they shall level thy beauty 
to destruction ; and they shall bring thee down ; and thou 
shalt die by the death of the wounded in the midst of the sea. 
Wilt thou yet say [before them that slay thee, I am God ? But 
thou art a man, and no God, in the hand of them that wound 
thee. Thou shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised by the 
hand of] strangers : for I have spoken it, saith the Lord."* 

19. These words then being thus presented, let us observe 
somewhat in detail what Daniel says in his visions. For in 
distin£fuishin2; the kingdoms that are to rise after these thincrs, 
he showed also the coming of Antichrist in the last times, and 
the consummation of the whole world. In expounding the 
vision of Nebuchadnezzar, then, he speaks thus : " Thou, O 
king, sawest, and behold a great image standing before thy 
face : the head of which was of fine gold, its arms and 
shoulders of silver, its belly and its thighs of brass, and its 

^ Isa. xiv. 4-21. 

^ i.e. according to tlie reading, if/,7roptx. The text is if^Trnpic. — ex- 

^ There is another reading, ^.tfiov; (= famines) tuv Idvuv. 
4 EzGk. xxviii. 2-10. 


legs of iron, (and) its feet part of iron and part of clay. 
Thou sawest, then, till that a stone was cut out without 
hands, and smote the image upon the feet that were of iron 
and clay, and brake them to an end. Then were the clay, 
the iron, the brass, the silver, (and) the gold broken, and 
became like the chaff from the summer threshing-floor ; and 
the strength (fulness) of the wind carried them away, and 
there was no place found for them. And the stone that 
smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the 
whole earth." ^ 

20. Now if we set Daniel's own visions also side by side 
with this, we shall have one exposition to give of the two 
together, and shall (be able to) show how concordant with 
each other they are, and how true. For he speaks thus : " I 
Daniel saw, and behold the four winds of the heaven strove 
upon the great sea. And four great beasts came up from the 
sea, diverse one from another. The first (was) like a lioness, 
and had wino;s as of an eacrle. I beheld till the winsjs thereof 
were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made 
stand upon the feet as a man, and a man's heart was given 
to it. And behold a second beast like to a bear, and it was 
made stand on one part, and it had three ribs in the mouth of 
it.^ I beheld, and lo a beast like a leopard, and it had upon 
the back of it four wings of a fowl, and the beast had four 
heads. After this I saw, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful 
and terrible, and strong exceedingly ; it had iron teeth [and 
claws of brass"], which devoured and brake in pieces, and it 
stamped the residue with the feet of it ; and it was diverse 
from all the beasts that v/ere before it, and it had ten horns. 
I considered its horns, and behold there came up among them 
another little horn, and before it there were three of the 
first horns plucked up by the roots ; and behold in this horn 

^ Dan. ii. 31-35. 

2 Combefisius adds, " between the teeth of it : and they said thus 
to it, Arise, devour much flesh." 

^ Combefisius inserted these words, because he thought that they must 
have been in the vision, as they occur subseq[uently in the explanation of 
the vision (v. 19). 


were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great 
things." ^ 

21. "I beheld till the thrones were set, and the Ancient of 
days did sit : and His garment was white as snow, and the 
hair of His head like pure wool : Plis throne was a flame of 
fire, His wheels were a burning fire. A stream of fire flowed 
before Him. Thousand thousands ministered unto Him, 
and ten thousand times ten thousand stood around Plim : the 
judgment was set, and the books were opened. I beheld 
then, because of the voice of the great words which the horn 
spake, till the beast was slain and perished, and his body 
given to the burning of fire. And the dominion of the other 
beasts was taken away."" 

22. " I saw in the night vision, and, behold, one like the 
Son of man Avas coming with the clouds of heaven, and 
came to the Ancient of days, and was brought near before 
Him. And there was given Him dominion, and honour, and 
the kingdom ; and all peoples, tribes, and tongues shall serve 
Him : His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall 
not pass away, and His kingdom shall not be destroyed." '" 

23. Now since these things, spoken as they are with a 
mystical meaning, may seem to some hard to understand, we 
shall keep back nothing fitted to impart an intelligent appre- 
hension of them to those who are possessed of a sound 
mind. He said, then, that a " lioness came up from the sea," 
and by that he meant the kingdom of the Babylonians in 
the world, which also was the head of gold on the image. In 
saying that ''it had wings as of an eagle," he meant that Ne- 
buchadnezzar the king was lifted up and was exalted against 
God. Then he says, "the wings thereof were plucked," that 
is to say, his glory was destroyed ; for he was driven out of 
his kingdom. And the words, " a man's heart was given to 
it, and it was made stand upon the feet as a man," refer to 
the fact that he repented and recognised himself to be only 
a man, and gave the glory to God. 

24. Then, after the lioness, he sees a " second beast like a 
bear," and that denoted the Persians. For after the Baby- 

^ Dan. vii. 2-8. ^ D^n. vii. 9-12. 3 pan. vii. 13, 14. 


lonlans, the Persians held the sovereign power. And in say- 
ing that there were " three ribs in the mouth of it," he pointed 
to three nations, viz. the Persians, and the Medes, and the 
Babylonians ; which were also represented on the image by the 
silver after the gold. Then (there was) " the third beast, a 
leopard," which meant the Greeks. For after the Persians, 
Alexander of Macedon obtained the sovereign power on sub- 
verting Darius, as is also shown by the brass on the image. 
And in saying that it had " four wings of a fowl," he taught 
us most clearly how the kingdom of Alexander was partitioned. 
For in speaking of ''four heads," he made mention of four kings, 
viz. those who arose out of that (kingdom),^ For Alexander, 
when dying, partitioned out his kingdom into four divisions. 

25. Then he says : "A fourth beast, dreadful and terrible; 
it had iron teeth and claws of brass." And who are these 
but the Romans ? which (kingdom) is meant by the iron — 
the kingdom Avhicli is now established ; for the legs of that 
(image) were of iron. And after this, what remains, beloved, 
but the toes of the feet of the image, in which part is iron 
and part clay, mixed together ? And mystically by the toes 
of the feet he meant the kings who are to arise from among 
them ; as Daniel also says (in the words), " I considered the 
beast, and lo there were ten horns behind it, among wliicli 
shall rise another (horn), an offshoot, and shall pluck up by 
the roots the three (that were) before it." And under this 
was signified none other than Antichrist, Avho is also himself 
to raise the kingdom of the Jews. He says that three horns 
are plucked up by the root by him, viz. the three kings of 
Egypt, and Libya, and Ethiopia, whom he cuts off in the 
array of battle. And he, after gaining terrible power over 
all, being nevertheless a tyrant," shall stir up tribulation 
and persecution against men, exalting himself against them. 
For Daniel says : " I considered the horn, and behold that 
horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them, 

^ Sec Curtius, x. 10. That Alexander himself divided his kingdom is 
asserted by Josephus Gorionides (iii.) and Cyril of Jerusalem {CcUcdi. 
4, De Sacra Scriptura'), and others. 

2 For cyM; = nevertheless, Gudius suggests 6.'i,t4oV = savage. 


till the beast was slain and perislied, and its body was given 
to the burning of fire." ^ 

26. After a little space the stone- will come from heaven 
which smites the image and breaks it in pieces, and subverts 
all the kingdoms, and gives the kingdom to the saints of the 
Most High. This is the stone which becomes a great moun- 
tain, and fills the whole earth, of which Daniel says : " I saw 
in the night visions, and behold one like the Son of man 
came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of 
days, and was brought near before Him. And there was 
given Him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom ; and all 
peoples, tribes, and languages shall serve Him : and His 
dominion is an everlasting dominion, Avhich shall not pass 
away, and His kingdom shall not be destroyed."^ He showed 
all pov/er given by the Father to the Son,* who is ordained 
Lord of thino;s in heaven, and thinss on earth, and things 
under the earth, and Judge of all:^ of things in heaven, 
because He was born, the Word of God, before all (ages) : 
and of things on earth, because Pie became man in the 
midst of men, to re-createour Adam through Himself ; and 
of things under the earth, because Pie was also reckoned 
among the dead, preaching the gospel to the souls of the 
saints," (and) by death overcoming death. 

27. As these things, then, are in the future, and as the 
ten toes of the image are equivalent to (so many) democracies, 
and the ten horns of the fourth beast are distributed over 
ten kingdoms, let us look at the subject a little more closel}', 
and consider these matters as in the clear light of a personal 
survey {o<b6a\[xo<^avo)i). 

28. The golden head of the image and the lioness denoted 
the Babylonians ; the shoulders and arms of silver, and the 
bear, represented the Persians and Modes; the belly and 
thighs of brass, and the leopard, meant the Greeks, who held 
the sovereignty from Alexander's time ; the legs of iron, and 
the beast dreadful and terrible, expressed the Romans, who 
hold the sovereignty at present ; the toes of the feet M'hich 

1 Dan. vii. 21, 11. " Dan. ii. 34, 45. » Dau. vii. 13. 14. 

* Matt, xxviii. 18. « Phil. ii. 10. « 1 Pet. iii. 19. 

HIPP. — VOL. II. ■ B 


were part clay and part iron, and the ten horns, were emblems 
of the kingdoms that are yet to rise ; the other little horn that 
grows up among them meant the Antichrist in their midst ; 
the stone that smites the earth and brings judgment upon the 
world was Christ. 

29. These things, beloved, we impart to you with fear, 
and yet readily, on account of the love of Christ, which sur- 
passeth all. For if the blessed prophets who preceded us 
did not choose to proclaim these things, tliough they knew 
them, openly and boldly, lest they should disquiet the souls 
of men, but recounted them mystically in parables and dark 
sayings, speaking thus, " Here is the mind which hath 
wisdom,"^ how much greater risk shall we run in venturing 
to declare openly things spoken by them in obscure terms ! 
Let us look, therefore, at the things which are to befall this 
unclean harlot in the last days ; and (let us consider) what 
and what manner of tribulation is destined to visit her in the 
wrath of God before the judgment as an earnest of her doom. 

30. Come, then, O blessed Isaiah ; arise, tell us clearly 
what thou didst prophesy with respect to the mighty Babylon. 
For thou didst speak also of Jerusalem, and thy Avord is 
accomplished. For thou didst speak boldly and openly : 
" Your country is desolate, your cities are burned with fire ; 
your land, strangers devour it in your presence, and it is 
desolate as overthrown by many strangers." The daughter 
of Sion shall be left as a cottage in a vineyard, and as a 
lodge in a garden of cucumbers, as a besieged city."^ What 
then ? Are not these things come to pass ? Are not the 
things announced by thee fulfilled ? Is not their country, 
.Tudea, desolate ? Is not the holy place burned with fire ? Are 
not their walls cast down '? Are not their cities destroyed ? 
Their land, do not strangers devour it ? Do not the Romans 
rule the country ? And indeed these impious people hated 
thee, and did saw thee asunder, and they crucified Christ. 
Thou art dead in the world, but thou livest in Christ. 

' Rev. xvii. 9. 

^ For i/vo woTiTiw» Combefisius has Otto 'hctlrj — by peoples. 

s Isa. i. 7, 8. 


31. Which of you, then, sliall I esteem more thau thee? 
Yet Jeremiah, too, is stoned. But if I should esteem Jeremiah 
most, yet Daniel too has his testimony. Daniel, I commend 
thee above all ; yet John too gives no false witness. With 
how many mouths and tongues would I praise you ; or rather 
the Word who spake in you ! Ye died witli Christ ; and ye 
will live with Christ. Plear ye, and rejoice ; behold the 
things announced by you have been fulfilled in their time. 
For ye saw these things yourselves first, and then ye pro- 
claimed them to all generations. Ye ministered the oracles 
of God to all generations. Ye prophets were called, that ye 
might be able to save all. For then is one a prophet indeed, 
when, having announced beforetime things about to be, he 
can afterwards show that they have actually happened. Ye 
were the disciples of a good Master. These words I address 
to you as if alive, and with propriety. For ye hold already 
the crown of life and immortality which is laid up for you in 

32. Speak with me, O blessed Daniel. Give me full assur- 
ance, I beseech thee. Thou dost prophesy concerning the 
lioness in Babylon;^ for thou wast a captive there. Thou 
hast unfolded the future regarding the bear ; for thou wast 
still in the world, and didst see the things come to pass. 
Then thou speakest to me of the leopard ; and whence canst 
thou know this, for thou art already gone to thy rest ? Who 
instructed thee to announce these things, but He who formed^ 
thee in (from) thy mother's womb?^ That is God, thou 
sayest. Thou hast spoken indeed, and that not falsely. The 
leopard has arisen ; the he-goat is come ; he hath smitten 
the ram ; he hath broken his horns in pieces ; he hath 
stamped upon him with his feet. He has been exalted by 
his fall ; (the) four horns have come up from under that 
one.^ Kejoice, blessed Daniel ! thou hast not been in error : 
all these things have come to pass. 

33. After this again thou hast told me of the beast dread- 

1 2 Tiin. iv. 8. 2 D^n, yii. 4. 

^ For Tv'hcioa.i Gudius proposes oi,yta.aa,z (sanctified) or x.a.T.kaa.c, (called). 

^ Jer. i. 6. ^ p.^^^^ yjij^ 9_8. 


ful and terrible. " It had iron teeth and claws of brass : it 
devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with 
the feet of it." ^ Already the iron rules ; already it subdues 
and breaks all in pieces ; already it brings all the unwilling 
into subjection ; already we see these things ourselves. Now 
we glorify God, being instructed by thee. 

34. But as the task before us was to speak of the harlot, 
be thou with us, O blessed Isaiah. Let us mark what thou 
sayest about Babylon. " Come down, sit upon the ground, 
O virgin daughter of Babylon; sit, O daughter of the 
Chaldeans ; thou shalt no longer be called tender and deli- 
cate. Take the millstone, grind meal, draw aside thy veil," 
shave the r^'^^^v hairs, make bare the legs, pass over the rivers. 
Thy shame shall be ancovered, thy reproach shall be seen : I 
will take justice of thee, I will no more give thee over to men. 
As for thy Redeemer, (He is) the Lord of hosts, the Holy One 
of Israel is his name. Sit thou in compunction, get thee into 
darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans : thou shalt no lono;er 
be called the strength of the kingdom. 

35. "I was wroth with my people ; I have polluted mine 
inheritance, I have given them into thine hand : and thou 
didst show them no mercy ; but upon the ancient (the elders) 
thou hast very heavily laid thy yoke. And thou saidst, I 
shall be a princess for ever : thou didst not lay these things 
to thy heart, neither didst remember thy latter end. There- 
fore hear now this, thou that art delicate ; that sittest, that 
art confident, that sayest in thine heart, I am, and there is 
none else ; I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know 
the loss of children. But now these two things shall come 
upon thee in one day, widowhood and the loss of children : 
they shall come upon thee suddenly in thy sorcery, in the 
strength of thine enchantments mightily, in the hope of thy 
fornication. For thou hast said, I am, and there is none else. 
And thy fornication shall be thy shame, because thou hast 
said in thy heart, I am. And destruction shall come upon 
thee, and thou shalt not know it. [(And there shall be) a pit, 
and thou shalt fall into it ; and misery shall fall upon thee, 

^ Dan. vii. 6. - For dvcc'^vptoQn others read kvix.kc!.>.vi^(x,i = imcovcr. 


and thou shalt not be able to be made clean ; and destruction 
shall come upon thee, and thou shalt not know it.] Stand 
now with thy enchantments, and with the multitude of thy 
sorceries, which thou hast learned from thy youth ; if so be 
thou shalt be able to be profited. Thou art wearied in thy 
counsels. Let the astrologers of the heavens stand and save 
thee ; let the star-gazers announce to thee what shall come 
upon thee. Behold, they shall all be as sticks for the fire ; 
so shall they be burned, and they shall not deliver their soul 
from the flame. Because thou hast coals of fire, sit upon 
them ; so shall it be for thy help. Thou art wearied with 
change from thy youth. Man has gone astray (each one) 
by himself; and there shall be no salvation for thee."^ 
These things does Isaiah prophesy for thee. Let us see 
now whether John has spoken to the same effect. 

36. For he sees, when in the isle Patmos, a revelation of 
awful mysteries, which he recounts freely, and makes known 
to others. Tell me, blessed John, apostle and disciple of the 
Lord, what didst thou see and hear concerning Babylon? 
Arise, and speak; for it sent thee also into banisliment. 
" And there came one of the seven angels which had the 
seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come 
hither; I will show unto thee the judgment of the great 
whore that sitteth upon many waters ; with whom the kings 
of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants 
of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her for- 
nication. And he carried me away in the spirit into the 
wilderness : and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet-coloured 
beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and 
ten horns. And the woman was arra,yed in purple and scarlet 
colour, and decked with gold, and precious stone(s), and pearls, 
having a golden cup in her hand, full of abominations and 
filthiness ^ of the fornication of the earth. Upon her fore- 
head was a name written. Mystery, Babylon the Great, the 
Mother of Harlots and Abominations of the Earth. 

37. " And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the 
saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus : and when 

^ Isa. xlvii. 1-15. " to; KX-oidcfiroc.^ for the received daada-proryiTOi. 


I saw her, I wondered with great admiration. And the angel 
said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel ? 1 Avill tell thee 
the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, 
which hath the seven heads and the ten horns. The beast 
that thou sawest was, and is not ; and shall ascend out of the 
bottomless pit, and go into perdition : and they that dwell on 
the earth shall wonder (whose name was not written in the 
book of life from the foundation of the world) when they 
bell old the beast that was, and is not, and yet shall be.^ 

38. " And here is the mind that hath wisdom. The seven 
heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth. 
And there are seven kings : five are fallen, and one is, and 
the other is not yet come ; and when he cometh, he must con- 
tinue a short space. And the beast that was (and) is not, 
[even he is the eighth], and is of the seven, and goeth into 
perdition. And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten 
kings, which have received no kingdom as yet ; but receive 
power as kings one hour with the beast. These have one 
mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast. 
These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall 
overcome them : for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings ; 
and they that are with Him are called, and chosen, and faithful. 

39. " And he saith to me. The waters which thou sawest, 
where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and 
nations, and tongues. And the ten horns which thou sawest, 
and^ the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make 
her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her 
with fire. For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil His will, 
and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until 
the words of God shall be fulfilled. And the woman which 
thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings 
of the earth. 

40. " (And) after these things I saw another angel come 
down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was 
lightened with his glory. And he cried mightily^ with a 
strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, 

^ Kot] Tccphrai, for the received jiss/Vsp hTt. 

^, for the received s-/. ^ iay,vpoi for h l/jyjj'i. 


and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every 
foul spirit, [and a cage of every unclean] and hateful bird. 
For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her 
fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed forni- 
cation with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed 
rich through the abundance of her delicacies. And I heard 
another voice from heaven, saying. Come out of her, my 
people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye 
receive not of her plagues : for her sins did cleave even unto 
heaven,^ and God hath remembered her iniquities. 

41. " Keward her even as she rewarded (you), and double 
imto her double, according to her works : in the cup which 
she hath filled, fill to her double. How much she hath glori- 
fied herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow 
give her : for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no 
widow, and shall see no sorrow. Therefore shall her plagues 
come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine ; and she 
sliall be utterly burned with fire : for strong is the Lord God 
Avho jadgeth her. And the kings of the eartli, who have 
committed fornication, and lived deliciously witli her, shall 
bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke 
of her burning, standing afar off for the fear of her torment, 
saying, Alas, alas! that great city Babylon, that mighty city! 
for in one hour is thy judgment come. And the merchants of 
the earth shall weep and mourn over her ; for no man shall 
buy their merchandise " any more. The merchandise of gold, 
and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, 
and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all 
manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most pre- 
cious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble, and cinnamon, 
and spices,''^ and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and 
wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and 
sheep, and goats,^ and horses, and chariots, and slaves (bodies), 
and souls of men. And the fruits that thy soul lusted after 

' iKo7.7,rjdY,'juu, for the received v/KolMHfJOfj. 
~ dyopxtj-'t, for the I'eceived ctyopx^n. 
2 a.f^uy.uv, omitted in the received text. 
* Kxl rpuyovi, omitted in the received text. 


are departed from thee, and all things wliicli were dainty and 
goodly have perished^ from thee, and thou shalt find tliem no 
more at all. The merchants of these things, which were 
made rich^ by her, shall stand afar ofi for the fear of her tor- 
ment, weeping and wailing, and saying, Alas, alas ! that great 
cit}'-, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, 
and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls! for 
in one hour so ffreat riches is come to nought. And everv 
shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as 
many as trade by sea, stood afar off, and cried, when they 
saw the smoke of her burning, saying, What city is like unto 
this great city? And they cast dust on their heads, and 
cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas ! that great 
city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by 
reason of her fatness ! ^ for in one hour is she made desolate. 

42. " Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye angels,^ and 
apostles, and prophets ; for God hath avenged you on her. 
And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, 
and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that 
great city Babylon be. thrown down, and shall be found no 
more at all. And the voice of harpers and musicians, and of 
pipers and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee ; 
and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found 
any more in thee ; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard 
no more at all in thee ; and the light of a candle shall shine 
no more at all in thee ; and the voice of the bridegroom and of 
the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants 
were the great men of the earth ; for by thy sorceries were all 
nations deceived. And in her was found the blood of prophets 
and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth." ^ 

43. With respect, then, to the particular judgment in the 
torments that are to come upon it in the last times by the 
hand of the tyrants who shall arise then, the clearest state- 
ment has been given in these passages. But it becomes us 

' dvu'hizo, for the received divvihhv. 

2 'z'Aovrtaauri;, for the received '^Xovrr^actini^. 

■* -TctoTinTog^ for the received TifitoTyirog. 

* Kxl o/ ciyyihoi^ which the received omits. ^ Hev. xvii. xviii. 


further diligently to examine and set forth the period at which 
these things shall come to pass, and how the little horn shall 
spring up in their midst. For when the legs of iron have 
issued in the feet and toes, according to the similitude of 
the image and that of the terrible beast, as has been shown 
in the above, (then shall be the time) when the iron and the 
clay shall be mingled together. Now Daniel will set forth 
this subject to us. For he says, " And one week will make^ 
a covenant with many, and it shall be that in the midst (half) 
of the week my sacrifice and oblation shall cease." "^ By one 
week, therefore, he meant the last week which is to be at the 
end of the whole world ; of which week the two prophets 
Enoch and Elias will take up the half. For they will preach 
1260 days clothed in sackcloth, proclaiming repentance to 
the people and to all the nations. 

44. For as two advents of our Lord and Saviour are indi- 
cated in the Scriptures, the one being His first advent in the 
flesh, which took place without honour by reason of His being 
set at nought, as Isaiah spake of Him aforetime, saying, 
" We saw Him, and Pie had no form nor comeliness, but His 
form was despised (and) rejected (lit. = deficient) above all 
men ; a man smitten and familiar with bearing infirmity, [for 
His face was turned away] ; He was despised, and esteemed 
not." ^ But His second advent is announced as glorious, 
when He shall come from heaven with the host of angels, 
and the glory of His Father, as the prophet saith, "Ye shall 
see the King in glory;"* and, "I saw one like the Son of man 
coming with the clouds of heaven ; and he came to the 
Ancient of days, and he was brought to Him. And there 
were given Him dominion, and honour, and glory, and the 
kingdom ; all tribes and languages shall serve Him : His 
dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass 
away.""* Thus also two forerunners were indicated. The first 
was John the son of Zacharias, who appeared in all things 
a forerunner and herald of our Saviour, preaching of the 
heavenly light that had appeared in the w'orld. He first ful- 

■^ oiddvitjSi = will 7nalce ; others, ^vvxfimsi = will conjirm. 

- Dan. ix. 27. ^ Isa. liii. 2-5. * Isa. xxxiii. 17. * Dan. vii. 13, 14. 


filled the course of forerunner, and that from his mother's 
womb, being conceived by Elisabeth, in order that to those, 
too, who are children from their mother's womb he might 
declare the new birth that was to take place for their sakes 
by the Holy Ghost and the Virgin. 

45. He, on hearing the salutation addressed to Elisabeth, 
leaped with joy in his mother's womb, recognising God the 
Word conceived in the womb of the Virgin. Thereafter he 
came forward preaching in the wilderness, proclaiming the 
baptism of repentance to the people, (and thus) announcing 
prophetically salvation to the nations living in the wilderness 
of the world. After this, at the Jordan, seeing the Saviour 
with his own eye, he points Him out, and says, " Behold the 
Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world !"^ 
He also first preached to those in Hades,^ becoming a fore- 
runner there when he was put to death by Herod, that there- 
too he miMit intimate that the Saviour would descend to 
ransom the souls of the saints from the hand of death, 

46. But since the Saviour was the beginning of the resur- 
rection of all men, it was meet that the Lord alone should 
rise from the dead, by whom too the judgment is to enter for 
the whole world, that they who have wrestled worthily may be 
also crowned worthily by Him, by the illustrious Arbiter, to 
wit, who Himself first accomplished the course, and was re- 
ceived into the heavens, and was set down on the right hand of 
God the Father, and is to be manifested again at the end of the 
world as Judge. It is a matter of course that His forerunners 
must appear first, as He says by Malachi and the angel,^ " I 

1 Jolm i. 29. 

- It was a common opiuiou among the Greeks, that the Baptist was 
Christ's forerunner also among the dead. See Leo AUatius, De lihris 
cedes. Grmcorum., p. 303. 

^ Or it may be, "Malachi, even the messenger." ' Kyyt'hov is the 
reading restored by Combefisius instead of ' kyyix.lov. The words of the 
angel hi Tjuke i. 17 (" and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just") 
are thus inserted in the citation from Malachi ; and to that Hippolytus 
may refer in the addition " and the angel." Or perhaps, as Combefisius 
rather thinks, the addition simply refers to the meaning of the name 
Malachi, viz. messenger. 


will send to you Elias the Tislibite before the day of the 
Lord, the great and notable day, comes ; and he shall turn 
the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient 
to the wisdom of the just, lest I come and smite the earth 
utterly." ^ These, then, shall come and proclaim the mani- 
festation of Christ that is to be from heaven ; and they shall 
also perform signs and wonders, in order that men may be 
put to shame and turned to repentance for their surpassing 
wickedness and impiety. 

47. For John says, " And I will give power unto my two 
witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred 
and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth."^ That is the half 
of the week whereof Daniel spake. '' These are the two 
olive trees and the two candlesticks standing before the Lord 
of the earth. And if any man will hurt them, fire will pro- 
ceed out of their mouth, and devour their enemies ; and if 
any man will hurt them, he must in this manner be killed. 
These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days 
of their prophecy ; and have power over waters, to turn them 
to blood, and to smite the earth with all plagues as often as 
[they will. And when] they shall have finished their course 
and their testimony," what saith the prophet ? " the beast 
that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against 
them, and shall overcome them, and kill them,"'^ because tlKjy 
will not give glory to Antichrist. For this is meant by the 
little horn that grows up. He being now elated in heart, 
begins to exalt himself, and to glorify himself as God, perse- 
cuting the saints and blaspheming Christ, even as Daniel 
says, " I considered the horn, and, behold, in the horn were 
eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things; 
and he opened his mouth to blaspheme God. And that horn 
made war against the saints, and prevailed against them until 
the beast was slain, and perished, and his body was given to 
be burned." ^ 

48. But as it is incumbent on us to discuss this matter of 
the beast more exactly, and in particular the question how 
the Holy Spirit has also mystically indicated his name by 

1 Mai. iv. 5, G. 2 R^y^ ^i. 3. 3 ^ev. xi. 4-G. * Dan. vii. 8, 9. 


means of a number, we shall proceed to state more clearly 
what bears upon him. John then speaks thus: "And I be- 
held another beast coming up out of the earth ; and he had 
two horns, like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon. And he 
exercised all the power of the first beast before him ; and he 
made the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the 
first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. And he did great 
wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on 
the earth in the sight of men, and deceiveth them that dwell 
on the earth by means of those miracles which he had power 
to do in the sight of the beast, saying to them that dwell on 
the earth, that they should make an image to the beast which 
had the wound by a sword and did live. And he had power 
to give life unto the image of the beast, [that the image of 
the beast should both speak], and cause that as many as would 
not worship the image of the beast should be killed. And he 
caused all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and 
bond, to receive a mark in their right hand or in their fore- 
head ; and that no man might buy or sell, save he that had 
the mark, the name of the beast, or the number of his name. 
Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count 
the number of the beast ; for it is the number of a man, and 
his number is six hundred threescore and six." ^ 

49. By the beast, then, coming up out of the earth, he 
means the kingdom of Antichrist ; and by the two horns he 
means him and the false prophet after him." And in speak- 
ing of " the horns being like a lamb," he means that he will 
make himself like the Son of God, and set himself forward 
as king. And the terms, " he spake like a dragon," mean 
that he is a deceiver, and not truthful. And the words, " he 
exercised all the power of the first beast before him, and 
caused the earth and them which dwell therein to worship 
the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed," signify that, 
after the manner of the law of Augustus, by whom the 

' Rev. xiii. 11-18. 

2 The text is simply xctl roV f^iT ccvrou = the false prophet after him. 
Gudius and Combefisius propose as above, kki uvr6v tb kxI to^ ^st' 
uvTot/, or f^iT uvroii = him and the false prophet xcith him. 


empire of Rome was established, he too will rule and govern, 
sanctioning everything by it, and taking greater glory to 
himself. For this is the fourth beast, whose head was 
wounded and healed again, in its being broken up or even 
dishonoured, and partitioned into four crowns ; and he then 
(Antichrist) shall with knavish skill heal it, as it were, and 
restore it. For this is what is meant by the prophet v/hen he 
says, " He will give life unto the image, and the image of the 
beast will speak." For he will act with vigour again, and 
prove strong by reason of the laws established by him ; and 
he will cause all those who will not worship the image of the 
beast to be put to death. Here the faith and the patience of 
the saints will appear, for he says : " And he will cause all, 
both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive 
a mark in their right hand or in their forehead ; that no man 
might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, the name of the 
beast, or the number of his name." For, being full of guile, 
and exalting; himself asjainst the servants of God, with the wish 
to afflict them and persecute them out of the world, because 
they give not glory to him, he will order incense-pans^ to be set 
up by all everywhere, that no man among the saints may be 
able to buy or sell without first sacrificing ; for this is what is 
meant by the mark received upon the right hand. And the 
word "in their forehead" indicates that all are crowned, and 
put on a crown of fire, and not of life, but of death. For 
in this wise, too, did Antiochus Epiphanes the king of Syria, 
the descendant of Alexander of Macedon, devise measures 
against the Jews. He, too, in the exaltation of his heart, 
issued a decree in those times, that all sJiould set up shrines 
before their doors, and sacjnjfice, and that they should march in 
2)rocessio7i to the honour of Dionysus^ leaving chaplets of ivy ; 
and that those who refused obedience should be put to death 
by strangulation and torture. But he also met his due re- 
compense at the hand of the Lord, the righteous Judge and 
all-searching God ; for he died eaten up of worms. And if 

^ 7ry;5£;c4 = censers, incense-pans, or sacrificial tripods. This offering 
of incense was a test very commonly proposed by the pagans to those 
whose rehgion they suspected. 


one desires to inquire into that more accurately, lie will find 
it recorded in the books of the Maccabees. 

50. But now w^e shall speak of what is before us. For 
such measures will he, too, devise, seeking to afflict the saints 
in every way. For the prophet and apostle says : " Here is 
wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number 
of the beast ; for it is the number of a man, and his number is 
six hundred threescore and six." With respect to his name, 
it is not in our power to explain it exactly, as the blessed 
John understood it and was instructed about it, but only 
to give a conjectural acconnt of it;^ for when he appears, the 
blessed one will show us wdiat we seek to know. Yet as far as 
our doubtful apprehension of the matter goes, we may speak. 
Many names indeed we find,' the letters of which are the 
equivalent of this number : such as, for instance, the word 
Titan,'^ an ancient and iiotable name; or Evanthas,'* for it too 
makes up the same number; and many others which might 
be found. But, as we have already said,^ the wound of the 
first beast was healed, and he (the second beast) was to make 
the image speak,*' that is to say, he should be powerful ; and 
it is manifest to all that those who at present still hold the 
power are Latins. • If, then, we take the name as the name 
of a single man, it becomes Latimis. Wherefore we ought 
neither to give it out as if this were certainly his name, nor 
again ignore the fact that he may not be otherwise desig- 
nated. But having the mystery of God in our heart, we 
ought in fear to keep faithfully what has been told us by the 
blessed prophets, in order that when those things come to 
pass, we may be prepared for them, and not deceived. For 
when the times advance, he too, of whom these things are 
said, will be manifested. 

^ oaov f^ovov iiTTOvoriacti. ~ taoipYiCpx. 

^ Tsirav. Hippolytus here follows liis master Irenseus, who in his 
Contra liseres. v. 30, § 3, has ihe words, " Titan . . . ct antiquum ctfde 
fh'gnum et recjale . . . nomen " = Titan . . . both an ancient and good and 
royal . . . name. 

^ Euavdctg, mentioned also by Irenceus in the passage already referred to. 

^ ■7rpoi(p6rti^iu^ the reading proposed by Fabricius instead of '^poitp-zifcey. 

** '^oi'/iGii, Combef. iTroi'ms- 


51. But not to confine ourselves to these words and argu- 
ments alone, for the purpose of convincing those who love 
to study the oracles of God, we shall demonstrate the matter 
by many other proofs. For Daniel says, " And these shall 
escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief 
of the children of Ammon." ^ Amnion and Moab ^ are the 
children born to Lot by his daughters, and their race sur- 
vives even now. And Isaiah says : " And they shall fly in 
the boats of strangers, plundering the sea together, and (they 
shall spoil) them of the east : and they shall lay hands upon 
Moab first ; and the children of Ammon shall first obey 
them." ^ 

52. In those times, then, he shall arise and meet them. 
And when he has overmastered three horns out of the ten in 
the array of war, and has rooted these out, viz. Ecjypt, and 
Libya, and Ethiopia, and has got their spoils and trappings, 
and has brought the remaining horns which suffer into sub- 
jection, he will begin to be lifted up in heart, and to exalt 
himself against God as master of the whole Avorld. And his 
first expedition will be against Tyre and Berytus, and the 
cii'cumjacent territory. For by storming these cities first he 
will strike terror into the others, as Isaiah says, " Be thou 
ashamed, O Sidon ; the sea hath spoken, even the strength of 
the sea hath spoken, saying, I travailed not, nor brought 
forth children ; neither did I nurse up young men, nor bring 
up virgins. But when the report comes to Egypt, pain shall 
seize them for Tyre." * 

53. These things, then, shall be in the future, beloved ; 
and when the three horns are cut off, he will begin to show 
himself as God, as Ezekiel has said aforetime : " Because thy 
heart has been lifted up, and thou hast said, I am God."' 
And to the like effect Isaiah says : " For thou hast said in 
thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne 
above the stars of heaven : I will be like the Most Hi^lt. 
Yet now thou shalt be brought down to hell (Hades), to the 
foundations of the earth." ° In like manner also Ezekiel: 

^ Dan. si. 41. - Gen. xis. 37, 38. " Isa. xi. 14. 

•* Isa. xxiii. 4, 5. ^ Ezek. xxviii. 2. ^ Isa^ xiv. 13-15. 


" Wilt tliou yet say to those who slay thee, I am God ? But 
thou (shalt be) a man, and no God."^ 

54. As his tribe, then, and his manifestation, and his de- 
struction, have been set forth in these words, and as his name 
has also been indicated mystically, let us look also at his 
action. For he will call together all the people to himself, 
out of every country of the dispersion, making them his own, 
as though they were his own children, and promising to 
restore their country, and establish again their kingdom and 
nation, in order that he may be worshipped by them as God, 
as the prophet says : " He will collect his whole kingdom, 
from the rising of the sun even to its setting : they whom he 
summons and they whom he does not summon shall march 
with him."^ And Jeremiah speaks of him thus in a parable : 
" The partridge cried, (and) gathered what he did not hatch, 
making himself riches without judgment : in the midst of his 
days they shall leave him, and at his end he shall be a fool." " 

55. It will not be detrimental, therefore, to the course of 
our present argument, if we explain the art of that crea- 
ture, and show that the prophet has not spoken^ without a 
purpose in using the parable (or similitude) of the creature. 
For as the partridge is a vainglorious creature, when it sees 
near at hand the nest of another partridge with young in it, 
and with the parent-bird away on the wing in quest of food, 
it imitates the cry of the other bird, and calls the young to 
itself ; and they taking it to be their own parent, run to it. 
And it delights itself proudly in the alien pullets as in its 
own. But when the real parent-bird returns, and calls them 
with its own familiar cry, the young recognise it, and forsake 
the deceiver, and betake themselves to the real parent. This 
thing, then, the prophet has adopted as a simile, applying it 
in a similar manner to Antichrist. For he will (endeavour to) 
allure mankind to himself, wishing to gain possession of those 
who are not his own, and promising deliverance to all, while 
he is unable to save himself. 

^ Ezek, xxviii. 9. 

- Quoted already in chap. xv. as from one of the prophets. 

* Jer. xvii. 11. ^ Heading «7rs(p^j'«ro for ciTrB^pt'i/uTO. 


56. He then, having gathered to himself the unbeheving 
everywhere throughout the world, comes at their call to per- 
secute the saints, their enemies and antagonists, as the apostle 
and evangelist says : " There was in a city a judge, wl)icli 
feared not God, neither regarded man : and there was a widow- 
in that city, who came unto him, saying, Avenge me of mine 
adversary. And he would not for a Avhile : but afterward 
he said within himself. Though I fear not God, nor regard 
man ; yet because this widow troubleth me, I will avenge 
lier." 1 

57. By the unrighteous judge, who fears not God, neither 
regards man, he means without doubt Antichrist, as he is a 
son of the devil and a vessel of Satan. For when he has the 
power, he will begin to exalt himself against God, neither in 
truth fearing God, nor regarding the Son of God, who is the 
Judge of all. And in saying that there was a widow in the 
city, he refers to Jerusalem itself, which is a widow indeed, 
forsaken of her perfect, heavenly spouse, God. She calls 
Him her adversary, and not her Saviour ; for she does not 
understand that which was said by tlie prophet Jeremiah : 
" Because they obeyed not the truth, a spirit of error shall 
speak then to this people and to Jerusalem.""' And Isaiah 
also to the like effect : " Forasmuch as the people refuseth 
to drink the water of Siloam that goeth softly, but chooseth 
to have Easin and Eomeliah's son as king over you : there- 
fore, lo, the Lord bringeth up upon you the water of the 
river, strong and full, even the king of Assyria." ^ By the 
king he means metaphorically Antichrist, as also another 
prophet saith : " And this man shall be the peace from me, 
when the Assyrian shall come up into your land, and when 
he shall tread in your mountains."^ 

58. And in like manner Moses, knowing beforehand that 

1 Luke xviii. 2-5. - Jer. iv. 11 ^ jg^. yiii. 6, 7. 

* Mic. V. 5. The Septuagiut reads ccvrri = Aud (he) shall be the peace 
to it. Hippolytus follows the Hebrew, but makes the pronoun feminine, 
avTYi referring to the peace. Again Hippolytus reads op-zi = mountains, 
where the Septuagint has xiioxv — land, and where the Hebrew word — 
fortresses or palaces. 



the people would reject and disown the true Saviour of the 
world, and take part with error, and choose an earthly king, 
and set the heavenly King at nought, says : " Is not this laid 
up in store with me, and sealed up among my treasures ? In 
the day of vengeance I will recompense (them), and in the 
time Avlien their foot shall slide." ^ They did slide, therefore, 
in all things, as they were found to be in harmony with the 
truth in nothing : neither as concerns the law, because they 
became transgressors ; nor as concerns the prophets, because 
they cut off even the prophets themselves ; nor as concerns 
the voice of the Gospels, because they crucified the Saviour 
Himself ; nor in believing the apostles, because they perse- 
cuted them. At all times they showed themselves enemies 
and betrayers of the truth, and were found to be haters of God, 
and not lovers of Him ; and such they shall be then when they 
find opportunity : for, rousing themselves against the servants 
of God, they will seek to obtain vengeance by the hand of a 
mortal man. And he, being puffed up with pride by their 
subserviency, Avill begin to despatch missives against the 
saints, commanding to cut them all off everywhere, on the 
ground of their refusal to reverence and worship him as God, 
according to the word of Esaias : " Woe to the wings of the 
vessels of the land," beyond the rivers of Ethiopia : (woe to 
him) who sendeth sureties by the sea, and letters of papyrus 
(upon the water ; for nimble messengers will go) to- a nation" 
anxious and expectant, and a people strange and bitter 
against them ; a nation hopeless and trodden down." ^ 

59. But we who hope for the Son of God are persecuted 
and trodden down by those unbelievers. For the unngs of 
the vessels are the churches ; and the sea is the world, in 
which the church is set, like a ship tossed in the deep, but 
not destroyed ; for she has with her the skilled Pilot, Christ. 
And she bears in her midst also the trophy (which is erected) 
over death ; for she carries with her the cross of the Lord.'^ 

' Deut. xxxii. 34, 35. ^ oval yijg 'Tr'Kotav 'Trripvye;. 

•■' f^ersapov. * Isa. xviii. 1, 2. 

° Wordsworth, reading ug itnov for w; toV, -would add, like a mast. See 
his Commentary on Acts xxvii. 40. 


For her prow is the east, and her stern is the west, and her 
hokP is the south, and her tillers are the two Testaments ; 
and the ropes that stretch around her are the love of Christ, 
which binds the church ; and the net" which she bears with 
her is the laver of the regeneration which renews the believ- 
ing, whence too are these glories. As the wind the Spirit 
from heaven is present, by whom those who believe are 
sealed : she has also anchors of iron accompanying her, viz, 
the holy commandments of Christ Himself, which are strong 
as iron. She has also mariners on the right and on the left, 
assessors like the holy angels, by whom the church is always 
governed and defended. The ladder in her leading up to 
the sailyard is an emblem of the passion of Christ, which 
brings the faithful to the ascent of heaven. And the 
psephari^ (top-sails) aloft ^ upon the yard are the company 
of prophets, martyrs, and apostles, who have entered into 
their rest in the kingdom of Christ. 

60. Now, concerning the tribulation of the persecution 
which is to fall upon the church from the adversary, John 
also speaks thus : " And I saw a great and wondrous sign in 
heaven ; a woman clothed Avith the sun, and the moon under 
her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. And 
she, being with child, cries, travailing in birth, and pained to 
be delivered. And the drao;on stood before the woman which 
was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as 
it was born. And she brought forth a man-child, who is to 
rule all the nations : and the child was caught up unto God 
and to His throne. And the woman fled into the wilderness, 
wdiere she hath the place prepared of God, that they should 
feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days. 
And then when the dragon saw (it), he persecuted the woman 
which brought forth the man (child). And to the woman 
were given two wings of the great eagle, that she might fly 

^ ;cvroj, a conjecture of Combefisius for x.vx.'hbv. 
- a/i/ov, proposed by the same for ttAo/ov, boat. 

^ -d/yi^cipoi, a term of doubtful meaning. May it refer to the xes^pi'/jo-;» ? 
* The text reads here cclvov/mvoi, for Avhich aipovjxivot is proposed, or 
better, -/lupov^.ivot. 


into tlie wilderness, where she is nourished for a time, and 
times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent. And 
the serpent cast (out of his mouth water as a flood after the 
woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the 
flood. And the earth helped the woman, and opened her 
mouth, and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast) out 
of his mouth. And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and 
went to make war with the saints of her seed, which keep the 
commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus."' 

61. By the " woman then clothed with the sun," he meant 
most manifestly the church, endued with the Fathers word,' 
whose brightness is above the sun. And by "the moon under 
her feet" he referred to her being adorned, like the moon, 
with heavenly glory. And the words, " upon her head a 
crown of twelve stars," refer to the twelve apostles by whom 
the church was founded. And those, " she, being with child, 
cries, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered," mean 
that the church will not cease to bear from her heart {^evvojaa 
€K KapSias:) the Word that is persecuted by the unbelieving 
in the world. "And she brought forth," he says, "a man- 
child, who is to rule all the nations ;" by which is meant that 
the church, always bringing forth Christ, the perfect man- 
child of God, who is declared to be God and man, becomes 
the instructor of all the nations. And the words, " her child 
was caught up unto God and to His throne," signify that he 
who is always born of her is a heavenly king, and not an 
earthly; even as David also declared of old when he said, "The 
Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou at my right hand, until I 
make Thine enemies Thy footstool."^ "And the dragon," he 
says, "saw and persecuted the woman which brought forth the 
man (child). And to the woman were given two wrings of the 
great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, where she 
is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the 
face of the serpent."* That refers to the one thousand two 
hundred and threescore days (the half of the week) during 
which the tyrant is to reign and persecute the church, which 

^ Rev. xii. 1-0, etc. " row Aoyov -r&a lJxrp^)Ov. 

3 Ps. ex. 1. * Rev. xi. o. 


flees from city to city, and seeks concealment in the wilder- 
ness among the mountains, possessed of no other defence 
than the two wings of the great eagle, that is to say, the faith 
of Jesus Christ, who, in stretching forth His holy hands on 
the holy tree, unfolded two wings, the right and the left, 
and called to Him all who believed upon Him, and covered 
them as a hen her chickens. For by the mouth of Malachi 
also He speaks thus : "And unto you that fear my name shall 
the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in His wings." ^ 

(32. The Lord also says, " When ye shall see the abomi- 
nation of desolation stand in the holy place (whoso readeth, 
let him understand), then let them whicli be in Judaja flee 
into the mountains ; and let him which is on the housetop 
not come down to take his clothes ; neither let him which is 
in the field I'eturn back to take anything out of his house. 
And woe unto them that are with child, and to tliem that give 
suck, in those days ! for then shall be great tribulation, such 
as was not since the beginning of the world. And except 
those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be 
saved." ^ And Daniel says, " And they shall place the 
abomination of desolation a thousand two hundred and ninety 
days. Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometli to the thousand 
two hundred and ninety-five days." ^ 

G3. And the blessed Apostle Paul, writing to the Thessa- 
lonians, says : " Now we beseech you, brethren, concerning the 
coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together at 
it,'* that ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither 
by spirit, nor by word, nor by letters as from us, as that the 
day of the Lord is at hand. Let no man deceive you by any 
means ; for (that day shall not come) except there come the 
falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of 
perdition, who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that 

1 Mai. iv. 2. 

2 Matt. xxiv. 15-22 ; Mark xiii. U-20 ; I.uke xxi. 20-23. 

^ Dan. xi. 31, xii. 11, 12. The Hebrew has 1335 as the number in the 
second verse. 

* Hippolytus reads here sw' uiiryj? instead of tx' uutou, and makes the 
pronoun therefore refer to the coming. 


is called God, or tliat is worshipped : so that he sitteth in the 
temple of God, showing himself that he is God. Remember 
ye not, that when I was yet with you, I told you these things ? 
And now ye know what withholdeth, that he might be revealed 
in his time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work ; 
only he who now letteth (will let), until he be taken out of the 
way. And then shall that wicked be revealed, whom the 
Lord Jesus shall consume with the Spirit of His mouth, and 
shall destroy with the brightness of His coming : (even him) 
whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power, 
and signs, and lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of 
unrighteousness in them that perish ; because they received 
not the love of the truth. And for this cause God shall send 
them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie : that 
they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had 
pleasure in unrighteousness."^ And Esaias says, " Let the 
wicked be cut off, that he behold not the glory of the Lord." ' 
64. These things, then, being to come to pass, beloved, 
and the one week being divided into two parts, and the 
abomination of desolation being manifested then, and the 
two prophets and forerunners of the Lord having finished 
their course, and the whole world finally approaching the 
consummation, what remains but the coming of our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ from heaven, for whom we have looked 
in hope ? .who shall bring the conflagration and just judg- 
ment upon all who have refused to believe on Him. For the 
Lord says, " And when these things begin to come to pass, 
then look up, and lift up your heads ; for your redemption 
draweth nigh."* " And there shall not a hair of your head 
perish." ' " For as the lightning cometh out of the cast, and 
shineth even unto the west, so shall also the coming of the 
Son of man be. For wheresoever the carcase is, there will 
the eagles be gathered together." "^ Now the fall*^ took place 
in paradise ; for Adam fell there. And He says again, 

1 2 Thcss. ii. 1-11. ^ ig^. xxvi. 10. = Luke xxi. 28. 

4 Luke xxi. 18. ^ iMatt. xxiv. 27, 28. 

" The word 'rrrliy.a., used in the Greek as = carcase, is thus interpreted 
by Hippolytus us = fall, which is its literal sense. 


" Then shall the Son of man send His angels, and they shall 
gather together His elect from the four winds of heaven."^ 
And David also, in announcing prophetically the judgment 
and coming of the Lord, says, " His going forth is from 
the end of the heaven, and His circuit unto the end of the 
heaven : and there is no one hid from the heat thereof." '" 
By the heat he means the conflagration. And Esaias speaks 
thus : " Come, my people, enter thou into thy chamber, (and) 
shut thy door : hide thyself as it were for a little moment, 
until the indignation of the Lord be overpast."^ And Paul 
in like manner : " For the wrath of God is revealed from 
heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, 
who hold the truth of God in unrighteousness." "* 

Qd, Moreover, concerning the resurrection and the king- 
dom of the saints, Daniel says, " And many of them that 
sleep in the dust of the earth shall arise, some to everlasting 
life, (and some to shame and everlasting contempt)."^ Esaias 
says, " The dead men shall arise, and they that are in their 
tombs shall awake ; for the dew from thee is healing to them." ** 
The Lord says, " Many in that day shall hear the voice of 
the Son of God, and they that hear shall live." '' And the 
prophet says, " Awake, thou that sleepest, and arise from the 
dead, and Christ shall give thee light." ^ And John says, 
" Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrec- 
tion : on such the second death hath no power." ^ For the 
second death is the lake of fire that burnetii. And a^ain the 
Lord says, " Then shall the righteous shine forth as the 
sun shineth in his glory." ^^ And to the saints He will say, 
'• Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom pre- 
pared for you from the foundation of the world." ^^ But what 
saith He to the wicked ? " Depart from me, ye cursed, into 

^ Matt. xxiv. 31. " Ps. xix. 6. " Isa. sxvi. 20. 

* Rom. i. 17. ^ Dan. xii. 2. 

^ Isa. xxvi. 19. '' John v. 25. 

^ EjA. v. 14. EjDiphanius and others suppose that the words th\is 
cited by Paul are taken from the apocryphal writiDgs of Jeremiah ; 
others that they are a free version of Isa. Ix. 1. 

» Rev. XX. 6. 1*» Matt. xiii. 43. i' Matt. xxv. 34. 


everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and Lis angels, \Yhicli 
my Father hath prepared." And John says, " Without are 
dogs, and sorcerers, and ^Yhoremongers, and murderers, and 
idolaters, and whosoever maketh and loveth a lie ; for your 
part is in the hell of fire."^ And in like manner also Esaias : 
" And they shall go forth and look upon the carcases of the 
men that have transgressed against me. And their worm 
shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched ; and they 
shall be for a spectacle to all flesh."' 

QQ. Concerning the resurrection of the righteous, Paul also 
speaks thus in writing to the Thessalonians : " We would not 
have you to be ignorant concerning them which are asleep, 
that ye sorrow not even as others wdiich have no hope. For 
if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them 
also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with Him. For 
this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which 
are alive (and) remain unto the coming of the Lord, shall 
not prevent them which are asleep. For the Lord Himself 
shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice and 
trump of God, and the dead in Christ shall rise first. Then 
we which are alive (and) remain shall be caught up together 
with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air ; and so 
shall we ever be with the Lord."' 

67. These things, then, I have set shortly before thee, O 
Theophilus, drawing them (from Scripture itself), in order 
that, maintaining in faith what is written, and anticipating 
the things that are to be, thou may est keep thyself void of 
offence both toward God and toward men, " looking for that 
blessed hope and appearing of our God and Saviour," ^ when, 
having raised the saints among us. He will rejoice with 
them, glorifying the Father. To Him be the glory unto the 
endless ages of the ages. Amen. 

^ Rev. xxii. 15. ^ Isa. Ixvi. 24. 

3 1 Thess. iv. 12. ^ Tit. ii. 10. 



OW, then, Incline thine ear to me, and hear my 
woi'ds, and give heed, thou Jew. Many a 
time dost thou boast thyself, in that thou didst 
condenni Jesus of Nazareth to death, and didst 
give Him vinegar and gall to drink; and thou dost vaunt 
thyself because of this. Come therefore, and let us consider 
together whether perchance thou dost not boast unrighteously^ 
O Israel, (and) whether that small portion of vinegar and 
gall has not brought down this fearful threatening upon thee, 
(and) whether this is not the cause of thy present condition 
involved in these myriad troubles. 

2. Let him tlien be Introduced before us who speaketh by 
the Holy Spirit, and saith truth — David the son of Jesse. 
He, singing a certain strain with prophetic reference to the 
true Christ, celebrated our God by the Holy Spirit, (and) 
declared clearly all that befell Him by the hands of the Jews 
in His passion ; in which (strain) the Christ who humbled 
Himself and took unto Himself the form of the servant 
Adam, calls upon God the Fatlier in heaven as It were in 
our person, and speaks thus in the sixty-ninth Psalm : " Save 
me, O God ; for the w^aters are come In unto my soul. I 
am sunk in the mire of the abyss," that is to say, In the cor- 
ruption of Hades, on account of the transgression in paradise ; 
" and there is no substance," that is, help. " Mine eyes 
failed while I hoped (or, from my hoping) upon my God ; 
when will He come and save me ? "^ 
1 Ps. Ixix. 1 ff. 



3. Then, in what next follows, Christ speaks, as it were, in 
His own person : " Then T restored that," says He, " which 
I took not away ; " that is, on account of the sin of Adam I 
endured the death which was not mine by sinning. " For, 
O God, Thou knowest my foolishness ; and my sins are not 
hid from Thee," that is, " for I did not sin," as He means it ; 
and for this reason (it is added), " Let not them be ashamed 
who want to see " my resurrection on the third day, to wit 
the apostles. " Because for Thy sake," that is, for the sake of 
obeying Thee, " I have borne reproach," namely the cross, 
when " they covered my face with shame," that is to say, the 
Jews ; when " I became a stranger unto my brethren after 
the flesh, and an alien unto my mother's children," meaning 
(by the mother) the synagogue. " For the zeal of Thine 
house. Father, hath eaten me up ; and the reproaches of them 
that reproached Thee are fallen on me," and of them that 
sacrificed to idols. Wherefore " they that sit in the gate 
spoke against me," for they crucified me w'ithout the gate. 
" And they that drink sang against me," that is, (they who 
drink wane) at the feast of the passover. " But as for me, in 
my prayer unto Thee, O Lord, I said. Father, forgive them," 
namely the Gentiles, because it is the time for favour with 
Gentiles. "Let not then the hurricane (of temptations) 
overwhelm me, neither let the deep (that is. Hades) swallow 
me up: for Thou wilt not leave my- soul in hell (Hades); 
neither let the pit shut her mouth upon me,"^ that is, the 
sepulchre. " By reason of mine enemies, deliver me," that 
the Jews may not boast, saying, Let us consume him. 

4. Now Christ prayed all this oeconomically^ as man; being, 
however, true God. But, as I have already said, it was 
the "form of the servant"^ that spake and suffered these 
things. Wherefore He added, " My soul looked for reproach 
and trouble," that is, I suffered of my own will, (and) not by 
any compulsion. Yet " I waited for one to mourn with me, 
and there was none," for all my disciples forsook me and 
fled ; and for a " comforter, and I found none." 

5. Listen with understanding, O Jew, to what the Christ 
^ Ps. xvi. 10. ^ o' 2 Phil. ii. 7. 


says : '' They gave me gall for my meat ; and in my thirst 
they gave me vinegar to drink." And these things He did 
indeed endure from you. Hear the Holy Ghost tell you also 
what return He made to you for that little portion of vinegar. 
For the prophet says, as in the person of God, " Let their 
table become a snare and retribution." Of what retribution 
does He speak? Manifestly, of the misery which has now 
got hold of thee. 

6. And then hear what follows : " Let their eyes be 
darkened, that they see not." And surely ye have been 
darkened in the eyes of your soul with a darkness utter and 
everlasting. For now that the true light has arisen, ye 
wander as in the night, and stumble on places with no roads, 
and fall headlong, as having forsaken the way that saith, "I 
am the way." ^ Furthermore, hear this yet more serious 
word: " And their back do thou bend always ;" that means, in 
order that they may be slaves to the nations, not four hundred 
and thirty years as in Egypt, nor seventy as in Babylon, but 
bend them to servitude, he says, " always." In fine, then, 
how dost thou indulge vain hopes, expecting to be delivered 
from the misery which holdeth thee ? For that is somewhat 
strange. And not unjustly has he imprecated this blindness 
of eyes upon thee. But because thou didst cover the eyes of 
Christ, (and") thus thou didst beat Him, for this reason, too, 
bend thou thy back for servitude always. And whereas thou 
didst pour out His blood in indignation, hear what thy re- 
compense shall be : " Pour out Thine indignation upon them, 
and let Thy wrathful anger take hold of them ;" and, " Let 
their habitation be desolate," to wit, their celebrated temple. 

7. But why, O prophet, tell us, and for what reason was 
the temple made desolate? Was it on account of that ancient 
fabrication of the calf ? Was it on account of the idolatry 
of the people ? Was it for the blood of the prophets ? Was 
it for the adultery and fornication of Israel ? By no means, 
he says ; for in all these transgressions they always found 
pardon open to them, and benignity ; but it was because they 

1 John xiv. 6. 

^ The text is ovrug, for -which read perhaps ors — when. 


killed the Son of their Benefactor, for He is co-eternal with 
the Father. Whence He saith, " Father, let their temple be 
made desolate ; ^ for they have persecuted Plim whom Thou 
didst of Thine own will smite for the salvation of the world ; " 
tliat is, they have persecuted me Avith a violent and unjust 
death, " and they have added to the pain of my wounds." 
In former time, as the Lover of man, I had pain on account 
of the straying of the Gentiles ; but to this pain they have 
added another, by going also themselves astray. Wliere- 
fore " add iniquity to their iniquity, and tribulation to tribu- 
lation, and let them not enter into Thy righteousness," that is, 
into Thy kingdom ; but " let them be blotted out of the book 
of the living, and not be written with the righteous,"' that is, 
with their holy fathers and patriarchs. 

8. What sayest thou to this, O Jew ? It is neither IMatthew 
nor Paul that saith these things, but David, thine anointed, 
who awards and declares these terrible sentences on account 
of Christ. And like the great Job, addressing you who speak 
against the righteous and true, he says, " Thou didst barter 
the Christ like a slave, thou didst go to Him like a robber in 
the garden." 

9. I produce now the prophecy of Solomon, which speaketli 
of Christ, and announces clearly and perspicuously things 
concerning the Jews ; and those which not only are befalling 
them at the present time, but those, too, which shall befall 
them in the future age, on account of the contumacy and 
audacity which they exhibited toward the Prince of Life; for 
the prophet says, " The ungodly said, reasoning with them- 
selves, but not aright," that is, about Christ, " Let us lie in 
wait for the righteous, because he is not for our turn, and 
he is clean contrary to our doings and words, and npbraideth 
ns with our offending the law, and professeth to have know- 
ledge of God ; and he calleth himself the Child of God." ' 
And then he says, "He is grievous to us even to behold; 
for his life is not like other men's, and his ways are of 
another fashion. We are esteemed of him as counterfeits, 
and he abstaineth from our ways as from filthiness, and pro- 

J Cf. Matt, xxiii. 38. ^ Wisd. ii. 1, 12, 13. 


nouncetli the end of tlie just to be blessed." ^ And again, 
listen to this, O Jew ! None of the righteous or prophets 
called himself the Son of God. And therefore, as in tlie 
person of the Jews, Solomon speaks again of this righteous 
one, who is Christ, thus : " He was made to reprove our 
tlioughts, and he maketli his boast that God is his Father. 
Let us see, then, if his words be true, and let us prove what 
shall happen in the end of him ; for if the just man be the 
Son of God, He will help him, and deliver him from the hand 
of his enemies. Let us condemn him with a shameful death, 
for by his own saying he shall be respected." " 

10. And again David, in the Psalms, says with respect to 
the future age, " Then shall He " (namely Christ) " speak 
unto them in His wrath, and vex them in His sore displea- 
sure."^ And again Solomon says concerning Christ and the 
Jews, that " when tlie righteous shall stand in great boldness 
before the face of such as have afflicted Him, and made no 
account of His words, when they see it they shall be troubled 
with terrible fear, and shall be amazed at the strangeness of 
His salvation ; and they, repenting and groaning for anguisli 
of spirit, shall say Avithin themselves, This is He whom we 
had sometimes in derision and a proverb of reproach; we 
fools accounted His life madness, and His end to be vv'ithout 
honour. How is He numbered among the children of God, 
and His lot is among the saints ? Therefore have we erred 
from the way of truth, and the light of righteousness hath 
not shined unto us, and the sun of righteousness rose not on 
us. We wearied ourselves in the way of Avickedness and 
destruction ; we have gone through deserts where there lay 
no way : but as for the way of the Lord, we have not known 
it. What hatli our pride profited us ? all those things are 
passed away like a shadow."'* 

[The conclusion is icanting-l 
1 Wisd. ii. 15, 16. 2 ^Yis(j_ i;_ 14^ iq^ ^7^ 20. 

3 Ps. ii. 5. 4 Wisd. v. 1-9. 




[Gallandi, Vet. Patr. ii. 451.] 

ND this is the passage regarding demons." But 
now we must speak of Hades, in whicli the 
souls both of the righteous and the unrighteous 
are detained. Hades is a place in the created 
system, rude/ a locality beneath the earth, in which the light 
of the world does not shine ; and as the sun does not shine 
in this locality, there must necessarily be perpetual darkness 
there. This locality has been destined to be as it were a guard- 
house for souls, at which the angels are stationed as guards, 
distributing according to each one's deeds the temporary'* 
punishments for (different) characters. And in this locality 
there is a certain place^ set apart by itself, a lake of unquench- 
able fire, into which we suppose no one has ever yet been 
cast ; for it is prepared against the day determined by God, 
in which one sentence of righteous judgment shall be justly 
applied to all. And the unrighteous, and those who believed 

^ Two fragments of this discourse are extant also in the Parallela 
Damascenica Eupefucaldina, pp. 755, 789. 

^ The reading in the text is 6 Tispl oxi/^6vav totto; ; others read 7^6yo; 
for ToVoj = thus far the discussion on demons. 

•* Or it may be " seasonable," Tpouy-aipov?. 

^ TpoTiru'j. There is another reading, toVwj/ = of the places. 



not God, who have honoured as God the vain works of the 
hands of men, idols fashioned (by themselves), shall be sen- 
tenced to this endless punishment. But the righteous shall 
obtain the incorraptible and unfading kingdom, who indeed 
are at present detained in Hades,^ but not in the same place 
with the unrighteous. For to this locality there is one descent, 
at the gate whereof we believe an archangel is stationed with 
a host. And when those who are conducted by the angels^ 
appointed unto the souls have passed through this gate, they 
do not proceed on one and the same way ; but the righteous, 
being conducted in the light toward the right, and being 
hymned by the angels stationed at the place, are brought to 
a locality full of light. And there the righteous from the 
beginning dwell, not ruled by necessity, but enjoying always 
the contemplation of the blessings which are in their view, 
and deHghting themselves with the expectation of others ever 
new, and deeming those ever better than these. And that 
place brings no toils to them. There, there is neither fierce 
heat, nor cold, nor thorn f but the face of the fathers and the 
righteous Is seen to be always smiling, as they wait for the 
rest and eternal revival in heaven which succeed this location. 
And we call it by the name Alrahanis bosom. But the un- 
righteous are dragged toward the left by angels who are 
ministers of punishment, and they go of their own accord no 
longer, but are dragged by force as prisoners. And the angels 
appointed over them send them along,^ reproaching them and 
threatening them with an eye of terror, forcing them down 
into the lower parts. And when they are brought there, those 
appointed to that service drag them on to the confines of hell 

^ Hades, in the view of the ancients, was the general receptacle of 
souls after their separation from the body, where the good abode happily 
in a place of light {(panivS), and the evil all in a place of darkness 
(ax-oTiuripw). See Colomesii YLni-cii'hict, litteraria, 28, and Suicer on eiang. 
Hence Abraham's bosom and paradise were placed in Hades. See Olym- 
piodorus on Ecclcs. iii. p. 264. The Macedonians, on the authority of 
Hugo Broughton, prayed in the Lord's words, " Our Father who art in 
Hades (Jlaryjp ijfiui/ 6 h «Ssj) (Fabricius). 

- Cf. Constitut. Apostol. viii. 41. ° rpifioTKos. 

'* In the Paralkla is inserted here the word s':r/yiAw>r£j, deriding them. 


(yeevva). And those Avho are so near hear incessantly the 
ao-itation, and feel the hot smoke. And when that vision is 
so near, as they see the terrible and excessively red ^ spectacle 
of the fire, they shudder in horror at the expectation of the 
future judgment, (as if they were) already feeling the power 
of their punishment. And again, where they see the place of 
the fathers and the righteous,^ they are also punished there. 
For a deep and vast abyss is set there in the midst, so that 
neither can any of the righteous in sympathy think to pass 
it, nor any of the unrighteous dare to cross it. 

2. Thus far, then, on the subject of Hades, in which the 
souls of all are detained until the time which God has deter- 
mined ; and then He will accomplish a resurrection of all, not 
by transferring souls into other bodies,'^ but by raising the 
bodies themselves.. And if, O Greeks, ye refuse credit to this 
because ye see these (bodies) in their dissolution, learn not to 
be incredulous. For if ye believe that the soul is originated 
and is made immortal by God, according to the opinion of 
Plato,'* in time, ye ought not to refuse to believe that God is 
able also to raise the body, which is composed of the same 
elements, and make it immortal.^ To be able in one thing, 
and to be unable in another, is a word which cannot be said 
of God. We therefore believe that the body also is raised. 
For if it become corrupt, it is not at least destroyed. For the 
earth receiving its remains preserves them, and they, becom- 
ing as it were seed, and being wrapped up with the richer 
part of earth, spring up and bloom. And that which is sown 
is sown indeed bare grain ; but at the command of God the 
Artificer it buds, and is raised arrayed and glorious, but not 
luitil it has first died, and been dissolved, and mingled with 
earth. Not, therefore, without good reason do we believe in 

^ According to the reading in Parallela, -whicli inserts ^nvdvin — red. 

" The text reads x,a.\ oy, and iclicre. But in Purallela it is k.ccI ovtoi 
— and these see, etc. In the same we find ug y-Yin for xai rov; 

2 yiTivaujiiciTuv, in opposition to the dogma of metempsychosis, 

* In the Timxiis. 

^ The first of the two fraormeuts in the Parallda ends here. 


the resurrection of the body. Moreover, if it is dissolved in 
its season on account of the primeval transgression, and is 
committed to the earth as to a furnace, to be moulded again 
anew, it is not raised the same thing as it is now, but pui.'e and 
no longer corruptible. And to every body its own proper soul 
will be given again ; and the soul, being endued again with 
it, shall not be grieved, but shall rejoice together with it, 
abiding itself pure with it also pure. And as it now sojourns 
with it in the world righteously, and finds it in nothing now 
a traitor, it will receive it again (the body) with great joy. 
But the unrighteous will receive their bodies unchanged, and 
unransomed from suffering and disease, and unglorified, and 
still with all the ills in which they died. And whatever 
manner of persons they (were when they) lived without 
faith, as such they shall be faithfully judged. 

3.-^ For all, the righteous and the unrighteous alike, shall 
be brought before God the Word. For the Father hath 
committed all judgment to Him ; and in fulfilment of the 
Father's counsel. He cometh as Judge whom we call Christ. 
For it is not Minos and Rhadaraanthys that are to judge (the 
world), as ye fancy, O Greeks, but He whom God the Father 
hath glorified, of whom we have spoken elsewhere more in 
particular, for the profit of those who seek the truth. He, in 
administering the righteous judgment of the Father to all, 
assigns to each what is righteous according to his works. 
And being present at His judicial decision, all, both men and 
angels and demons, shall utter one voice, saying, " Righteous 
is Thy judgment." ^ Of which voice the justification will be 
seen in the awarding to each that which is just; since to those 
who have done well shall be assigned righteously eternal bliss, 
and to the lovers of iniquity shall be given eternal punish- 
ment. And tlie fire wdiich is unquenchable and witliout end 
awaits these latter, and a certain fiery worm which dieth not, 
and which does not waste the body, but continues bursting 
forth from the body with unending pain. No sleep will give 
them rest ; no night will soothe them ; no death will deliver 

^ The second fragment extant in the Parallda begins here. 
- Ps. cxix. 137. 


tliem from punishment ; no voice of interceding friends \vill 
profit them. For neither are the righteous seen Ly them 
any longer, nor are they worthy of remembrance. But the 
righteous will remember only the righteous deeds by which 
they reached the heavenly kingdom, in wdiich there is neither 
sleep, nor pain, uor corraption, nor care,^ nor night, nor day 
measured by time ; nor sun traversing in necessary course 
the circle of heaven, Avhich marks the limits of seasons, or the 
points measured out for the life of man so easily read ; nor 
moon waning or waxing, or inducing the changes of seasons, 
or moistening the earth ; no burning sun, no changeful Bear, 
no Orion coming forth, no numerous wandering of stars, no 
painfully-trodden earth, no abode of paradise hard to find; no 
furious roaring of the sea, forbidding one to touch or traverse 
it; but this too will be readily passable for the righteous, 
although it lacks no water. There will be no heaven inacces- 
sible to men, nor will the way of its ascent be one impossible 
to find ; and there will be no earth unwrought, or toilsome 
for men, but one producing fruit spontaneously in beauty and 
order ; nor will there be generation of wild beasts again, nor 
the bursting ' substance of other creatures. Neither with 
man will there be generation again, but the number of the 
righteous remains indefectible with the righteous angels and 
spirits. Ye who believe these words, O men, will be partakers 
with the righteous, and will have part in these future bless- 
ings, which " eye hath not seen nor ear heard, neither have 
entered into the heart of man the things which God liath 
prepared for them that love Illm." ^ To Him be the glory 
and the power, for ever and ever. Amen. 

^ The second fragment hi the roraUda ends here. 
2 iKl2pxaoo,uim. ^ 1 Cor. ii. 9. 




[Gallandi, p. 454.] 
OME others are secretly introducing another doc- 
trine, who have become disciples of one Noetus, 
who was a native of Smyrna/ (and) lived not 
very long ago.""^ This person was greatly puffed 
up and inflated with pride, being inspired by the conceit of a 
strange spirit. He alleged that Christ was the Father Him- 
self, and that the Father Himself was born, and suffered, and 
died. Ye see what pride of heart and what a strange inflated 
spirit had insinuated themselves into him. From his other 
actions, then, the proof is already given us that he spoke not 
with a pure spirit ; for he who blasphemes against the Holy 
Ghost is cast out from the holy inheritance. He alleged 
that he was himself Moses, and that Aaron was his brother.^ 

^ That ISToctus was a native of Smyrna is mentioned also by Theodoret, 
book iii. Hxret. fab. c. iii., and Damascenus, sec. Ivii. (who is accustomed 
to follow Epiphanius) ; and yet in Epiplianius, Hxrcs. 57, we read that 
Noetus was an Asian of the city of Ephesus Qh-aiavov r^s 'EipsVoy ttqAsus). 

- Epiphanius says that Noetus made his heresy public about 130 years 
before his time (oy ■^rco srZv "ttT^sioi/ciu dfO^ oi; cr^o XP^'-'"^ '^^" ^ovtwj sx,ccrou 
'Tpixy.oi/rx, TT'hiio) jj ihocGau) ; and as Epiphanius wrote in the year 375, 
that would make the date of Noetus about 245. He says also that 
Noetus died soon after (gj/ayp/o;), along with his brother. (Fabricius.) 

^ So also Epiphanius and Damascenus. But Philastrius, Heresy 53, 
puts Elijah for Aaron (hie etiam dicebat se Moysem esse, et fratrem 
suum Eliam prophetam). 



When the blessed presbyters heard this, they summoned liim 
before the church, and examined him. But he denied at 
first tliat he held such opinions. Afterwards, however, 
taking shelter among some, and having gathered round him 
some others ^ who had embraced the same error, he wished 
thereafter to uphold his dogma openly as correct. And the 
blessed presbyters called him again before them, and exa- 
mined him. But he stood out against them, saying, " What 
evil, then, am I doing in glorifying Christ V And the pres- 
byters replied to him, " We too know in truth one God ;"" 
we know Christ ; we know that the Son suffered even as He 
suffered, and died even as He died, and rose again on the 
third day, and is at the right hand of the Father, and cometli 
to judge the living and the dead. And these things which 
we have learned we allege." Then, after examining him, 
they expelled him from the church. And he was carried to 
such a pitch of pride, that he estabhshed a school. 

2. Now they seek to exhibit the foundation for their 
dogma by citing the word in the law, "I am the God of your 
fathers : ye shall have no other gods beside me ;" ^ and again 
in another passage, "I am the first," He saith, "and the last; 
and beside me there is none other."'* Thus they say they 
prove that God is one. And then they answer in this man- 
ner : " If therefore I acknowledge Christ to be God, He is 
the Father Himself, if He is indeed God; and Christ suffered, 
being Himself God ; and consequently the Father suffered, 
for He was the Father Himself." But the case stands not 
thus ; for the Scriptures do not set forth the matter in this 
manner. But they make use also of other testimonies, and 
say, Thus it is written : " This is our God, and there shall 
none other be accounted of in comparison of Him. He hath 
found out all the way of knowledge, and hath given it unto 
Jacob His servant (son), and to Israel His beloved. After- 

^ Epiphanius remarks that they were but ten in nimiber. 

2 The following words are the words of the Sijmholam, as it is extant 
in Irenseus, i. 10, etc., and iii. -i ; and in TertuUian, coiitra Praxeam, ch. 
ii., and De Frsescript. ch. xiii., and De virginibus velandis, ch. i. 

8 Ex. iii. 6 and xx. 3. * Isa. xliv. 6. 


ward did He show Himself upon earth, and conversed with 
nien."^ You see, then, he says, that this is God, who is the 
onlj One, and who afterwards did show Himself, and con- 
versed with men. And in another place he says, " Egypt 
hath laboured ; and the merchandise of Ethiopia and the 
Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, [and 
they shall be slaves to thee] ; and they shall come after thee 
bound with manacles, and they shall fall down unto thee, 
because God is in thee ; and they shall make supplication 
unto thee : and there is no God beside thee. For Thou art 
God, and we knew not; God of Israel, the Saviour."^ Do 
you see, he says, how the Scriptures proclaim one God ? 
And as this is clearly exhibited, and these passages are testi- 
monies to it, I am under necessity, he says, since one is ac- 
knowledged, to make this One the subject of suffering. For 
Christ was God, and suffered on account of us, being Himself 
the Father, that He might be able also to save us. And we 
cannot express ourselves otherwise, he says ; for the apostle 
also acknowledges one God, when he says, " Whose are the 
fathers, (and) of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, 
who is over all, God blessed for ever." "^ 

3. In this way, then, they choose to set forth these things, 
and they make use only of one class of passages \^ just in the 
same one-sided manner that Theodotus employed when he 
sought to prove that Christ was a mere man. But neither 
has the one party nor the other understood the matter rightly, 
as the Scriptures themselves confute their senselessness, and 

^ Baruch iii. 35-38. ^ Isa. xlv. 14. , " Kom. ix. 5. 

■* -A,»! ciiiTol; j^ovoKuT^oc xpa/asvoi, etc. Tiie ^vord /novocuXsi appears to 
"be used adverbially, instead of y.ovox.u'hug and f/.ovori'uug, which are the 
terms employed by Epiphanius (p. 481). The meaning is, that the 
Noetians, in explaining the words of Scripture concerning Christ, looked 
only to one side of the question — namely, to the divine nature ; just as 
Theodotus, on his part going to the opposite extreme, kept by the human 
nature exclusively, and held that Christ was a mere man. Besides others, 
the presbyter Timotheus, in Cotelerii Monwnent. vol. iii. p. 389, mentions 
Theodotus in. these terms: "They say that this Theodotus was the leader 
and father of the heresy of the Saraosatan, having first alleged that 
Clii'ist was a mere man." 


attest the truth. See, brethren, what a rash and audacious 
dogma they have introduced, when they say without shame, 
the Father is Himself Christ, Himself the Son, Himself 
was born, Himself suffered, Himself raised Himself. But it 
is not so. The Scriptures speak what is right ; but Noetus 
is of a different mind from them. Yet, though Noetus 
does not understand the truth, the Scriptures are not at once 
to be repudiated. For who will not say that there is one 
God ? Yet he will not on that account deny the oeconomy 
(i.e. the number and disposition of persons in the Trinity). 
The proper way, therefore, to deal with the question is first 
of all to refute the interpretation put upon these passages 
by these men, and then to explain their real meaning. For 
it is right, in the first place, to expound the truth that the 
Father is one God, "of whom is every family,"^ "by whom 
are all things, of whom are all things, and we in Him."" 

4. Let us, as I said, see how he is confuted, and then let us 
set forth the truth. Now he quotes the words, " Egypt has 
laboured, and the merchandise of Ethiopia and the Sabeans," 
and so forth on to the words, "For Thou art the God of Israel, 
the Saviour." And these words he cites without understand- 
ing what precedes them. For whenever they wish to attempt 
anything underhand, they mutilate the Scriptures. But let 
him quote the passage as a whole, and he will discover the 
reason kept in view in writing it. For we have the begin- 
ning of the section a little above ; and we ought, of course, 
to commence there in showing to whom and about whom the 
passage speaks. For above, the beginning of the section 
stands thus: "Ask me concerning my sons and my daughters, 
and concerning the work of my hands command ye me. I 
have made the earth, and man upon it : I with my hand 
liave stablished the heaven ; I have commanded all the stars. 
I have raised him up, and all his ways are straight. He 
shall build my city, and he shall turn back the captivity : 
not for price nor reward, said the Lord of hosts. Thus said 
the Lord of hosts, Egypt hath laboured, and the merchandise 
of Ethiopia and the Sabeans, men of stature, sliall come over 
1 Ej)li. iii. 15. ^ 1 Cor. viii. 6. 


unto tliee, and tliey shall be slaves to tliee : and tliey shall 
come after thee bound with manacles, and they shall fall down 
unto thee; and they shall make supplication unto thee, because 
God is in thee ; and there is no God beside thee. For Thou 
art God, and we knew not; the God of Israel, the Saviour."^ 
'• In thee, therefore," says he, " God is." But in whom is 
God except in Christ Jesus, the Father's AYord, and the 
mystery of the oeconomy ? And again, exhibiting the truth 
regarding Him, he points to the fact of His bemg in the flesh 
when He says, " I have raised Him up in righteousness, and 
all His ways are straight." For what is this ? Of whom 
does the Father thus testify? It is of the Son that the 
Father says, "I have raised Him up in righteousness." And 
that the Father did raise up His Son in righteousness, the 
Apostle Paul bears witness, saying, " But if the Spirit of 
Him that raised up Christ Jesus from the dead dwell in you. 
He that raised up Christ Jesus from the dead shall also 
quicken your mortal bodies by His Spirit that dwelleth in 
you."^ Beliold, the word spoken by the prophet is thus made 
good, " I have raised Him up in righteousness," And in 
saying, " God is in thee," he referred to the mystery of the 
oeconomy, because when the Word was made incarnate and 
became man, the Father was in the Son, and the Son in the 
Father, while the Son was living among men. This, there- 
fore, was signified, brethren, that in reality the mystery of 
the oeconomy by the Holy Ghost and the Virgin was this 
Word, constituting yet one Son to God.^ And it is not 
simply that I say this, but He Himself attests it who came 
dowai from heaven ; for He speaketh thus : " No man hath 
ascended up to heaven, but He that came down from heaven, 
even the Son of man which is in heaven."^ What then can 
he seek beside what is thus written ? Will he say, forsooth, 

1 Tsfi. rly. 11-15. 2 -^^^^ ^ijj ^^ 

^ Turrian has the following note: "The WorJ of God constituted 

(operatum est) one Son to God ; i.e. the "W^'ord of God effected, that He 

who was the one Son of God was also one Son of man, because as His 

hypostasis He assumed the flesh. For thus was the Word made flesh." 

* John iii. 13. 


that flesli was in heaven ? Yet there is the flesh which was 
presented by the Father's Word as an offering, — the flesh 
that came by the Spirit and the Virgin, (and was) demon- 
strated to be the perfect Son of God. It is evident, there- 
fore, that He offered Himself to the Father. And before 
this there was no flesh in heaven. Who, then, was in heaven 
but the Word unincarnate, who was despatched to show that 
He was upon earth and was also in heaven ? For He was 
Word, He was Spirit, He was Power. The same took to 
Himself the name common and current among men, and 
was called from the beginning the Son of man on account of 
Avhat He was to be, although He was not yet man, as Daniel 
testifies when he says, "I saw, and behold one like the Son 
of man came on the clouds of heaven."^ Rightly, then, did 
he say that He who was in heaven -was called from the be- 
ginning by this name, the Word of God, as being that from 
the beginning. 

5. But what is meant, says he, in the other passage : " This 
is God, and there shall none other be accounted of in com- 
parison of Him?"""^ That said he rightly. For in compari- 
son of the Father who shall be accounted of ? But he says : 
" This is our God ; there shall none other be accounted of 
in comparison of Him. He hath found out all the way of 
knowledge, and hath given it unto Jacob His servant, and to 
Israel liis beloved." He saith well. For who is Jacob His 
servant, Israel His beloved, but He of "vvhom He crieth, saying, 
" This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased : hear 
ye Him?"^ Having received, then, all knowledge from the 
Father, the perfect Israel, the true Jacob, afterward did 
show Himself upon earth, and conversed with men. And 
who, again, is meant by Israel* but a man lolio sees God? and 

^ Dan. -vii. 13. ^ Baruch iii. 3G, etc. ^ Matt. xvii. 5. 

■* The word Ismelis explained by Philo, Dc prsemiis et pccnh, p. 710, 
and elsewlierc, as meaning seeing God, opcJv Qeov, i.e. ^i^ nXT C'^X- So 
also in the Constitutiones Ajjostol. vii. 37, viii. 16 ; Eusebius, Pnrparat. 
xi. 6, p. 519, and in many others. To the same class may be referred 
those who make Israel = 6pxrix,6; duvip x.»l dsupi^Ttxos, a vian apt to sec 
and speculate., as Eusebius, Prxparat. p. 310, or = i/ovg opZv Qiov, as 


there is no one who sees God except the Son alone, the per- 
fect man who alone declares the will of the Father. For 
John also says, " No man hath seen God at any time ; the 
only-begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, He 
hath declared^ Him."^ And again: "He who came down 
from heaven testifieth what He hath heard and seen." ' 
This, then, is He to whom the Father hath given all know- 
ledge, who did show Himself upon earth, and conversed with 

6. Let us look next at the apostle's word : " Whose are 
the fathers, of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, 
who is over all, God blessed for ever." '^ This word declares 
the mystery of the truth rightly and clearly. He who is 
over all is God ; for thus He speaks boldly, " All things 
are delivered unto me of my Father."^ He who is over 
all, God blessed, has been born; and having been made 
man. He is (yet) God for ever. For to this effect John 
also has said, "Which is, and which was, and which is 
to come, the Almighty." ^ And well has he named Christ 
the Almighty. For in this he has said only what Christ 
testifies of Himself. For Christ gave this testimony, and 
said, "All things are delivered unto me of my Father;"^ 
and Chi'ist rules all things, and has been appointed Almighty 
by the Father. And in like manner Paul also, in setting 
forth the truth that all things are delivered unto Him, said, 
" Christ the first-fruits ; afterwards they that are Christ's at 
His coming. Then cometh the end, when He shall have de- 
livered up the kingdom to God, even the Father ; when He 
shall have put down all rule, and all authority, and power. 
For He must reign, till He hath put all enemies under His 
feet. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. For 

Optatus iu the end of the second book ; Didymus in Jerome, and Jerome 
himself in various passages ; Maximus, i. p. 284 ; Olympiodorus on Ec- 
clesiastes, ch. i. ; Leoutius, De Sectis, p. 392 ; Theophanes, Ceram. 
homil. iv. p. 22, etc. Justin Martyr, Dialog, cum Tryph. p. 354, adduces 
another etymology, uudpuTro; vikZv '^vvct^u.tu. 

^ Hippolytus reads liny/iaxro for s^ny/iaccro. - John i. 18. 

•^ John iii. 11, 13. ■* Eom. ix. 5. ^ i\ratt. xi. 27. 

« Apoc. i. 8. ^ Matt. xi. 27. 


all tilings are put under Him. But when He saith, All things 
are put under Plim, it is manifest that He is excepted which 
did put all things under Him. Then shall He also Himself 
be subject to Him who put all things under Him, that God 
may be all in all." ^ If, therefore, all things are put under 
Him with the exception of Him who put them under Him, 
He is Lord of all, and the Father is Lord of Him, that in all 
there might be manifested one God, to whom all things are 
made subject together with Christ, to whom the Father hath 
made all things subject, with the exception of Himself. And 
this, indeed, is said by Christ Himself, as when in the Gospel 
He confessed Him to be His Father and His God. For He 
speaks thus : " I go to my Father and your Father, and to my 
God and your God."^ If, then, Noetus ventures to say that 
He is the Father Himself, to what father will he say Christ 
goes away according to the word of the Gospel ? But if he 
will have us abandon the Gospel and give credence to his 
senselessness, he expends his labour in vain ; for " we ought 
to obey God rather than men." " 

7. If, again, he allege His own word when He said, " I 
and the Father are one,"'' let him attend to the fact, and 
understand that He did not say, " I and the Father am one, 
but are oneT^ For the word are (ea-^ev) is not said of one 
person, but it refers to tico persons, and one power.' He 
has Himself made this clear, when He spake to His Father 
concerning the disciples, " The glory which Thou gavest mc 
I have given them; that they maybe one, even as we are one : 
I in them, and Tliou in me, that they may be made perfect in 
one ; that the world may know that Thou hast sent me." ^ 
What have the Noetians to say to these things'? Are all 
one body in respect of substance, or is it that we become 
one in the power and disposition of unity of mind ^.^ In the 
same manner the Son, who was sent and was not known of 
those who are in the world, confessed that He was in the 

1 1 Cor. XV. 23-28. 2 John xx. 17. ^ Acts v. 29, iv. 10. 

^ John X. 30. * iyu kxI 6 7rsir'/:p h el,ui — tv iafisv. 

^ o'Juufiiu. '' Jolm xvii. 22, 23. 

^ 5j t;^ 'hvvoi.y.ii kxI Trt otxSian ryjg 6f.t,o(ppoyiix; h yivo^undci. 


Father in power and disposition. For the Son is tlie one 
mind of the Father. We who have the Father's mind be- 
lieve so (in Him) ; but they who have it not have denied 
the Son. And if, again, they choose to allege the fact that 
Phih'p inquired about the Father, saying, " Show us the 
Father, and it sufficeth us," to whom the Lord made answer 
in these terms : " Have I been so long time with you, and yet 
hast thou not known me, Philip ? He that hath seen me hath 
seen the Father. Believest thou not that I am in the Father, 
and the Father in me ? "^ and if they choose to maintain that 
their dogma is ratified by this passage, as if He owned Him- 
self to be the Father, let them know that it is decidedl}- 
against them, and that they are confuted by this very word. 
For though Christ had spoken of Himself, and showed Him- 
self among all as the Son, they had not yet recognised Him 
to be such, neither had they been able to apprehend or con- 
template His real power. And Philip, not having been able 
to receive this, as far as it was possible to see it, requested to 
behold the Father. To whom then the Lord said, " Philip, 
have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not 
known me ? He that hath seen me hath seen the Father." 
By which He means. If thou hast seen me, thou mayest know 
the Father through me. For through the image, which is 
like (the original), the Father is made readily known. But 
if thou hast not known the image, which is the Son, how 
dost thou seek to see the Father ? And that this is the case 
is made clear by the rest of the chapter, which signifies that 
the Son who "has been set forth' was sent from the Father,^ 
and goeth to the Father." ^ 

8. Many other passages, or rather all of them, attest the 
truth. A man, therefore, even though he will it not, is com- 
pelled to acknowledge God the Father Almighty, and Christ 
Jesus the Son of God, who, being God, became man, to 
whom also the Father made all things subject, Himself ex- 
cepted, and the Holy Spirit ; and that these, therefore, are 
three. But if he desires to learn how it is shown still that 

1 John xiv. 8, 9. 2 ]^oi^^_ jij^ 95. 

8 John V. 30, vi. 29, viii. 16, 18, etc. * joi-^^ xiii. 1, xiv. 12. 


there is one God, let liim know that His power (Svva/iiit;) is 
one. As far as regards the power, therefore, God is one. 
But as far as regards the oeconomy there is a threefold mani- 
festation, as shall be proved afterwards when we give account 
of the true doctrine. In these things, however, which are 
thus set forth by us, we are at one. For there is one God in 
whom we must believe, but unoriginated, impassible, immor- 
tal, doing all things as He wills, in the way He wills, and 
when He wills. What, then, will this Noetus, who knows* 
nothing of the truth, dare to say to these things ? And now, 
as Noetus has been confuted, let us turn to the exhibition 
of the truth itself, that we may establish the truth, against 
which all these mighty heresies ^ have arisen without being 
able to state anj^thing to the purpose. 

9. There is, brethren, one God, the knowledge of whom 
we gain from the holy Scriptures, and from no other source. 
For just as a man, if he wishes to be skilled in the wisdom 
of this world, will find himself unable to get at it in any 
other way than by mastering the dogmas of philosophers, so 
all of us who wish to practise piety will be unable to learn its 
practice from any other quarter than the oracles of God. 
"Whatever things, then, the holy Scriptures declare, at these 
let us look ; and whatsoever things they teach, these let us 
learn ; and as the Father wills our belief to be, let us be- 
lieve ; and as He wills the Son to be glorified, let us glorify 
Him ; and as He wills the Holy Spirit to be bestowed, let us 
receive Him. Not according to our own will, nor according 
to our own mind, nor yet as using violently those things 
which are given by God, but even as He has chosen to teach 
them by the holy Scriptures, so let us discern them. 

10. God, subsisting alone, and having nothing contempo- 
raneous with Himself, determined to create the world. And 
conceiving the world in mind, and willing and uttering the 
word. He made it ; and straightway it appeared, formed as it 

^ There is jserhaps a play on tlae words here — Nohto? jWij vouv. 

" i.e. the other thirty-one heresies, which Hippolytus had already 
attacked. From these words it is apparent also that this treatise was 
the closing portion of a book against the heresies (Fabricius). 


had pleased Him. For us, then, it is sufficient simply to 
know that there was nothing contemporaneous with God. 
Beside Him there was nothing ; but^ He, while existing 
alone, yet existed in plurality.^ For He was neither without 
reason, nor wisdom, nor power, nor counsel.^ And all things 
were in Him, and He was the All. When He willed, and as 
He v.'illed,^ He manifested His word in the times determined 
by Him, and by Him He made all things. When He wills, 
He does ; and when He thinks, He executes ; and when He 
speaks, He manifests ; when He fashions, He contrives in 
wisdom. For all things that are made He forms by reason 
and wisdom — creating them in reason, and arranging them 
in wisdom. He made them, then, as He pleased, for He 
was God. And as the Author, and fellow-Counsellor, and 
Framer^ of the things that are being made, He begat *" the 
Word ; and as He bears this Word in Himself, and that, too, 
as (yet) invisible to the world which is created, He makes 
Him visible ; (and) uttering the voice first, and begetting 
Him as Light of Light,^ He set Him forth to the world as 
its Lord, (and) His own mind (vovv) ; and whereas He was 
visible formerly to Himself alone, and invisible to the world 
which is made. He makes Him visible in order that the world 

^ See, on this passage. Bull's Dcfens. fid. Nic. sec. iii. cap. viii. § 2, 
p. 219. 

■* On these words see Bossuet's explanation and defence, Avertiss. vi. 
§ 68,. sur les lettres de M. Jurieu. 

^ dp'^Yiyou^ -ycctl avi^fiov'Ko'j, kuI spyt/,ry]u. 

<* The " begetting " of Avhich Hippolytus speaks here is not the genera- 
tion, properly so called, but that manifestation and bringing forth of the 
"Word co-existing from eternity with the Father, which refeiTed to the 
creation of the world. So at least Bull and Bossuet, as cited above ; 
also Maranus, De Divinit. J. C, lib. iv. cap. xiii. § 3, p. 458. 

'' (pug ix, (parog. This phrase, adopted by the Nicene fathers, occurs 
before their time not only here, but also in Justin Martyr, Tatian, and 
Athenagoras, as is noticed by Grabe, ad Irenieuvi, lib. ii. c. xxiii. 
Methodius also, in his Homily on Simeon and An7ia, p. 152, has the 
expression, cv tl (pug d>^riSiy6u ix, (parog d'hridivov Qeog d7\.ridiv6g ix. Qiov 
d'KriQt'jov. Athanasius himself also uses the phrase "hv^^ov ix, 7\.vyjiov^ vol. 
i. p. 881, ed. Lips. 


might see Him in His manifestation, and be capable of being 

11. And thus there appeared another beside Himself. But 
when I say anotlier,^ I do not mean that there are two Gods^ 
but that it is only as light of light, or as water from a foun- 
tain, or as a ray from the sun. For there is but one power, 
which is from the All (e'/c rov iravroi) ; and the Father is the 
All, from whom conieth this Power, the AYord. And this is the 
mind (or reason) which came forth into the world, and was 
manifested as the Son {jrah) of God. All things, then, are 
by Him, and He alone is of the Father. Who then adduces 
a multitude of gods brought in, time after time? For all are 
shut up, however unwillingly, to admit this fact, that the A\\ 
runs up into one. If, then, all things run up into one, even 
according to Valentinus, and Marcion, and Cerinthus, and 
all their fooleries, they are also reduced, however unwillingly, 
to this position, that they must acknowledge that the One is 
the cause of all things. Thus, then, these too, though they 
wish it not, fall in with the truth, and admit that one God 
made all things according to His good pleasure. And He 
gave the law and the prophets ; and in giving them. He made 
them speak by the Holy Ghost, in order that, being gifted 
with the inspiration of the Father s pov/er, they might declare 
the Father's counsel and will. 

12. Acting then in these (prophets), the Word spoke of 
Himself. For already He became His own herald, and showed 
that the Word Avould be manifested among men. And for 
this reason Pie cried thus : " I am made manifest to them 
that sought me not ; I am found of them that asked not for 
me."^ And who is He that is made manifest but the Word 
of the Father ? — whom the Father sent, and in whom He 
showed to men the power proceeding from Him. Thus, 
then, was the Word made manifest, even as the blessed John 

^ Justin Martyr also says that the Son is htpov n, somcihhu/ other, from 
the Father ; and TcrtulHan affirms, Filium ct Patrem esse aliiid ab aUo, 
■with the same intent as Hippolytus here, viz. to express the distiuction 
of persons. 

^ Isa. Ixv. 1. 


says. For he sums up the things that were said by the pro- 
phets, and shows that this is the Word, by whom all things 
were made. For he speaks to this effect : " In the beginning 
was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word 
was God. All things were made by Plim, and without Him 
was not anything made."^ And beneath He says, "The 
world was made by Him, and the world knew Him not ; He 
came unto His own, and His own received Him not."^ If, 
then, said he, the world was made by Him, according to the 
word of the prophet, " By the Word of the Lord were the 
heavens made,"" then this is the Word that was also made 
manifest. We accordingly see the AVord incarnate, and we 
know the Father by Him, and we believe in the Son, (and) 
we worship the Holy Spirit. Let us then look at the testi- 
mony of Scripture with respect to the announcement of the 
future manifestation of the Word. 

13. Now Jeremiah says, "V/lio hath stood in the coun- 
sel* of the Lord, and hath perceived His Word?"'' But the 
Word of God alone is visible, while the word of man is 
audible. When he speaks of seeing the Word, I must be- 
lieve that this visible (Word) has been sent. And there was 
none other (sent) but the Word. And that He was sent 
Peter testifies, when he says to the centurion Cornelius : 
" God sent His Word unto the children of Israel by the 
preaching of Jesus Christ. This is the God who is Lord of 
all."'' If, then, the Word is sent by Jesus Christ, the will'' 
of the Father is Jesus Christ. 

^ John i. 1-3. Ilippolytus evidently puts the full stop at the rjvoi sV, 
attachmg the o yiyoviv to the following. So also Irenteus, Clemens 
Alex., Origen, Theophilus of Antioch, and Eusebius, in several places ; 
so, too, of the Latin fathers — Tertullian, Lactantius, Victorinus, Augus- 
tine ; and long after these, Honorius Augustodunejisis, in his De imagine 
Mundi. This punctuation was also adopted bj' the heretics Valentinus, 
Heracleon, Theodotus, and the Macedonians and Eunomians; and hence 
it is rejected by Epiphanius, ii. p. 80, and Chrysostom. (Fabricius.) 

2 JolmL 10, 11. ^ Ps. xxxiii. G. 

* i'Koarvi^a.Ti^ foundation. Victor reads h t>7 vivoaiikoit^ in the sub- 
stance, nature ; Symmachus has iv r% o,4c<A('o5, in the fellowship. 

^ Jer. xxiii. 18. ^ Acts x. 36. 

' TO Si'AnfA.ix.. Many of the patristic theologians called the Sou the 


14. These things then, brethren, are declared by the 
Scriptures. And the blessed John, in the testimony of his 
Gospel, gives us an account of this oeconomy (disposition), 
and acknowledges this Word as God, when he says, " In the 
beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and 
the Word was God." If, then, the Word was with God, 
and was also God, what follows ? Would one say that he 
speaks of two Gods ? ^ I shall not indeed speak of two Gods, 
but of one ; of two Persons however, and of a third oeconomy 
(disposition), viz. the grace of the Holy Ghost. For the 
Father indeed is One, but there are two Persons, because 
there is also the Son ; and then there is the third, the Holy 
Spirit. The Father decrees, the Word executes, and the 
Son is manifested, through whom the Father is believed on. 
The oeconomy^ of harmony is led back to one God ; for God 
is One. It is the Father who commands,^ and the Son who 
obeys, and the Holy Spirit who gives understanding (avve- 
TL^ov) : the Father who is above all,^ and the Son who is 

Father's (iovM'Hi or &i.7<.ni^a,. See the passages in Petavius, Be S. S. 
Trinitate, lib. vi. cl 8, § 21, and vii. 12, § 12. 

1 From this passage it is clear that Hippolytus taught the doctrine of 
one God alone and three Persons. A little before, in the eighth chap- 
ter, he said that there is one God, according to substance or divine 
essence, which one substance is in three Persons ; and that, according 
to disposition or oeconomy, three are three Persons manifested. By the 
term oeconomy, therefore, he imderstands, with Tertullian, adversus 
Praxeam, ch.-iii.,' the number and disposition of the Trinity (immcrum 
et disposltionem Trinitatis). Here he also calls the grace of the Holy 
Spirit the third (economy, but in the same way as Tertullian, who calls 
the Holy Spirit the third grade {tertium gradum). For the terms gradus, 
forma, species, dispositio, and ceconomia mean the same in TertuUian. 

2 oly^oi/0/y.ia, GVf^Cfuvtx; cvva-ysrai ug 'iux Qiov, perhaps = the oeconomy 
as being one of harmony, leads to one God. 

^ This mode of speaking of the Father's commanding and the Son's 
oheying, was used without any offence, not only by Ircnteus, Hippolytus, 
Origcn, and others before the Council of Niccea, but also after that 
council by the keenest opponents of the Ai-ian heresy — Athauasius, Basil, 
Marius Victorinus, Hilary, Prosper, and others. See Petavius, De Trin. 
i. 7, § 7; and Bull, Defens.fid. Nic. pp. 138, 164, 167, 170. (Fabricius.) 

* lleferring probably to Eph. iv. 6. 


tliroucjli all, and the Holy Spirit wlio is in all. And we can- 
not otherwise think of one God/ but by believing in truth 
in Father and Son and Holy Spirit. For the Jews glorified 
(or gloried in) the Father, but gave Him not thanks, for they 
they did not recognise the Son. The disciples recognised 
the Son, but not in the Holy Ghost ; wherefore they also 
denied Hiin.^ The Father's Word, therefore, knowing the 
ceconomy (disposition) and the Avill of the Father, to wit, 
that the Father seeks to be worshipped in none other way 
tlian this, gave this charge to the disciples after He rose 
from the dead : " Go ye and teach all nations, baptizing 
them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost." ^ And by this He showed, that whosoever 
omitted any one of these, failed in glorifying God perfectly. 
For it is through this Trinity {Tpidho'^) that the Father is 
glorified. For the Father willed, the Son did, the Spirit 
manifested. The whole Scriptures, then, proclaim this 

15. But some one will say to me, You adduce a thing strange 
to me, when you call the Son the Word. For John indeed 
speaks of the Word, but it is by a figure of speech. [Nay, 
it is by no figure of speech.]'' For while thus presenting this 
Word that was from the beginning, and has now been sent 
forth, he said below in the Apocalypse, " And I saw heaven 
opened, and behold a white horse ; and He that sat upon him 
(was) Faithful and True ; and in righteousness He doth 
judge and make war. And His eyes (were) as flame of fire, 
and on His head were many crowns ; and He had a name 
written that no man knew but He Himself. And He (was) 
clothed in a vesture dipped in blood : and His name is called 

^ The Christian doctriue, Maranus remarks, could not be set forth 
more accurately ; for he contends not only that the number of Persons 
in no manner detracts from the unity of God, but that the unity of God 
itself can neither consist nor be adored without tliis number of Persons. 

2 This is said probably with reference to Peter's denial. 

3 Matt, xxviii. 19. 

■* flcATi' oiKhai liKK-fiyopu. The words in brackets are given only in the 
Latin. They may have dropped from the Greek text. At any rate, 
some such addition seems necessary for the sense. 



the Word of GocL"^ See then, brethren, how the vesture 
sprinkled with blood denoted in symbol the flesh, through 
which the impassible Word of God came under suffering, as 
also the prophets testify to me. For thus speaks the blessed 
Micah : " The house of Jacob provoked the Spirit of the Lord 
to anger. These are their pursuits. Are not His words good 
with them, and do they walk rightly "? And they have risen 
up in enmity against His countenance of peace, and they have 
stripped off His glory." ^ That means His suffering in the 
flesh. And in like manner also the blessed Paul says, " For 
what the law could not do, in that it was weak, God, sending 
His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, condemned sin in 
the flesh, that the righteousness of the law might be shown in 
us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit."^ What 
Son of His own, then, did God send through the flesh but 
the Word,^ whom He addressed as Son because He was to 
become such (or be begotten) in the future ? And Pie takes 
the common name for tender affection among men in beins; 
called the Son. . For neither was the Word, prior to incar- 
nation and when by Himself,^ yet perfect Son, although 
He was perfect Word, only-begotten. Nor could the flesh 
subsist by itself apart from the Word, because it has its 
subsistence {ri-jv avaraaiv) in the Word.*" Thus, then, one 
perfect Son of God was manifested. 

^ Apoc. xix. 11-13. 

- Mic. ii. 7, 8. Zo^av : In the present text of tlic Septuagint it is 
oopu'j, skin. 

2 Hippolytus omits the words oi» r^j axpyJ; and x-kI ■Tzspl afixprix;, 
and reads (pccvspaSr. for ■7rh-/ipco$yi. 

* Sv Tiov TTpoa'/iyopiVi Old rd fAiKKnv aiirov yiuiadixi. 

^ Hippolytus thus gives more definite expression to this temporality of 
the Sonship, as Dorner remarks, than even Tertullian. See Dorncr"s 
Doctrine of the Person of Christ (T. & T. Clark), Div. i. vol. ii. j'. 
88, etc. 

^ " Ivaracii^'' says Dorner, " be it observed, is not yet equivalent to 
personality. The sense is, it had its subsistence in the Logos ; He was 
the connective and vehicular force. This is thoroughly unobjectionable. 
He does not thus necessarily pronounce the humanity of imper- 
sonal ; although in view of what has preceded, and what remains to be 
adduced, there can be no doubt that Hippolytus would have defended 


16. And these indeed are testimonies bearing on the incar- 
nation of the Word ; and there are also very many others. 
But let us also look at the subject in hand, — namely, the ques- 
tion, brethren, that in reality the Father's Power, which is the 
Word, came down from heaven, and not the Father Himself. 
For thus He speaks : " I came forth from the Father, and am 
come."^ Now what subject is meant in this sentence, "I 
came fortli from the Father," "' but just the Word ? And 
what is it that is begotten of Him, but just the Spirit,^ that 
is to say, the AYord ? But you w^ill say to me. How is He be- 
gotten ? In your own case you can give no explanation of 
the way in which you were begotten, although you see every 
day the cause according to man ; neither can you tell with 
accuracy the osconomy in His case (jrjv irepl tovtov oIkovo- 
iiiav). For you have it not in your power to acquaint your- 
self with the practised and indescribable arf^ (method) of the 
Maker, but only to see, and understand, and believe that man 
is God's work. Moreover, you are asking an account of the 
generation of the Word, whom God the Father in His good 
pleasure begat as He willed. Is it not enough for you to 
learn that God made the world, but do you also venture to 
ask whence He made it ? Is it not enough for you to learn 
that the Son of God has been manifested to you for salvation 
if you believe, but do you also inquire curiously how He was 
begotten after the Spirit % No more than two,^ in sooth, have 
been put in trust to give the account of His generation after 
the flesh ; and are you then so bold as to seek the account (of 
His generation) after the Spirit, which the Father keeps with 
Himself, intending to reveal it then to the holy ones and 

the impersonality, liad the question been agitated at the period at which 
he lived." See Corner, as above, i. 95. 

1 John xvi. 28. 

^ Reading i^vihQ^v. The Latin interpreter seems to read k^ihQov = 
what is this that came forth. 

^ -^T'jiufiix.. The divine in Christ is thus designated in the Ante-Niceue 
fathers generally. See Grotius on Mark ii. 8 ; and for a full history of 
the term in this use, Dorner's Person of Christ, i. p. 390, etc. (Clark). 

* -'/;v nriiii on/ntovpyyiorcturo; sfi'rsipoi/ nal dvix-^r/iyyiTOV Ti-j(,vri'j. 

^ i.e. Matthew and Luke in their Gospels. 


those worthy of seeing His face ? Rest satisfied with the word 
spoken by Christ, viz., " That which is born of the Spirit is 
spirit,"^ just as, speaking by the prophet of the generation of 
the Word, He shows the fact that He is begotten, but re- 
serves the question of the manner and means, to reveal it only 
in the time determined by Himself. For He speaks thus : 
" From the womb, before the morning star, I have begotten 
Thee." - 

17. These testimonies are sufficient for the believing wdio 
study truth, and the unbelieving credit no testimony. For 
the Holy Spirit, indeed, in the person of the apostles, has 
testified to this, saying, "And who has believed our report?"^ 
Therefore let us not prove ourselves unbelieving, lest the word 
spoken be fulfilled in us. Let us believe then, dear (^fxaKuptoi) 
brethren, according to the tradition of the apostles that God 
the Word came down from heaven, (and entered) into the 
holy Virgin Mary, in order that, taking the flesh from her, 
and assuming also a human, by which 1 mean a rational soul, 
and becoming thus all that man is with the exception of sin. 
He might save fallen man, and confer immortality on men 
who believe on His name. In all, therefore, the word of 
truth is demonstrated to us, to wit, that the Father is One, 
whose word is present (with Him), by whom He made all 
things ; whom also, as we have said above, the Father sent 
forth in later times for the salvation of men. This (Word) 
was preached by the law and the prophets as destined to come 
into the world. And even as He was preached then, in the 
same manner also did He come and manifest Himself, being 
by the Virgin and the Holy Spirit made a new man ; for in 
that He had the heavenly (nature) of the Father, as the Word 
and the earthly (nature), as taking to Himself the flesh from 
the old Adam by the medium of the Virgin, He now, com- 
ing forth into the world, was manifested as God in a body, 
coming forth too as a perfect man. For it was not in mere 
appearance or by conversion («rara (^avraaiav rj rpoTni)v\ but 
in truth, that He became man. 

18. Thus then, too, though demonstrated as God, He do-js 
1 John iii. C. ^ pg. ex. 3. ^ Isa. liii. 1. 


not refuse the conditions proper to Him as man/ since He 
hungers and toils and thirsts in weariness, and flees in fear, 
and prays in trouble. And He who as God has a sleepless 
nature, slumbers on a pillow. And He who for this end 
came into the world, begs off from the cup of suffering. 
And in an agony He sweats blood, and is strengthened by an 
angel, who Himself strengthens those who believe on Him, 
and taught men to despise death by His work (or, in deed, 
epyo)). And He who knew what manner of man Judas was, 
is betrayed by Judas. And He, who formerly was honoured 
by him as God, is contemned by Caiaphas.^ And He is set 
at nought by Herod, who is Himself to judge the whole 
earth. And He is scourged by Pilate, who took upon Him- 
self our infirmities. And by the soldiers He is mocked, at 
whose behest stand thousands of thousands and myriads of 
myriads of angels and archangels. And He who fixed the 
heavens like a vault is fastened to the cross by the Jews. And 
He who is inseparable from the Father cries to the Father, 
and commends to Him His spirit ; and bowing His head, He 
gives up the ghost, who said, " I have power to lay down my 
life, and I have power to take it again ;"^ and because He 
was not overmastered by death, as being Himself Life, He 
said this : '•' I lay it down of myself."'^ And He who gives 
life bountifully to all, has His side pierced with a spear. 
And He who raises the dead is wrapped in linen and laid in 
a sepulchre, and on the third day He is raised again by the 
Father, though Himself the Resurrection and the Life. For 
all these things has He finished for us, who for our sakes 
was made as we are. For " Himself hath borne our infir- 
mities, and carried our diseases ; and for our sakes He was 
afflicted,"^ as Isaiah the prophet has said. This is He who 
was hymned by the angels, and seen by the shepherds, and 
waited for by Simeon, and witnessed to by Anna. This is 

^ The following passage agrees almost word for word with what is 
cited as from the Memoria Tixresium of Hippolytus by Gelasius, in the 
Dc dtiabus naturis Christi, vol. viii. Bibl. Patr. edit. Lugd. p. 704. 

^ iepxTivo^si/o;, referring to John xi. 51, 52. 

2 John X. 18. * Isa. liii. 4. 


He who was inquired after by the wise men, and indicated 
by the star ; He who was engaged in His Father's house, 
and pointed to by John, and witnessed to by the Father 
from above in the voice, " Tliis is my beloved Son ; hear ye 
Him."^ He is crowned victor against the devil {are^avovTai 
Kara Zia^okov'). This is Jesus of Nazareth, who was in- 
vited to the marriage-feast in Cana, and turned the water 
into wine, and rebuked the sea when agitated by the violence 
of the winds, and walked on the deep as on dry land, and 
caused the man blind from birth to see, and raised Lazarus to 
life after he had been dead four days, and did many mighty 
works, and forgave sins, and conferred power on the disciples, 
and had blood and water flowing from His sacred side when 
pierced with the spear. For His sake the sun is darkened, 
the day has no light, the rocks are shattered, the veil is rent, 
the foundations of the earth are shaken, the graves are opened, 
and the dead are raised, and the rulers are ashamed when 
they see the Director of the universe upon the cross closing 
His Qje and giving up the ghost. Creation saw, and was 
troubled ; and, unable to bear the sight of His exceeding- 
glory, shrouded itself in darkness. This (is He who) breathes 
upon the disciples, and gives them the Spirit, and comes in 
among them when the doors are shut, and is taken up by a 
cloud into the heavens while the disciples gaze at Him, and 
is set down on the right hand of the Father, and comes again 
as the Judge of the living and the dead. This is the God 
who for our sakes became man, to whom also the Father 
hath put all things in subjection. To Him be the glory and 
the power, Avith the Father and the Holy Spirit, in the holy 
church both now and ever, and even for evermore. Amen. 
1 Matt. xvii. 5. ^ Matt, xxvii. 29. 




Fragments of a Discourse, alphabetically divided/ on the Divine Nature" 
and the Incarnation, against the heretics Beron and Helix,' the be- 
ginning of which was in these words, " Holy, holy, holy. Lord God 
of Sabaoth, with voice never silent the seraphim exclaim and glorify 


|Y tlie omnipotent will of God all things are made, 
and the things that are made are also preserved, 
being maintained according to their several prin- 
ciples in perfect harmony by Him who is in His 
nature the omnipotent God and maker of all things, * His 
divine will remaining unalterable by which He has made and 
moves all things, sustained as they severally are by their own 
natural laws/ For the infinite cannot in any manner or by 
any account be susceptible of movement, inasmuch as it has 
nothing towards which and nothing around which it shall be 

^ KUToi G7or/,uov. The Latin title in the version of Auastasius renders 
it " ex sermone qui est per elementum.^^ 

~ TTipl Sio'hoyla.g. 

'^ For"HA/>4o? the Codex Regius et Colbertinus of Nicephorus prefers 
"H'h:>ciavos. Fabricius conjectures that we should read ii?^iKiurco uipi- 
rix.Zv, so that the title would be. Against Beron and his fellow-heretics. 

■* ai/TU rqi . . . Qsu. 

® ro7f iy.ciaroi (pvaiao]; Ots^xyopiivai voy.otg. Anastasius makes it natii- 
ralibus producta legihus ; Capperonnier, suis quseqiie legibus temperata vel 



moved. For in tlie case of that which is in its nature infinite, 
and so incapable of being moved, movement would be conver- 
sion.^ Wherefore also the Word of God being made truly 
man in our manner, yet without sin, and acting and enduring 
in man's way such sinless things as are proper to our nature, 
and assuming the circumscription of the flesh of our nature 
on our behalf, sustained no conversion in that aspect in which 
He is one with the Father, being made in no respect one with 
the flesh through the exinanition.^ But as He was without 
flesh,^ He remained without any circumscription. And through 
the flesh He wrought divinely (Be'iKco^i) those things which 
are proper to divinity, showing Himself to have both those 
natures in both of which He wrought, I mean the divine and 
the human, according to that veritable and real and natural 
subsistence,^ (showing Himself thus) as both being in reality 
and as being understood to be at one and the same time infinite 
God and finite man, having the nature (ovaiav) of each in 
perfection, with the same activity {ivepyela';), that is to say, 
the same natural properties ((f)V(TLKrj'i 1846x77709) ; whence we 
know that their distinction abides always according to the 
nature of each, and without conversion. But it is not (i.e. the 
distinction between deity and humanity), as some say, a 
merely comparative (or relative) matter (Kara av^KptaLv"), 
that we may not speak in an unwarrantable manner of a 

^ rpoTT'/i "/xp rov xartH (pwiv ccTriipov, x.tvehdxi fivj 7rs((:vx,cTo;, i] nii/yiai;'^ 
or iitay the sense be, ' ' for a change in that which is in its nature infinite 
would just be the moving of that which is incapable of movement ? " 

^ fiYlo' si/1 TTcivrshi!; rciVTO'j iari ru TLciTpl ysvo/nsuo; ravrou rJ? aupxA ^tx, 
TVjv yA'juatv. Thus in effect Combefisius, correcting the Latin version of 
Anastasius. Baunius adopts the reading in the Greek Codex Nicephori, 
viz. huatv for -Auugiv, and renders it, " In nothing was the Word, who is 
the same with the I'ather, made the same with the flesh through the 
union " (nulla re Verbum quod idem est cum Patrc factum est idem cum 
carne propter union em). 

" oiyc» (!ot,p-/.oi^ i.e. what He was before assuming the flesh, that He con- 
tinued to be in Himself, viz. independent of limitation. 

* Or existence, v'7roe,pi,iv. Anastasius makes it substantia. 

^ Migne follows Capperonnier in taking Gu-/x,piais in this passage to 
mean not "comparison" or " relation," but " conmiixturc," the "concre- 
tion and commixture " of the divine and human, Avhich was the error 


greater and a less in one who is ever the same in Pllmself.^ 
For comparisons can be instituted only between objects of 
like nature, and not between objects of unlike nature. But 
between God the Maker of all things and that which is made, 
between the infinite and the finite, betAveen infinitude and 
finitude, there can be no kind of comparison, since these 
differ from each other not in mere comparison (or relatively), 
but absolutely in essence. And yet at the same time there 
has been effected a certain inexpressible and irrefragable 
union of the two into one subsistence (y-KcxnaaLv), which 
entirely passes the understanding of anything that is made. 
For the divine is just the same after the incarnation that it 
was before the incarnation ; in its essence infinite, illimitable, 
impassible, incomparable, unchangeable, inconvertible, self- 
potent (avroa6ev6<i), and, in short, subsisting in essence alone 
the infinitely worthy good. 


The God of all things therefore became truly, according 
to the Scriptures, without conversion, sinless man, and that 
in a manner known to Himself alone, as He is the natural 
Artificer of things which are above our comprehension. And 
by that same saving act of the incarnation (awTripiov crap- 
Kci)ai,v) He introduced into the flesh the activity of Plis proper 
divinity, yet without having it (that activity) either circum- 
scribed by the flesh through the exinanition, or growing 
naturally out of the flesh as it grew out of His divinity," but 
manifested through it in the things which He wrought in a 
divine manner in His incarnate state. For the flesh did not 
become divinity in nature by a transmutation of nature, as 
though it became essentially flesh of divinity. But what it 
was before, that also it continued to be in nature and activity 

of Apollinaris and Eutyches in their doctrine of the incarnatiou, and 
which had been already refuted by TertuUian, Contra Praxeam, c. xxvii. 
^ Or, " for that would be to speak of the same being as greater and 
less than Himself." 


when united with divinity, even as the Saviour said, " The 
spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak." ^ And work- 
ing and enduring in the flesh things which were proper to 
sinless flesh, He proved the evacuation of divinity (to be) for 
our sakes, confirmed as it was by wonders and by sufferings 
of the flesh naturally. For with this purpose did the God of 
all things become man, viz. in order that by suffering in the 
flesh, which is susceptible of suffering. He might redeem our 
whole race, which was sold to death ; and that by working 
wondrous things by His divinity, which is unsusceptible of 
suffering, through the medium of the flesh He might restore 
it to that incorruptible and blessed life from which it fell 
away by yielding to the devil ; and that He might establish 
the holy orders of intelligent existences in the heavens in im- 
mutability by the mystery of His incarnation (acDfiajcaaeo)^), 
the doing of which is the recapitulation of all things in Him- 
self." He remained therefore, also, after His incarnation, 
according to nature, God infinite, and more (vTrepaTreLpo^),. 
having the activity proper and suitable to Himself, — an acti- 
vity growing out of His divinity essentially, and manifested 
through His perfectly holy flesh by wondrous acts oeconomi- 
cally, to the intent that He might be believed in as God, 
while working out of Himself (avrovpjcov) hy the flesh, which 
by nature is weak, the salvation of the universe. 


Now, with the view of explaining, by means of an illus- 
tration, what has been said concerning the Saviour, (I may 
say that) the power of thought (Xoyof;) which I have by 
nature is proper and suitable to me, as being possessed of a 
rational and intelligent soul ; and to this soul there pertains, 
according to nature, a self-moved energy and first power, ever- 
moving, to wit, the thought that streams from it naturally. 
This thought I utter, when there is occasion, by fitting it to 
words, and expressing it rightly in signs, using the tongue as 
an organ, or artificial characters, showing that it is heard, 
^ Matt. xxvi. 41. 2 Heferring probably to Eph. i. 10. 


though it comes into actuality by means of objects foreign to 
itself, and yet is not changed itself by those foreign objects.^ 
For my natural thought does not belong to the tongue or the 
letters, although I effect its utterance by means of these ; but 
it belongs to me, who speak according to my nature, and by 
means of both these express it as my own, streaming as it 
does always from my intelligent soul according to its nature, 
and uttered by means of my bodily tongue organically, as I 
have said, when there is occasion. Now, to institute a com- 
parison with that which is utterly beyond comparison, just as 
in us the power of thought that belongs by nature to the soul 
is brought to utterance by means of our bodily tongue without 
any change in itself, so, too, in the wondrous incarnation 
(ao)naT(ocreo)s:) of God is the omnipotent and all-creating 
energy of the entire deity (t>)9 oXt;? deoTrjTo^) manifested 
without mutation in itself, by means of His perfectly holy 
flesh, and in the works which He wrought after a divine 
manner, (that energy of the deity) remaining in its essence 
free from all circumscription, although it shone through the 
•flesh, which is itself essentially limited. For that which is in 
its nature vmoriginated cannot be circumscribed by an origi- 
nated nature, although this latter may have grown into one 
with it (crvve^v) by a conception which circumscribes all 
understandino; :^ nor can this be ever broug-ht into the same 
nature and natural activity with that, so long as they remain 
each within its own proper and inconvertible nature.^ For it 
is only in objects of the same nature that there is the motion 
that works the same works, showing that the being (ovcrtav) 
whose power is natural is incapable in any manner of being 
or becoming the possession of a being of a different nature 
without mutation.* 

' The text is, ot^ tuv dyof-coiuv fJu vxupxoi/rci. Anastasius reads fi^ 
for fiiv. 

^ KctTX avXhriipiu i^avroc '^£piypa,(povaocv vovu 

^ avTi ^r,v SIS t' c.vrou kvtu (pspsadxi (pvcria; tots kxi (pvtjiKVig hsp-ysixg, 
sa; ecu SKccnpov T'/ig iolag Ivro; ^kvii (pvaix,ijg drpi-^tag. To (pipiadtti we 
supply again '7Ti(pv/,i. 

^ The sense is extremely doubtful here. The text runs thus : 6f<,o(pvuu 



For, in the view of apostles and prophets and teachers, the 
mystery of the divine incarnation has been distinguished as 
having two points of contemplation natural to it,^ distinct 
in all things, inasmuch as on the one hand it is the subsistence 
of perfect deity, and on the other is demonstrative of full 
humanity. As long, therefore,^ as the Word is acknowledged 
to be in substance one, of one energy, there shall never in 
any way be known a movement (change, KLvrjaci) in the two. 
For while God, who is essentially ever-existent, became by 
His infinite power, according to His will, sinless man. He is 
what He was, in all wherein God is known ; and what He 
became. He is in all wherein man is known and can be re- 
cognised. In both aspects of Plimself He never falls out of 
Himself (fMevet aveK7rTci)To<;), in His divine activities and in 
His human alike, preserving in both relations His own essen- 
tially unchangeable perfection. 


For lately a certain person, Beron, along with some others, 
forsook the delusion of Valentinus, only to involve themselves 
in deeper error, affirming that the flesh assumed to Himself 
by the Word became capable of working like works with 
the deity (jyeviadaL ravrovpiyov ry deoTrjTc) by virtue of its 
assumption, and that the deity became susceptible of suffer- 
ing in the same way with the flesh (ravroTraOrj tj} crapKi) by 
virtue of the exinanition (^Kevcoatv) ; and thus they assert the 
doctrine that there was at the same time a conversion and a 

yxp i/,6vu'j vj Tctvrovpyog lart x.ivY,aig ani^ccluovace. t7;v ovai'av, Hit; (pvatx.'/i 
K(x,6i(JT/iKi ovvxfM;, kT£po(pvovs loiOTYiros oviiiccg ihcx-t y^otr oi/divct T^oyov, tj 
yiviadoti olx» rpo'TiT}? "^vi/ctfcsv/iv. Anastasius renders it : Conuaturalimn 
enim tantum per se operans est motus, manifestans substantiam, cujus 
natviralem constat esse virtutem : diversse naturae proprietatis substantia 
nulla naturse esse vel fieri sine convertibilitate valentc. 

^ OiTTYJv KOil OidCpopxv tpioi/ Oiiyvaarxi tsjv iv Troiai (pvaiicy^v 6iupiot.v. 

- The text goes, 'iug ecu ovx^ -which is adopted by Combefisius. But 
Capperonnier and Mignc read oSu for oyji, as we have rendered it. 


mixing and a fusing {a-vy^vcriv) of the t\YO aspects one with 
the other. For if the flesh that was assumed became capable 
of working like works with the deity, it is evident that it 
also became God in essence in all wherein God is essentially 
known. And if the deity by the exinanition became suscep- 
tible of the same sufferings with the flesh, it is evident that 
it also became in essence flesh in all wherein flesh essentially 
can be known. For objects that act in like manner (6/xoepyrj), 
and work like works, and are altogether of like kind, and are 
susceptible of like suffering with each other, admit of no 
difference of nature ; and if the natures are fused together 
(^avy/ce^v/jievcov), Christ will be a duality (Sva^) ; and if the 
persons {rrpoaciiirwv) are separated, there will be a quaternity 
(jerpd'q ^), — a thing which is altogether to be avoided. And 
how will they conceive of the one and the same Christ, who 
is at once God and man by nature ? And what manner of 
existence will He have according to them, if He has become 
man by a conversion of the deity, and if He has become God 
by a change of the flesh? For the mutation (/LteTaTrriDo-t?) 
of these, tlie one into the other, is a complete subversion of 
both. Let the discussion, then, be considered by us again 
in a different way. 


Among Christians it is settled as the doctrine of piety, that, 
according to nature itself, and to the activity and to what- 
ever else pertains thereunto, God is equal and the same with 
Himself (Jaov kavrw kol Tavrov), having nothing that is His 
unequal to Himself at all and heterogeneous {aKaTaXkrfKov). 
If, then, according to Beron, the flesh that He assumed to 
Himself became possessed of the like natural energy with 
them, it is evident that it also became possessed of the like 
nature with Him in all wherein that nature consists, — to wit, 
non-origination, non-generation, infinitude, eternity, incom- 
prehensibility, and whatever else in the way of the transcen- 
dent the theological mind discerns in deity ; and thus they 
^ i.e. instead of Trinity. 


both underwent conversion, neither the one nor the other 
pi'eserving any more the substantial relation of its own proper 
nature (rr? Ihta'^ (jivaeo)<i ovaicoBr] Xoyov). For he who recog- 
nises an identical operation (ravTovpjiav) in things of unlike 
nature, introduces at the same time a fusion of natures and a 
separation of persons {hiaipecnv TrpocrayTnKTjv), their natural 
existence (vTrdp^eca) being made entirely undistinguishable 
by the transference of properties (ISiw/jidTccv). 


But if it (the flesh) did not become of like nature witli 
that (the deity), neither shall it ever become of like natural 
energy with that ; that He may not be shown to have His 
energy unequal with His nature, and heterogeneous, and, 
through all that pertains to Himself, to have entered on an 
existence outside of His natural equality and identity (cpvatKrj^; 
efft) fy€<yovco<i tVoTT^ro? koI ravroTrjro'i), which is an impious 


Into this error, then, have they been carried, by believing, 
unhappily, that that divine energy was made the property of 
the flesh which was only manifested through the flesh in His 
miraculous actions ; by which energy Christ, in so far as He 
is apprehended as God, gave existence to the universe, and 
now maintains and governs it. For they did not perceive 
that it is impossible for the energy of the divine nature to 
become the property {ISicofia) of a being of a different nature 
(iTepo^avov<; ova-lai) apart from conversion ; nor did they 
understand that that is not by any means the property of 
the flesh which is only manifested through it, and does not 
spring out of it according to nature ; and yet the proof 
thereof was clear and evident to them. For I, by speaking 
with the tongue and writing with the hand, reveal through 
both these one and the same thought, of my intelligent soul, 
its energy (or operation) being natural ; in no way showing 


it as springing naturally out of tongue or hand ; nor yet 
(showing) even the spoken thought as made to belong to 
them iu virtue of its revelation by their means. For no 
intelligent person ever recognised tongue or hand as capable 
of thought, just as also no one ever recognised the perfectly 
holy flesh of God, in virtue of its assumption, and in virtue 
of the revelation of the divine energy through its medium, 
as becoming in nature creative {pr}jXLovp<y6v). But the pious 
confession of the believer is that, with a view to our salvation, 
and in order to connect the universe with nnchangeableness, 
the Creator of all things incorporated Avith Himself (eVoucrt- 
coaasi) a rational soul and a sensible (or sensitive, alaOrjTifcov) 
body from the all-holy Mary, ever-virgin, by an undefiled 
conception, without conversion, and was made man in nature, 
but separate from wickedness : the same was perfect God, 
and the same was perfect man ; the same was in nature at 
once perfect God and man. In His deity He wrought divine 
things through His all-holy flesh, — such things, namely, as did 
not pertain to the flesh by nature ; and in His humanity He 
suffered human things, — such things, namely, as did not per- 
tain to deity by nature, by the upbearing of the deity (avo'^fj 
irdo-'^ayv OeoTTjro'i). He wrought nothing divine without the 
body (yvfivov (Tcofj^aros:) ; nor did the same do anything 
human without the participation of deity (cifjiocpov Spuaa<; 
OeoT'qro'i). Thus He preserved for Himself a new and fitting 
method (KaivoirpeTTrj Tpoirov) by which He wrought (accord- 
ing to the manner of) both, while that which was natural 
to both remained unchanged (to Kar aiu,(f)(o (j)V(rcKa)<; avaX- 
XoLOiTov) ; to the accrediting (^ek ivLGTwcnv) of His perfect 
incarnation {ivav6pai7n]aew<;), which is really genuine, and has 
nothing lacking in it {^r]hev e'^ouo-Tj? (pavXorrjTO'i). Beron, 
therefore, since the case stands with him as I have already 
stated, confounding together in nature the deity and the 
humanity of Christ in a single energy {ivep<ye[a<i ^ovuZv), 
and again separating them in person, subverts the life, not 
knowing that identical operation (javrovpyiav) is indicative 
of the connatural identity only of connatural persons (/awt;? 
T>7<? rwv ofjbocpvwv irpocrcoTrcov o/xo^vov'i Tavr6r7]To<i). 



OOD, yea, very good, are all the works of our 
God and Saviour — all of them that eye seeth 
and mind perceiveth, all that reason interprets 
and hand handles, all that intellect comprehends 
and human nature understands. For what richer beauty can 
there be than that of the circle {Sictkov) of heaven ? And 
what form of more blooming fairness than that of earth's 
surface ? And what is there swifter in the course than the 
chariot of the sun ? And what more graceful car than the 
lunar orb {p-ekrjviaKov <xToi')(elov) ? And what work more 
wonderful than the compact mosaic of the stars ? ^ And 
what more productive of supplies than the seasonable winds ? 
And wdiat more spotless mirror than the light of day? And 
what creature more excellent than man ? Very good, then, 
are all the works of our God and Saviour. And what more 
requisite gift, again, is there than the element ((pvaeco^) of 
water? For with water all things are w:;shed and nourished, 
and cleansed and bedewed. Water bears the earth, water 
produces the dew, water exhilarates the vine; Avater matures 
the corn in the ear, water ripens the grape-cluster, water 
softens the olive, water sweetens the palm-date, water reddens 
the rose and decks the violet, water makes the lily bloom 
with its brilliant cups. And why should I speak at length ? 
Without the element of water, none of the present order of 
things can subsist. So necessary is the element of water: for 

^ '7ro\v7ryiy/irov tuu oLarpuv f/.ovuiov. 



the other elements {aTOi')(ela) took their places beneath the 
highest vault of the heavens, but the nature of water obtained 
a seat also above the heavens. And to this the prophet him- 
self is a witness, when he exclaims, " Praise the Lord, ye 
heavens of heavens, and the water that is above the heavens."^ 

2. Nor is this the only thing that proves the dignity (a^io- 
iriaTiav) of the water. But there is also that which is more 
honourable than all — the fact that Christ, the Maker of all, 
came down as the rain," and was known as a spring,^ and 
diffused Himself as a river,^ and was baptized in the Jordan.'^ 
For you have just heard how Jesus came to John, and was 
baptized by him in the Jordan. Oh things strange beyond 
compare ! How should the boundless River^ that makes glad 
the city of God have been dipped in a little water ! The 
illimitable Spring that bears life to all men, and has no end, 
was covered by poor and temporary waters ! He who is pre- 
sent everywhere, and absent nowhere — who is incomprehen- 
sible to angels and invisible to men — comes to the baptism 
according to His own good pleasure. When you hear these 
things, beloved, take them not as if spoken literally, but ac- 
cept them as presented in a figure (ceconomically). Whence 
also the Lord was not unnoticed by the watery element 
in what He did in secret, in the kindness of His condescen- 
sion to man. " For the waters saw Him, and were afraid."' 
They well-nigh broke from their place, and burst away from 
their boundary. Hence the prophet, having this in his view 
many generations ago, puts the question, " What aileth thee, 
O sea, that thou fleddest ; and thou, Jordan, that thou wast 
driven back?"^ And they in reply said, We have seen the 
Creator of all things in the " form of a servant,'"^ and being 
ignorant of the mystery of the oeconomy, we were lashed 
with fear. 

3. But we, who know the ccconomy, adore His mercy, 
because He hath come to save and not to judge the world. 
Wherefore John, the forerunner of the Lord, who knew 

^ Ps. cxlviii. 4. - Hos. vi. 3. ^ JqIj^ iy_ 14^ 

* Jolin vii. 38. '" Matt. iii. 13. g Ps. xlvi. 4. 

"^ Ps. Ixxvii. 16. 8 Ps cxiv. 5.- » Phil. ii. 7. 


not this mystery (before), on learning that lie is Lord iu 
truth, cried out, and spake to those who came to he baptized 
of him, " O generation of vipers,"^ why look ye so earnestly 
at me ? "I am not the Christ ;"" I am the servant, and not 
the lord ; I am the subject, and not the king ; I am the 
sheep, and not the shepherd; I am a man, and not God. 
By my birth I loosed the barrenness of my mother ; I did 
not make virginity barren/ I was brought up from be- 
neath ; I did not come down from above. I bound the 
tongue of my father ;"* I did not unfold divine grace. I was 
known by my mother, and I was not announced by a star." 
I am worthless, and the least ; but " after me there comes 
One who is before me"^ — after me, indeed, in time, but 
before me by reason of the inaccessible and unutterable light 
of divinity. " There comes One mightier than I, whose 
shoes I am not worthy to bear : He shall baptize you with 
the Holy Ghost, and with fire.'"^ I am subject to authority, 
but He has authority in Himself. I am bound by sins, but 
He is the Remover of sins. I apply (TrapaTrxco) the law, but 
He bringeth grace to light. I teach as a slave, but He judgeth 
as the Master. I have the earth as my couch, but He pos- 
sesses heaven. I baptize with the baptism of repentance, 
but He confers the gift of adoption : " He shall baptize you 
with the Holy Ghost, and with fire." Why give ye attention 
to me ? I am not the Christ. 

4. As John says these things to the multitude, and as the 
people watch in eager expectation of seeing some strange 
spectacle with their bodily eyes, and the deviP is struck with 
amazement at such a testimony from John, lo, the Lord ap- 
pears, plain, solitary, uncovered (yvfivos), without escort {airpo- 

1 Matt. iii. 7. - John i. 20. 

3 oy 'TTupdivtoiu lariipaaci. So Gregory Thaiimaturgiis, Sancta Tlieo- 
pJiania, p. 106, edit. Vossii : " Thou, -when born of the Virgin Mary, . . . 
didst not loose her virginity ; but didst preserve it, and gifted her with 
the name of mother." 

* Luke i. 20. ^ Matt. ii. 9. « John i. 27. '' JIatt. iii. 11. 

* It was a common opinion among the ancient theologians that the 
devil was ignorant of the mystery of the oeconomy, founding on such 
passages as Matt. iv. 3, 1 Cor. ii. 8. (Fabricius.) 


crTaT67;TO?), having on Him the body of man like a garment, 
and hiding the dignity of the Divinity, that He may elude the 
snares of the dragon. And not only did He approach John 
as Lord without royal retinue ; hut even like a mere man, 
and one involved in sin. He bent His head to be baptized 
by John. Wherefore John, on seeing so great a humbling 
of Himself, was struck with astonishment at the affair, and 
began to prevent Him, saying, as ye have just heard, " I 
have need to be baptized of Thee, and comest Thou to me?"^ 
What doest Thou, O Lord ? Thou teachest things not ac- 
cording to rule.^ I have preached one thing (regarding 
Thee), and Thou performest another ; the devil has heard 
one thing, and perceives another. Baptize me with the fire 
of Divinity ; why waitest Thou for water ? Enlighten me 
with the Spirit ; why dost Thou attend upon a creature ? 
Baptize me, the Baptist, that Thy pre-eminence may be 
known. I, O Lord, baptize with the baptism of repentance, 
and I cannot baptize those who come to me unless they first 
confess fully their sins. Be it so then that I baptize Thee, 
what hast Thou to confess ? Thou art the Remover of sins, 
and wilt Thou be baptized with the baptism of repentance ? 
Though I should venture to baptize Thee, the Jordan dares 
not to come near Thee. "I have need to be baptized of 
Thee, and comest Thou to me?" 

5. And what saith the Lord to him ? " Suffer it to be so 
now, for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness."'^ 
" Suffer it to be so noAV," John ; thou art not wiser than I. 
Thou seest as man ; I foreknow as God. It becomes me to 
do this first, and thus to teach. I ens^ae-e in nothino; unbe- 
coming, for I am invested with honour. Dost thou marvel, 
O John, that I am not come in my dignity ? The purple 
robe of kings suits not one in private station, but military 
splendour suits a king : am I come to a prince, and not to a 
friend ? " Suffer it to be so now, for thus it becometh us to 
fulfil all righteousness:" I am the Fulfiller of the law ; I seek 
to leave nothing wanting to its whole fulfilment, that so after 
me Paul may exclaim, " Christ is the fulfilling of the law 

^ Matt. iii. 1-i. ^ uKccvoviaTX. ooyf/.c.Ti^iii. ^ Matt. iii. 15. 


for righteousness to every one tliat Lelleveth."^ " Suffer it 
to be so now, for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteous- 
ness." Baptize me, John, in order that no one may despise 
baptism. I am baptized by thee, the servant, that no one 
among kings or dignitaries may scorn to be baptized b}'- the 
hand of a poor priest. Suffer me to go down into the Jor- 
dan, in order that they may hear my Father's testimony, and 
recognise the power of the Son. " Suffer it to be so now, 
for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness." Then 
at length John suffers Him. " And Jesus, when He was 
baptized, went up straightway out of the water : and the 
heavens were opened unto Him ; and, lo, the Spirit of God 
descended like a dove, and rested upon Him. And a voice 
(came) from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in 
whom I am well pleased."^ 

6. Do you see, beloved, how many and how great blessings 
we would have lost, if the Lord had yielded to the exhortation 
of John, and declined baptism ? For the heavens were shut 
before this ; the region above was inaccessible. We Avould 
in that case descend to the lower parts, but we would not 
ascend to the upper. But was it only that the Lord was 
baptized ? He also renewed the old man, and committed to 
him again the sceptre of adoption. For straightway " the 
heavens were opened to Him." A reconciliation took place of 
the visible with the invisible ; the celestial orders were filled 
with joy ; the diseases of earth were healed ; secret things 
were made known ; those at enmity were restored to amity. 
For you have heard the word of the evangelist, saying, "The 
heavens were opened to Him," on account of three wonders. 
For when Christ the Bridegroom was baptized, it was meet 
that the bridal-chamber of heaven should open its brilliant 
gates. And in like manner also, when the Holy Spirit de- 
scended in the form of a dove, and the Father's voice spread 
everywhere, it was meet that " the gates of heaven should be 
lifted up."^ "And, lo, the heavens were opened to Him; 
and a voice was heard, saying, This is my beloved Son, in 
whom I am well pleased." 

1 Rom. X. 4. 2 Matt. iii. IC, 17. » p,.. ^xiv. 7. 


7. The beloved generates love, and tlie light immaterial 
the light inaccessible.^ " This is my beloved Son," He who, 
being manifested on earth and yet unseparated from the 
Father's bosom, was manifested, and yet did not appear." For 
the appearing is a different thing, since in appearance the 
baptizer here is superior to the baptized. For this reason did 
the Father send down the Holy Spirit from heaven upon Him 
who was baptized. For as in the ark of Noah the love of God 
toward man is signified by the dove, so also now the Spirit, 
descending in the form of a dove, bearing as it were the fruit 
of the olive, rested on Him to whom the witness was borne. 
For what reason ? That the faithfulness of the Father's 
voice might be made known, and that the prophetic utter- 
ance of a long time past might be ratified. And what utter- 
ance is this ? " The voice of the Lord (is) on the waters, the 
God of glory thundered ; the Lord (is) upon many waters." ^ 
And what voice ? " This is my beloved Son, in whom I am 
well pleased." This is He who is named the son of Joseph, 
and (who is) according to the divine essence my Only-be- 
gotten. " This is my beloved Son" — He who is hungry, and 
yet maintains myriads ; who is weary, and yet gives rest to 
the weary ; who has not where to lay His head,^ and yet 
bears up all things in His hand : who suffers, and yet heals 
sufferings ; who is smitten,^ and yet confers liberty on the 
world ; ^ who is pierced in the side,^ and yet repairs the side 
of Adam..^ 

8. But give me now your best attention, I pray you, for I 
wish to go back to the fountain of life, and to view the fountain 

^ (pZg civ'ho'j ysvvci (pSf d'Trpouizov. The Son is called " Light of Light" 
in the Discourse against Noetus, ch. s. In <pu; ciTrpoanov the reference 
is to 1 Tim. vi. 16. 

^ iTTsCpuvYi oiix, eipuv/i. See Dorner's Doctrine of the Person of Christy 
Div. i. vol. ii. p. 97 (Clark). 

2 Ps. sxix. 8. * Luke ix. 5. 

^ pi)i7ri^6f4,svo;, referring to the slap in the process of manumitting 

c Heb. i, 3. '^ Matt. xxvi. 67. 

^ Thr,t is, the sin introduced by Eve, who was formed by God out of 
Adam's side. (Fabricius.) 


that iTuslies with healins;. The Father of immortality sent the 
immortal Son and Word into the world, who came to man in 
order to wash him with water and the Spirit ; and He, beget- 
ting lis again to incorruption of soul and body, breathed into 
us the breath (spirit) of life, and endued us with an incorrup- 
tible panoply. If, therefore, man has become immortal, he 
will also be God.^ And if lie is made God by water and the 
Holy Spirit after the regeneration of the laver (Ko\vfi/3}]~ 
6pa<;), he is found to be also joint-heir with Christ" after the 
resurrection from the dead. Wherefore I preach to this 
effect : Come, all ye kindreds of the nations, to the immor- 
tality of the baptism. I bring good tidings of life to you who 
tarry in the darkness of ignorance. Come into liberty from 
slavery, into a kingdom from tyranny, into incorruption from 
corruption. And how, saith one, shall we come? How? 
By water and the Holy Ghost. This is the water in con- 
junction with the Spirit, by which paradise is watered, by 
which the earth is enriched, by which plants grow, by which 
animals multiply, and (to sum up the wdiole in a single word) 
by which man is begotten again and endued with life, in 
which also Christ was baptized, and in which the Spirit 
descended in the form of a dove. 

9. This is the Spirit that at the beginning " moved upon 
the face of the waters ;"''' by whom the w^orld moves ; by whom 
creation consists, and all things have life ; who also wrought 
mightily in the prophets,'* and descended in flight upon Christ.^ 
This is the Spirit that was given to the apostles in the form 
of fiery tongues.*' This is the Spirit that David sought when 
he said, " Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a 
right spii'it within me."' Of this Spirit Gabriel also spoke to 
the Virgin, " The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the 
power of the Highest shall overshadow thee."^ By this Spirit 

^ iurcit X.VA Qio;, referring lirobaUy to 2 Pet. i. 4, hx oid. zovruy yBvm^s 
6iia.g x.oivuuo\ (pvaeu;, " that by these ye might be partakers of the divine 

2 Rom. viii. 17. ^ Gen. i. 2. ^ Acts xxviii. 25. 

5 Matt. iii. 16. ^ Acts ii. 3. ^ Ps. li. 10. 

8 Luke i. 35. 


Peter spake that blessed word, " Thou art the Christ, the Son 
of the living God." ^ By this Spirit the rock of the church 
was stablished. " This is the Spirit, the Comforter, that is 
sent because of thee,'"^ that He may show thee to be the son 
(reKvov) of God. 

10. Come then, be begotten again, O man, into the adop- 
tion of God. And how ? says one. If thou practisest adul- 
tery no more, and committest not murder, and servest not 
idols ; if thou art not overmastered by pleasure ; if thou 
dost not suffer the feeling of pride to rule thee ; if thou 
cleansest off the filthiness of impurity, and puttest off the 
burden of sin ; if thou castest off the armour of the devil, 
and puttest on the breastplate of faith, even as Isaiah saith, 
" Wash you, and seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge 
the fatherless, and plead for the widow. And come and let 
us reason together, saith the Lord. Though your sins be as 
scarlet, I shall make them white as snow ; and though they 
be like crimson, I shall make them white as wool. And if ye 
be willing, and hear my voice, ye shall eat the good of the 
land." "* Do you see, beloved, how the prophet spake before- 
time of the purifying power of baptism ? For he who comes 
down in faith to the laver of regeneration, and renounces the 
devil, and joins himself to Christ ; who denies the enemy, 
and makes the confession that Christ is God ; who puts off 
the bondage, and puts on the adoption, — he comes up from 
the baptism brilliant as the sun,^ flashing forth the beams of 
righteousness, and, which is indeed the chief thing, he returns 
a son of God and joint-heir with Christ. To Him be the 
glory and the power, together Avith His most holy, and good, 
and quickening Spirit, now and ever, and to all the ages of 
the ages. Amen. 

1 Matt. xvi. 16. 2 ]y£att. xvi. 18. 

3 John xvi. 26. * Isa. i. 16-19. 

^ This seems to refer to what the poets sing as to the sun rising out 
of the waves of ocean. (Fabricius.) 




[From a Discourse on the Eesurrection/ in Anastasius Sinaita, 
Hodegus, p. 350.] 

From the Discourse of Hippolytus, Bishop of Eome, on the Eesurrection 
and Incorruption. 

EN, lie says, "in the resurrection will be like the 
angels of Gocl," " to wit, in incorruption, and im- 
mortality, and incapacity of loss.^ For the incor- 
ruptible nature is not the subject of generation 
(yevvaTai) ; it grows not, sleeps not, hungers not, thirsts not, 
is not wearied, suffers not, dies not, is not pierced by nails and 
spear, sweats not, drops not with blood. Of such kind are 
the natures of the angels and of souls released from the bodv. 
For both these are of another kind, and different from these 
creatures of our world, which are visible and perishing. 


[From the Discourse on the Theology or the Doctrine of Christ's Divine 
Nature, extant in the Ads of the Lateran Council, under Martinus 
I., ann. 649, secret, v. p. 287, vol. vii. edit. Veneto-Labb.] 

From the Discourse of St Hippolytus, Bishop and Martyr, on the Divine 
Nature (-Trspl dsa'Aoyt'ocs). 

God is capable of willing, but not of not willing (ov.rb fii) 
BeXeiv), for that pertains only to one that changes and makes 

1 This treatise is mentioned in the list of his works given on the statue, 
and also by Jerome, Sophronius, Nicephorus, Ilonorius, etc. 

2 Matt. xxii. 30. ^ dpivulct. 


choice (rpeiTTOv ical TrpoacpeTov) ; for things that are being 
made follow the. eternal will of God, by which also things that 
are made abide sustained. 


[From a Homily on the Lord's Paschal Supper, ibid. p. 293.] 

St. Hippolytus, Bishop and Martyr, in his Homily on the Paschal Supper. 

He was altogether (0X09) iu all, and everywhere ; and 
though He filleth the universe up to all the principalities of 
the air. He stripped Himself again. And for a brief space 
He cries that the cup might pass from Him, with a view to 
show truly that He was also man.^ But remembering, too, 
the purpose for which He was sent. He fulfils the dispensa- 
tion (osconomy) for Vv-hich He was sent, and exclaims, "Father, 
not mv will," ^ and, " The spirit is willing, but the flesh is 


[From a Discourse on Elkanah and Hannah. In Theodoret, Dial, i., 
bearing the title " Unchangeable" (arpi^Toj) ; Works, vol. iv. p. 36.] 

Take me, O Samuel, the heifer brought to Bethlehem, in 
order to show the king begotten of David, and him who is 
anointed to be king and priest by the Father. 

[From the same Discoui'se.] 

Tell me, O blessed Mary, what that was that was conceived 
by thee in the womb, and what that was that was born by 
thee in thy virgin matrix. For it was the first-born Word 
of God that descended to thee from heaven, and was formed 
as a first-born man in the womb, in order that the first-born 
Word of God might be shown to be united with a first-born 

[From the same Discourse.] 

And in the second (form), — to wit, by the prophets, as by 
Samuel, calling back and delivering the people from the 

1 y.cil oi'jdpaTTo;, also man. See Grab. Bull's De/ens. Jid. Ntc. p. 103. 

2 Luke xxii. 42. ^ Matt. xxvi. 41. 


slavery of the aliens. And in the third (form), that in -which 
He was incarnate, taking to Himself humanity from the 
Virgin, in which character also He saw the city, and wept 
over it. 


[From the same Discourse. From Theodoret's Second Dialogue, bearing 
the title " Unmixed," «.avyxvioc, ; Worlcs^ vol. iv. p. 88.] 

And for this reason three seasons of the year prefigured 
the Saviour Himself, so that He should fulfil the mysteries 
prophesied of Him. In the Passover season, so as to exhibit 
Himself as one destined to be sacrificed like a sheep, and to 
prove Himself the true Paschal-lamb, even as the apostle 
says, "Even Christ," who is God, " our passover was sacrificed 
for us."^ And at Pentecost so as to presignify the kingdom 
of heaven, as He Himself first ascended to heaven and 
brought man as a mft to God. 

O O 


[From an Oration on " The Lord is my Shepherd." In Theodoret, 
DiaL i. p. 36.] 

And an ark of imperishable wood was the Saviour Himself. 
For by this was signified the imperishable and incorruptible 
tabernacle (of His body), which engendered no corruption of 
sin. For the man who has sinned also has this confession to 
make : " My wounds stank, and were corrupt, because of my 
foolishness."" But the Lord was without sin, being of im- 
perishable wood in respect of His humanity,' — that is to say, 
being of the Virgin and the Holy Spirit, covered, as it were, 
within and without with the purest gold of the Word of God. 


[From a Discourse on the " Great Song." In Theodoret, Dial. ii. 
pp. 88, 89.] 

He who rescued from the lowest hell the first-formed man 
of earth when he vras lost and bound with the chains of 
1 1 Cor. V. 7. 2 Ps. xxxviii. 5. 


death ; He who came down from above, and raised the earthy 
on high {tov kuto} eh ra avco) ; He who became the evan- 
gelist of the dead, and the redeemer of the souls, and the 
resurrection of the buried, — He was constituted the helper 
of vanquished man, being made like him Himself, (so that) 
the first-born Word acquainted Himself with the first-formed 
Adam in the Virgin ; He who is spiritual sought out the 
earthy in the womb ; He who is the ever-living One sought 
out him who, through disobedience, is subject to death ; He 
who is heavenly called the terrene to the things that arc 
above ; He who is the nobly-born sought, by means of His 
own subjection, to declare the slave free ; He transformed 
the man into adamant who was dissolved into dust and made 
the food of the serpent, and declared Him who hung on 
the tree to be Lord over the conqueror, and thus through the 
tree He is found victor. 

[From the same Discourse.] 

For they who know not now the Sou of God incarnate, 
shall know in Him who comes as Judge in glory, Him who is 
now despised in the body of His humiliation. 

[From the same Discourse.] 

And the apostles, when they came to the sepulchre on the 
third day, did not find the body of Jesus ; just as the chil- 
dren of Israel went up the mount and sought for the tomb 
of IMoses, but did not find it. 


[From a Discourse on the beginning of Isaiah. In Theodoret, 
Dial. i. p. 36.] 

Under the figure of Egypt he described the world ; and 
under things made with hands, idolatry; and under the 
earthquake, the subversion and dissolution of the earth itself. 
And he represented the Lord the Word as a light cloud, the 
purest tabernacle, enthroned on which our Lord Jesus Christ 
entered into this life in order to subvert error. 



[From a second Oration on Daniel. In the tractate of Eustratius, a 
presbyter of the Church of Constantinople, "Against those who 
allege that sonls, as soon as they are released from the body, cease 
to act," ch. xix., as edited by Allatius in his work on the Continuous 
Harmony of the Western and the Eastern Church on the Dogma of 
Purgatory, p. 492.] 

Now Hippolytus, the martyr and bisliop of Rome, in his 
second discourse on Daniel, speaks thus : — 

Then indeed Azarias, standing along with the others, 
made their acknowledgments to God with song and prayer in 
the midst of the furnace. Beginning thus with His holy and 
glorious and honourable name, they came to the works of the 
Lord themselves, and named first of all those of heaven, and 
glorified Him, saying, "Bless the Lord, all ye works of the 
Lord." Then they passed to the sons of men, and taking up 
their hymn in order, they then named the spirits that people 
Tartarus beneath the earth, and the souls of the righteous, 
in order that they might praise God together with them. 


[From an Oration on the Distribution of Talents. In Theodoret, 
Dial. ii. p. 88.] 

Now a person might say that these men, and those who 
hold a different opinion, are yet near neighbours, being in- 
volved in like error. For those men, indeed, either profess 
that Christ came into our life a mere man, and deny the 
talent of His divinity, or else, acknowledging Him to be 
God, they deny, on the other hand. His humanity, and teach 
that His appearances to those who saw Him as man were 
illusory, inasmuch as He did not bear with Him true man- 
hood, but was rather a kind of phantom manifestation. Of 
this class are, for example, Marcion and Valentinus, and the 
Gnostics, who sunder the Word from the flesh, and thus set 
aside the one talent, viz. the incarnation. 



[From a Discourse ou "The two Robbers." In Theodoret's third 
Dialogue, bearing the title " Impassible" («~«^ijj), p. 156.] 

The body of the Lord presented both these to the world, 
the sacred blood and the holy water. 

^ [From the same Discoiu-se.] 

And His body, though dead after the manner of man, 
possesses in it great power of life. For streams which flow 
not from dead bodies flowed forth from Him, viz. blood and 
w^ater ; in order that we might know what power for life is 
held by the virtue that dwelt in His body, so as that it 
appears not to be dead like others, and is able to shed forth 
for us the springs of life. 

[From the same Discourse.] 

And not a bone of the Holy Lamb is broken, this figure 
showing us that suffering toucheth not His strength. For 
the bones are the strength of the body. 




[Preserved by the author of the Chronicon Pascliale, ex ed. Caugii, p. 6.] 

W Hippolytus, a martyr for piety, Avho was bishop 
of the place called Portus, near Rome, in his 
book Against all Heresies, wrote in these terms : — 
I perceive, then, that the matter is one of con- 
tention. For he ^ speaks thus : Christ kept the supper, then, 
on that day, and then suffered ; whence it is needful that I, 
too, should keep it in the same manner as the Lord did. Biit 
he has fallen into error by not perceiving that at the time 
when Christ suffered He did not eat the passover of the law. 
For He was the passover that had been of old proclaimed, 
and that was fulfilled on that determinate day. 


[In the same.] 

And again the same (authority), in the first book of his 
treatise on the Holy Supper, speaks thus : — 

Now that neither in the first nor in the last there was 
anything false is evident; for he who said of old, "I will not 
any more eat the passover,"" probably partook of supper 
before the passover. But the passover He did not eat, but 
He suffered ; for it was not the time for Him to eat. 

^ i.e. the opponent of Hippolytus, one of the forerunners of the Quarto- 

- Luke xxii. 16. 




[From a Letter of Hippolytus to a certain queen. In Theodoret's Dial, 
ii., bearing the title "Unmixed" {ciavyx''^ro;'), p. 82 ; and Dial, iii., 
entitled " Impassible" («6s-«^^j), p. 155.] 

Hippolytus, bishop and martyr, in a letter to a certain queen.^ 

He calls Him, then, "the first-fruits of them that sleep," "^ 
as the " first-begotten of the dead." " For He, having risen, 
and being desirous to show that that same (body) had been 
raised which had also died, when His disciples were in doubt, 
called Thomas to Him, and said, " Eeach hither ; handle 
me, and see : for a spirit hath not bone and flesh, as ye see 
me have."^ 

[From the same Letter.] 

In calling Him the first- fruits., he testified to that which 
we have said, viz. that the Saviour, taking to Himself the 
flesh out of the same lump, raised this same flesh, and made 
it the first-fruits of the flesh of the righteous, in order that 
all we who have believed in the hope of the Risen One may 
have the resurrection in expectation. 


[Extract in Palladius, Historia Lcnisiaca, chap, cxlviii. ; Gallandi, 
Biblioth. ii. 513.] 

The account given by Hippolytus, the friend of the apostles. 

In another little book bearing the name of Hippolytus, the 
friend of the apostles, I found a story of the following 
nature : — 

1 On the question as to who this queen was, see Stephen le Moyne, 
in notes to the Varia Sacra, pp. 1103, 1112. In the marble monument 
mention is made of a letter of Hippolytus to Severina. 

2 1 Cor. XV. 20. 3 Col. i. 18. 
* John XX. 27 ; Luke xxiv. 39. 


There lived a certain most noble and beautiful maiden^ in 
the city of Corinth, in the careful exercise of a virtuous life. 
At that time some persons falsely charged her before the 
judge there, who ^Yas a Greek, with cursing the times, and 
the princes, and the images. Now those who trafficked in 
such things, brought her beauty under the notice of the im- 
pious judge, who lusted after women. And he gladly received 
the accusation with his equine ears and lascivious thoughts. 
And when she was brought before the bloodstained (judge), 
he Avas driven still more frantic with profligate passion. But 
when, after bringing every device to bear upon her, the profane 
man could not gain over this woman of God, he subjected 
the noble maiden to various outrages. And when he failed 
in these too, and was unable to seduce her from her confes- 
sion of Christ, the cruel judge became furious against her, 
and gave her over to a punishment of the following nature : 
Placing the chaste maiden in a brothel, he charged the 
manager, saying, Take this woman, and bring me three 
nummi by her every day. And the man, exacting the money 
from her by her dishonour, gave her up to any who sought 
her in the brothel. And when the women-hunters knew 
that, they came to the brothel, and, paying the price put upon 
their iniquity, sought to seduce her. But this most honour- 
able maiden, taking counsel with herself to deceive them, 
called them to her, and earnestly besought them, saying : I 
have a certain sore in my secret parts, which has an extremely 
hateful stench ; and I am afraid that ye might come to hate 
me on account of the abominable sore. Grant me therefore 
a few days, and then ye may have me even for nothing. 
With these words the blessed maiden gained over the pro- 
fligates, and dismissed them for a time. And with most fit- 
ting prayers she importuned God, and with contrite suppli- 
cations she sought to turn Him to compassion. God, there- 
fore, who knew her thoughts, and understood how the chaste 
maiden was distressed in heart for her purity, gave ear to 
her ; and the Guardian of the safety of all men in those days 
interposed with His arrangements in the following manner : 
^ Nicephorus also mentions her in Lis Hist. Eccl. vii. 13. 


[In the same, chap, cxlix.] 
Of a certain person Magistrianus. 

There was a certain young man, Magistrianus/ comely in 
liis personal appearance, and of a pious mind, whom God had 
inspired with such a burning spiritual zeal, that he despised 
even death itself. He, coming under the guise of profligacy, 
goes in, when the evening was far gone, to the fellow who 
kept the women, and pays him five nummi, and says to him, 
Permit me to spend this night with this damsel. Entering 
then with her into the private apartment, he says to her. Rise, 
save thyself. And taking off her garments, and dressing 
her in his own attire, his night-gown, his cloak, and all the 
habiliments of a man, he says to hei", Wrap yourself up with 
the top of your cloak, and go out ; and doing so, and signing 
herself entirely with the mystery of the cross, she went forth 
uncorrupted from that place, and was preserved perfectly 
stainless by the grace of Christ, and by the instrumentality 
of the young man, who by his own blood delivered her from 
dishonour. And on the following day the matter became 
known, and Magistrianus was brought before the infuriated 
iudcre. And when the cruel tvrant had examined the noble 

Jo *' 

champion of Christ, and had learned all, he ordered him to 
be thrown to the w^ild beasts, — that in this, too, the fionour- 
hating demon might be put to shame. For, whereas he 
thought to involve the noble youth in an unhallowed punish- 
ment, he exhibited him as a double martyr for Christ, inas- 
much as he had both striven nobly for his own immortal 
soul, and persevered manfully in labours also in behalf of 
that noble and blessed maiden. Wherefore also he was 
deemed worthy of double honour with Christ, and of the 
illustrious and blessed crowns by His goodness. 

^ Nicephorus gives this story also, Hist. Eccl. vii. 13. 






PFabricius, Works of HippohjUis, vol. ii.] 

A Discourse^ hy the most blessed Ilippolytus, Bishop and 
Martyr, on the End of the World., and on Antichrist, and 
on the Second Coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

INCE, then, the blessed prophets have been eyes 
to us, setting forth for our behoof the clear de- 
claration of things secret, both through life, and 
through declaration, and through inspiration (eVt- 
<f)oi,T7]a€(o<;) of the Holy Spirit, and discoursing, too, of things 
not yet come to pass,"^ in this way also" to all generations 
they have pictured forth the grandest subjects for contempla- 
tion and for action. Thus, too, they preached of the advent 
of God* in the flesh to the world. His advent by the spotless 
and God-bearing {OeoroKov^) Mary in the way of birth and 

^ This discourse seems to have been a homily addressed to the people. 

2 yiyovoTx. Codex Baroccianus gives' ivpyjxoru. ^ odvj x.a.i, etc. 

"* Others, TOW viol) Toii 0£oS, of the Son of God. 

•"' This is one of those terms which some allege not to have been yet in 
use in the time of Hippolytus. But, as Migne observes, if there were no 
other argument than this against the genuineness of this discourse, this 
would not avail much, as the term is certainly used by Origen, Metho- 
dius, and Dionysius Alex., Avho were nearly coeval with Hippolytus. 



growth, and tlie manner of His life and conversation with 
men, and His manifestation by baptism, and the new birth 
that was to be to all men, and the regeneration by the laver ; 
and tha multitude of His miracles, and His blessed passion 
on the cross, and the insults which He bore at the hands of 
the Jews, and his burial, and His descent to Hades, and His 
ascent again, and redemption of the spirits that were of old 
{air alcovcov), and the destruction of death, and His life- 
giving awaking from the dead, and His re-creation of the 
whole world, and His assumption and return to heaven, and 
His reception of the Spirit, of which the apostles were 
deemed worthy, and again the second coming, that is des- 
tined to declare all things. For as being designated seers 
(fi\i7rovT€<;), they of necessity signified and spake of these 
things beforetime. 


Hence, too, they indicated the day of the consummation to 
us, and signified beforehand the day of the apostate that is to 
appear and deceive men at the last times, and the beginning 
and end of his kingdom, and the advent of the Judge, and 
the life of the righteous, and the punishment of the sinners, 
in order that we all, bearing these things in mind day by day 
and hour by hour, as children of the Church, might know 
that " not one jot nor one tittle of these things shall fail,"^ as 
the Saviour's own word announced. Let all of you, then, of 
necessity, open the eyes of your hearts and the ears of your 
soul, and receive the word which we are about to speak. For 
I shall unfold to you to-day a narration full of horror and 
fear, to wit, the account of the consummation, and in parti- 
cular, of the seduction of the whole world by the enemy and 
devil ; and after these things, the second coming of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 


Where, then, ye friends of Christ, shall I begin? and with 
what shall I make my commencement, or what shall I ex- 
1 Matt. V. 18. 


pound? and what witness shall I adduce for the things 
spoken ? But let us take those (viz. the prophets) with whom 
we began this discourse, and adduce them as credible wit- 
nesses, to confirm our exposition of the matters discussed ; 
and after them the teaching, or rather the prophecy, of the 
apostles, [so as to see] how throughout the whole world they 
herald the day of the consummation. Since these, then, 
have also shown beforetime things not yet come to pass, and 
have declared the devices and deceits of wicked men, who arc 
destined to be made manifest, come and let us bring forward 
Isaiah as our first witness, inasmuch as he instructs us in the 
times of the consummation. What, then, does he say? " Your 
country is desolate, your cities are burned with fire : your land, 
strangers devour it in your presence : the daughter of Zion 
shall be left as a cottage in a vineyard, and as a lodge in a 
garden of cucumbers, as a besieged city." ^ You see, beloved, 
the prophet's illumination, whereby he announced that time 
so many generations before. For it is not of the Jews that 
he spake this word of old, nor of the city of Zion, but of the 
church. For all the prophets have declared Sion to be the 
bride brought from the nations. 


Wherefore let us direct our discourse to a second witness. 
And of what sort is this one ? Listen to Osea, as he speaks 
thus grandly : " In those days the Lord shall bring on a 
burning wind from the desert against them, and shall make 
their veins dry, and shall make their springs desolate ; and 
all their goodly vessels shall be spoiled. Because they rose up 
against God, they shall fall by the sword, and their women 
with child shall be ripped up." ' And what else is this 
burning wind from the east, than the Antichrist that is to 
destroy and dry up the veins of the waters and the fruits of 
the trees in his times, because men set their hearts on his 
works ? For which reason he shall indeed destroy them, and 
they shall serve him in his pollution. 

^ Isa. i. 7. - Hos. xiii. 15. 



Mark the agreement of prophet with prophet. Acquaint 
yourself also with another prophet who expresses himself in 
like manner. For Amos prophesied of the same things in a 
manner quite in accordance : " Thus saith the Lord, Foras- 
much therefore as ye have beaten the poor with the fist/ and 
taken choice gifts from him : ye have built houses, but ye 
shall not dwell in them : ye have planted pleasant vineyards, 
but ye shall not drink wine of them. For I know your 
manifold transgressions, in trampling justice beneath your 
foot, and taking a bribe, and turning aside the poor in the 
gate from their right. Therefore the prudent shall keep 
silence in that time, for it is an evil time." ^ Learn, beloved, 
the wickedness of the men of that time, how they spoil houses 
and fields, and take even justice from the just ; for when 
these things come to pass, ye may know that it is the end. 
For this reason art thou instructed in the wisdom of the pro- 
phet, and the revelation that is to be in those days. And 
all the prophets, as we have already said, have clearly signi- 
fied the things that are to come to pass in the last times, just 
as they also have declared things of old. 


But not to expend our argament entirely in going over the 
words of all the prophets,^ after citing one other, let us revert 
to the matter in hand. AVhat is it, then, that Micah says in 
his prophecy ? " Thus saith the Lord concerning the pro- 
phets that make my people err, that bite with their teeth, and 
cry to him. Peace ; and if it was not put into their mouth,* 
they prepared "" war against him. Therefore night shall be 

^ x.uTYiyx-oi/ov'hiciri in the text, for which read x.anx.ouhv'hiaxTi. 

- Amos V. 11, 12, 13. 

^ Manuscript E gives the better rea'ling, 'Aoyov ccT^oiyra, rolg tZv ■rrpo- 
cpnTuv p'/ii^ct(n, " our whole argument on the words of the prophets." 

* SI oux. elo^n. Manuscript B omits ti = and it was not put into their 

^ The text reads i^ytxaxv. Manuscript B reads ijyyiaxv. Migue sug- 
gests ^yiipxu. 


unto you, that ye shall not have a vision ; * and it shall he 
dark unto you, that ye shall not divine ; and the sun shall 
not go down over the prophets, and the day shall ho dark 
over them. And the seers shall be ashamed, and the diviners 
confounded." ^ These things we have recounted beforehand, 
in order that ye may know the pain that is to be in the last 
times, and the perturbation, and the manner of life on the 
part of all men toward each other,''' and their envy, and hate, 
and strife, and the negligence of the shepherds toward the 
sheep, and the unruly disposition of the people toward the 


Wherefore all shall walk after their own will. And the 
children will lay hands on their parents. The wife will give 
up her own husband to death, and the husband will bring his 
own wife to judgment like a criminal. Masters will lord it 
over their servants savagely,^ and servants will assume an un- 
ruly demeanour toward their masters. None will reverence 
the grey hairs of the elderly, and none will have pity upon the 
comeliness of the youthful. The temples of God will be like 
houses, and there will be overturnings of the churches every- 
where. The Scriptures will be despised, and everywhere 
-they will sing the songs of the adversary.^ Fornications, and 
adulteries, and perjuries will fill the land ; sorceries, and 
incantations, and divinations will follow after these with all 
force and zeal. And, on the whole, from among those who 
profess to be Christians will rise up then false prophets, false 
apostles, impostors, mischief-makers, evil-doers, liars against 

1 i'i opoidsug. ^ Mic. iii. 5-7. 

^ For T'/jj/ 'xpo; ci'K'h'/i'hov; dvcurpo(P'/iv, Codex B reads Ziuarpo^'^v x,al 

^ For civvmruzTov oia&itjiu, Codex B reads utci^Iuv z= unruliness, and 
adds, xa.1 •yoviig ra, rkx-va, f^ia'/iaovai^ y.a.\ to7; '•/ovivaiv h.Tilia.Xhovra.i 
yjlpci:, "and parents shall hate their children, and children lay hands ou 
their parents." 

'' For £(V Tovg "ho'jT^ov; dz-Kydpuvoi audivrrjoroi/rcci, Codex B roads, -rpd; 
TOf f OovXovg d7ra,vdpu-^ioi.u xT>iaovrcii. 

•^ For ex^pov, Codex B rends hiufioAQv, the deviL 


each otlier, adulterers, fornicators, robbers, grasping, per- 
jured, mendacious, hating each other. The shepherds will be 
like wolves ; the priests will embrace falsehood ; the monks ^ 
will lust after the things of the world ; the rich will assume 
hardness of heart ; the rulers will not help the poor ; the 
powerful will cast off all pity ; the judges will remove justice 
from the just, and, blinded with bribes, they will call in un- 


And what am I to say with respect to men,^ when the very 
elements themselves will disown their order ? There will be 
earthquakes in QYQvy city, and plagues in every country : and 
monstrous^ thunderings and frightful lightnings will burn 
up both houses and fields. Storms of winds will disturb 
both sea and land excessively ; and there will be unfruitful- 
ness on the earth, and a roaring in the sea, and an intolerable 
agitation on account of souls and the destruction of men.* 
There will be signs in the sun, and signs in the moon, de- 
flections in the stars, distresses of nations, intemperateness in 
the atmosphere, discharges of hail vipon the face of the earth, 
winters of excessive severity, different^ frosts, inexorable 
scorching winds, unexpected thunderings, unlooked-for con- 
flagrations ; and in general, lamentation and mourning in the 
whole earth, Avithout consolation. For, " because iniquity 
shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold." ^* By reason 
of the agitation and confusion of all these, the Lord of the 
universe cries in the Gospel, saying, " Take heed that ye be 
not deceived ; for many shall come in my name, saying, I am 

^ This does not agree Avitli the age of Hij^polytus. 

2 Tsp] uu6pu7rav^ which is the reading of Codex B, instead of «•3-d 
cLvOpofT^uv. ' 

" a.,ct,iTpot^ the reading of Codex B instead of oiuif^oi. 

* The text is, d^ro ■•^vy,uv y.cti a.Tra'hiice,; uvSpuTrwj. We may suggest 
some such correction as d-zo-^^vxivToiv ko-t dvu'Aiice.g dvdpu'Troiv = "men's 
hearts failing them concerning the destruction." 

^ S/«(?ooo;. Better with B, doic':(popoi = promiscuous^ without distinction, 
and so perhajDS continuous or unseasonable. 

•5 Matt. xxiv. 12. 


Christ, and tlie timetli drawetli near : go ye not therefore 
after them. But when ye shall hear of wars and commotions, 
be not terrified : for these things must first come to pass ; but 
the end is not yet by and by." ^ Let us observe the Word of 
the Saviour, how He always admonished us with a view to 
our security : " Take heed that ye be not deceived : for many 
shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ." 


Now after He was taken up again to the Father, there arose 
some, saying, " I am Christ," like Simon Magus and the rest, 
whose names we have not time at present to mention. Where- 
fore also in the last day of the consummation, it must needs 
be that false Christs will arise again, saying, "I am Christ," 
and they will deceive many. And multitudes of men will 
run from the east even to the west, and from the north even 
to the sea, saying. Where is Christ here'? where is Christ 
there ? But being possessed of a vain conceit, and failing to 
read the Scriptures carefully, and not being of an upright 
mind, they will seek for a name which they shall be unable 
to find. For these things must first be ; and thus the son of 
perdition — that is to say, the devil — must be seen. 

And the apostles, who speak of God,^ in establishing the 
truth of the advent of the Lord Jesus Christ, have each of 
them indicated the appearing of these abominable and ruin- 
working men, and have openly announced their lawless deeds. 
First of all Peter, the rock of the faith, whom Christ our 
God called blessed, the teacher of the church, the first dis- 
ciple, he who has the keys of the kingdom, has instructed us 
to this effect: "Know this first, children, that there shall 
come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts.'^ 
And there shall be false teachers among you, who privily 
shall bring in damnable heresies."^ After him, John the 
theologian,'* and the beloved of Christ, in harmony with him, 

1 Luke XXI. 8, 9. ^ Qiyiyopoi. Codex B gives koT^o-yot. 

2 2 Pet. iii. 3. ^2 Pet. ii. 1. * 6so7^6yo;. 


cries, "The children of the devil are manifest ;^ and even now 
are there many antichrists ; " but go not after them.^ Believe 
not every spirit, because many false prophets are gone out 
into the world." ^ And then Jude, the brother of James, 
speaks in like manner : " In the last times there shall be 
mockers, walking after their own ungodly lusts. There be 
they who, without fear, feed^ themselves.'"' You have 
observed the concord of the theologians and apostles, and 
the harmony of their doctrine. 


Finally, hear Paul as he speaks boldly, and mark how 
clearly he discovers these : " Beware of evil workers, beware 
of the concision.^ Beware lest any man spoil you through 
philosophy and vain deceit.^ See that ye walk circum- 
spectly, because the days are evil."" In fine, then, what 
man shall have any excuse who hears these things in the 
church from prophets and apostles, and from the Lord 
Himself, and yet will give no heed to the care of his soul, 
and to the time of the consummation, and to that approach- 
ing hour when we shall have to stand at the judgment-seat 
of Christ? 


But being done now with this account of the consumma- 
tion, we shall turn our exposition to those matters Avhich fall 
to be stated by us next in order. I adduce, therefore, a 
witness altogether worthy of credit, — namely, the prophet 
Daniel, who interpreted the vision of Nabuchodonosor, and 
from the beginning of the kings down to their end indicated 
the right (unchangeable, airapdrpoTrov) way to those who seek 
to walk therein — to wit, the manifestation of the truth. For 

^ 1 John iii. 10. - 1 John ii. 18. 

2 Luke xxi. 8. * 1 John iv. 1. 

^ oi d(p6(iag ixurov; Trotfiotho'JTec^ instead of the received o/ dTrohiopl- 

^OVTi^ iUVTOVg. 

« Jude 18, 19. ^ Phil. iii. 2. 

« Col. ii. 8. » Eph. V. 15, 16. , 


what saith tlie prophet ? He presignlfied the matter clearly 
to Nabuchodonosor in the following terms : " Thou,_0 king, 
sawest, and behold a great image standing before thee, whose 
head was of gold, its arms and shoulders of silver, its belly 
and thighs of brass, its legs of iron, its feet part of iron and 
part of clay. Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out 
without hand ; and it smote the image upon its feet, which 
were part of iron and part of clay, and brake them to pieces. 
Then was the clay, and the iron, and the brass, and the 
silver, and the gold broken to pieces together, and became 
like the chaff of the summer threshing-floor ; and the stone 
that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the 
whole earth." ^ 


Wherefore, bringing the visions of Daniel into conjunction 
with these, we shall make one narrative of the two, and show 
how true and consistent were the things seen in vision by the 
prophet with those which Nabuchodonosor saw befdreh.and. 
For the prophet speaks thus: "I Daniel saw, and, behold, 
the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea. 
And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one 
from another. The first was like a lioness, and had eagle's 
wings : I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it 
was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet 
as a man, and a man's heart was given it. And behold a 
second beast, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one 
side, and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between 
the teeth of it : and they said thus unto it. Arise, devour 
much flesh. After this I beheld, and lo a third beast, like 
a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a 
fowl : the beast had also four heads. After this I saw, and 
behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong 
exceedingly; its great iron teeth and its claws of brass'' 
devoured and brake in pieces, and it stamped the residue 

1 Dan. ii. 31-35. 

2 These words, x.cA o/ i'wxs; aiirov -/^uKkqI, are strange both to the Greek 
and the Hebrew text of Daniel. 


with the feet of it : and it was diverse exceedingly from 
all the beasts that were before it ; and it had ten horns. 
I considered its horns, and, behold, there came up among 
them a little horn, and before it there were three of the first 
horns plucked up by the roots : and, behold, in this horn 
were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking 
great things."^ 

Now, since these things which are thus spoken mystically 
by the prophet seem to all to be hard to understand, we 
shall conceal none of them from those who are possessed of 
sound mind. By mentioning the first beast, namely the lioness 
that comes up out of the sea, Daniel means the kingdom of 
the Babylonians wdilch was set up in the world ; and that 
same is also the "golden head" of this image. And by speak- 
ing of its "wings like an eagle," he shows that king Nabu- 
chodonosor Avas elevated and exalted himself against God. 
Then he says that its "wings were plucked out," and means 
by this that his glory was subverted : for he was driven from 
his kincrdom. And in stating that a " man's heart was mven 
it, and it was made stand upon the feet like a man," he means 
that he repented, and acknowledged that he was himself but 
a man, and gave the glory to God. Lo, I have thus unfolded 
the similitude of the first beast. 


Then after the lioness, the prophet sees a second beast like 
a bear, which denoted the Persians; for after the Babylonians 
the Persians had the sovereignty. And in saying, " I saw 
three ribs in the mouth of it," he referred to three nations, 
the Persians, Medes, and Babylonians, which were also ex- 
pressed by the silver that came after the gold in the image. 
Behold, we have explained the second beast too. Then the 
third was the leopard, by which were meant the Greeks. For 
after the Persians, Alexander king of the Macedonians held 
the sovereignty, when he had destroyed Darius ; and this is 
1 Dan. vii. 2-8. 


expressed by the brass in the image. And in speaking of 
" four wings of a fowl, and four heads in the beast," he 
showed most clearly how the kingdom of Alexander was 
divided into four parts. For it had four heads, — namely, 
the four kings that rose out of it. For on his death-bed ^ 
Alexander divided his kingdom into four parts. Behold, we 
have discussed the third also. 


Next he tells us of the " fourth beast, dreadful and terrible ; 
its teeth were of iron, and its claws of brass." And what is 
meant by these but the kingdom of the Romans, which also 
is meant by the iron, by which it will crush all the seats of 
empire that were before it, and will lord it over the whole 
earth? After this, then, what is left for us to interpret of all 
that the prophet saw, but the " toes of the image, in which 
part was of iron and part of clay, mingled together in one V 
For by the ten toes, of the image he meant figuratively the 
ten kings who sprang out of it, as Daniel also interpreted the 
matter. For he says, "I considered the beast, namely the 
fourth ; and behold ten horns after it, among which another 
horn arose like an offshoot ; and it will pluck up by the root 
three of those before it." And by this offshoot horn none 
other is signified than the Antichrist that is to restore the 
kino-dom of the Jews. And the three horns which are to be 
rooted out by it signify three kings, namely those of Egypt, 
Libya, and Ethiopia, whom he will destroy in the array of 
war ; [and] when he has vanquished them all, being a savage 
tyrant, he will raise tribulation and persecution against the 
saints, exalting himself against them. 


You see how Daniel interpreted to Nabuchodonosor the 
dominion of the kingdoms ; you see how he explained the 
form of the image in all its parts (Tracri to'l<; irepaatv) ; you 
have observed how he indicated prophetically the meaning of 
the coming up of the four beasts out of the sea. It remains 
^ See Hippolytus ou Auticlirist, ch. xxiv. 


that we open up to you the things done by the Antichrist in 
particular ; and, as far as in our power, declare to you by 
means of the Scriptures and the prophets, his wandering 
over the whole earth, and his lawless advent. 


As the Lord Jesus Christ made His sojourn with us in 
the flesh [which he received] from the holy, immaculate 
Virgin, and took to Himself the tribe of Judah, and came 
forth from it, the Scripture declared His royal lineage 
in the word of Jacob, when in his benediction he ad- 
dressed himself to his son in these terms : " Judah, thou 
art he whom thy brethren shall praise : thy hands shall be 
on the neck of thine enemies ; thy father's children shall 
bow down before thee. Judah is a lion's whelp ; from a 
sprout (/SXacrroD), my son, thou art gone up : he stooped 
down, he couched as a lion, and as a lion's whelp (crKv/j,vo^) : 
who shall rouse him up ? A ruler (dp-^cov) shall not depart 
from Judah, nor a leader {'i)'yoviievo<i) from his thighs [iic 
Twv fXTjpoju), until what is in store for him (ra airoKeiixeva) 
shall come, and he is the expectation (^koX avTo<; TrpoahoKta) 
of the nations."^ Mark these words of Jacob which were 
spoken to Judah, and are fulfilled in the Lord. To the 
same effect, moreover, does the patriarch express himself 
regarding Antichrist. Wherefore, as he prophesied with 
respect to Judah, so did he also with respect to his son Dan. 
For Judah was his fourth son ; and Dan, again, was his 
seventh son. And what, then, did he say of him ? " Let 
Dan be a serpent sitting by the way, that biteth the horse's 
heel?"^ And what serpent was there but the deceiver from 
the beginning, he who is named in Genesis, he "wdio deceived 
Eve, and bruised Adam in the heel (TTTepi^icra?) ? 


But seeing now that we must make proof of what is 
alleged at greater length, we shall not shrink from the task. 
For it is certain that he is destined to spring from the tribe 
» Gen. xlix. 8-10. 2 Qen. xlix. 17. 


of Dan,^ and to range himself in opposition like a princely 
tyrant, a terrible judge and accuser (Sm/SoXog), as the prophet 
testifies when he says, " Dan shall judge his people, as one 
tribe in Israel."^ But some one may say that -this was meant 
of Samson, who sprang from the tribe of Dan, and judged 
his people for twenty years. That, however, was only partially 
made good in the case of Samson ; but this shall be fulfilled 
completely in the case of Antichrist. For Jeremiah, too, 
speaks in this manner : "From Dan we shall hear the sound 
of the sharpness^ of his horses ; at the sound of the neigh- 
ing ('^pefxeTLo-fiov) of his horses the whole land trembled."^ 
And again, Moses says : " Dan is a lion's whelp, and he 
shall leap from Bashan."^ And that no one may fall into 
the mistake of thinking that this is spoken of the Saviour, let 
him attend to this. " Dan," says he, " is a lion's whelp ;" and 
by thus naming the tribe of Dan as the one whence the accuser 
is destined to spring, he made the matter in hand quite clear. 
For as Christ is born of the tribe of Judah, so Antichrist 
shall be born of the tribe of Dan. And as our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ, the Son of God, was spoken of in pro- 
phecy as a lion on account of His royalty and glory, in the 
same manner also has the Scripture prophetically described 
the accuser as a lion, on account of his tyranny and violence. 


For in every respect that deceiver seeks to make himself 
appear like the Son of God. Christ is a lion, and Antichrist 
is a lion. Christ is King of things celestial and things ter- 
restrial, and Antichrist will be king upon earth. The Saviour 
was manifested as a lamb ; and he, too, will appear as a 
lamb, while he is a wolf within. The Saviour was circum- 
cised, and he in like manner will appear in circumcision. 
The Saviour sent the apostles unto all the nations, and he in 

^ After Irenseus, book v. ch. xxx., many of the ancients express this 
opinion. See too Bellarmine, De Pontifice Rom. iii. 12. 
^ Gen. xlix. 16. 

3 (poji/iji/ oii>rr,Tog. There is another reading, aTov^yii/ = haste. 
* Jer. viii. 16. * Dcut. xxxiii. 22. 


like manner will send false apostles. Christ gathered to- 
gether the dispersed sheep, and he in like manner will gather 
together the dispersed people of the Hebrews. Christ gave 
to those who believed on Him the honourable and life-giving 
cross, and he in like manner will give his own sign. Christ 
appeared in the form of man, and he in like manner will 
come forth in the form of man. Christ arose from among 
the Plebrews, and he will spring from among the Jews. 
Christ displayed His flesh like a temple, and raised it np the 
third day ; and he too will raise up again the temple of stone 
in Jernsalem. And these deceits fabricated by him will 
become quite intelligible to those who listen to us attentively, 
from what shall be set forth next in order. 


For through the Scriptures we are instructed in two ad- 
vents of the Christ and Saviour. And the first after the 
flesh was in humiliation, because He was manifested in lowly 
estate. So then His second advent is declared to be in glory ; 
for He comes from heaven with power, and angels, and the 
glory of His Father. His first advent had John the Baptist 
as its forerunner ; and His second, in which He is to come 
in glory, will exhibit Enoch, and Elias, and John the theo- 
logian.^ Behold, too, the Lord's kindness to man ; how even 
in the last times «He shows His care for mortals, and pities 
them. For He will not leave us even then without prophets, 
but will send them to us for our instruction and assurance, 
and to make us give heed to the advent of the adversary, as 
He intimated also of old in this Daniel. For he says, " I 

^ The Apocalypse (xi. 3) mentions only two witnesses, who are under- 
stood by the ancients in general as Enoch and Elias. The author of the 
Chronicon Pascliale, p. 21, on Enoch, says : " This is he who, along 
with Elias, is to withstand Antichrist in the last days, and to confute 
his deceit, according to the tradition of the church." This addition as 
to the return of John the Evangelist is somewhat more uncommon. 
And yet Ephraem of Antioch, in Photius, cod. ccxxix., states that this 
too is supported by ancient ecclesiastical tradition, Christ's saying in 
John xxi. 22 being understood to that effect. See also Hippolytus, De 
Antichristo, ch. 1. — MiGNE. 


shall make a covenant of one week, and in the midst of the 
week my sacrifice and libation will be removed."^ For by 
one week he indicates the showing forth of the seven years 
which shall be in the last times. And the half of the week 
the two prophets, along with John, will take for the purpose 
of proclaiming to all the world the advent of Antichrist, that 
is to say, for a " thousand two hundred and sixty days 
clothed in sackcloth ;"" and they will work signs and wonders 
with the object of making men ashamed and repentant, even 
by these means, on account of their surpassing lawlessness 
and impiety. " And if any man will hurt them, fire will 
proceed out of their mouth, and devour their enemies. These 
have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days 
of the advent of Antichrist, and to turn waters into blood, 
and to smite the earth with all plagues as often as they 
Avill."^ And when they have proclaimed all these things 
they will fall on the sword, cut off by the accuser yirafja 
Tov Bca/36\ou). And they will fulfil their testimony, as 
Daniel also says ; for he foresaw that the beast that came up 
out of the abyss would make war with them, namely with 
Enoch, Elias, and John, and would overcome them, and kill 
them, because of their refusal to give glory to the accuser. 
That is the little horn that sprang up.'^ And he being lifted 
up in heart, begins in the end to exalt himself and glorify 
himself as God, persecuting the saints and blaspheming Christ. 


But as, in accordance with the train of our discussion, wc 
liave been constrained to come to the matter of the days of 
the dominion of th-e adversary, it is necessary to state in the 
first place what concerns his nativity and growth : and then 
we must turn our discourse, as we have said before, to the 
expounding of this matter, viz. that in all respects the accuser 
and son of lawlessness'^ is to make himself like our Saviour. 

1 Dan. ix. 27. " Rev. xi. 3. 

3 Rev. v. G. ■* dvu(poiviv. But Cod. B reads civei(pviu. 

^ a.'jo/K,ixc. Cod. B gives K'^a'Kiia.s, perdition ; and for ^sAAs/ = is to, 
it reads SzMi = wishes. 


Thus also the demonstration makes the matter clear to us. 
Since the Saviour of the world, with the purpose of saving 
the race of men, was born of the immaculate and virgin^ 
Mary, and in the form of the flesh trod the enemy under 
foot, in the exercise of the power of His own proper divinity; 
in the same manner also will the accuser come forth from 
an impure woman upon the earth, but shall be born of a 
virgin spuriously^ {kv TrXdvrj). For our God sojourned with 
us in the flesh, after that very flesh of ours which He made 
for Adam and all Adam's posterity, yet without sin. But 
the accuser, though he take up the flesh, will do it only in 
appearance ; for how should he wear that flesh M'hich he did 
not make himself, but against which he warreth daily ? And 
it is my opinion, beloved, that he will assume this pheno- 
menal kind of flesh ^ as an instrument (organ, opyavov). 
For this reason also is he [to be] born of a virgin, as if a 
spirit, and then to the rest he will be manifested as flesh. 
For as to a virgin bearing, this we have known only in the 
case of the all-holy [Virgin], who bore the Saviour clothed 
in flesh really.^ For Moses says, " Every male that openeth 
the womb shall be called holy unto the Lord."^ This is 
by no means the case with him (ov fxrjv ovSafX(o<;) ; but as 
the adversary will not open the womb, so neither will he 
take to himself real flesh, and be circumcised as Christ was 
circumcised. And even as Christ chose His apostles, so 
will he too assume a whole people of disciples like himself in 


Above all, moreover, he will love the nation of the Jews. 
And with all these he will work signs and terrible wonders, 

' Cod. B gives «ii77xp6svov, ever-virgin. 

2 Cod. B reads uKpi/3^s, exactly. Many of the ancients hold that 
Antichrist -will be a demon in human figure. See Aug-ustiue, Sulpicius 
Severus, in Dialogue ii., and Philippus Dioptra, iii. 11, etc 

^ (Pci'jTCiarixY}!/ zij; cetpKog etvrov ouaiav. 

^ Cod. B reads t;j» horiaou eyvu^usu (rapKix-ug x,t>tl «.TirTiocvoi;, instead of 
the text, aupx.o(popo'j u.t^'Kix.uoi^. etc. 

^ Ex. xxxiv. 19 ; Num. viii. 16 ; Luke ii. 23. 



false wonders and not true, in order to deceive liis impious 
equals. For if it were possible, lie would seduce even the 
elect ^ from the love of Christ. But in his first steps he will 
be gentle, loveable, quiet, pious, pacific, hating injustice, de- 
testing gifts, not allowing idolatry; loving, says he, the Scrip- 
tures, reverencing priests, honouring his elders, repudiating 
fornication, detesting adultery, giving no heed to slanders, 
not admitting oaths, kind to strangers, kind to the poor, 
compassionate. And then he will work wonders, cleansing 
lepers, raising paralytics, expelling demons, proclaiming things 
remote just as things present, raising the dead, helping 
widows, defending orphans, loving all, reconciling in love 
men who contend, and saying to such, " Let not the sun go 
down upon your wrath ;" "" and he will not acquire gold, nor 
love silver, nor seek riches. 


And all this he will do corruptly and deceitfully, and with 
the purpose of deluding all to make him king. For when 
the peoples and tribes see so great virtues and so great powers 
in him, they will all with one mind meet together to make 
him king. And above all others shall the nation of the 
Hebrews be dear to the tyrant himself, while they say one 
to another. Is there found indeed in our generation such u 
man, so good and just? That shall be the way with the 
race of the Jews pre-eminently, as I said before, who, think- 
ing, as they do, that they shall behold the king himself in 
such power, will approach him to say, We all confide in thee, 
and acknowledge thee to be just upon the whole earth ; we 
all hope to be saved by thee ; and by thy mouth we have 
received just and incorruptible judgment. 


And at first, indeed, that deceitful and lawless one, with 
crafty deceitf ulness, will refuse such glory ; but the men per- 
sisting, and holding by him, will declare him king. And there- 
after he will be lifted up in heart, and he who was formerly 
J >Iatt. xxiv. 24. * Eph. iv. 26. 


gentle will become violent, and he who pursued love will be- 
come pitiless, and the humble in heart will become haughty 
and inhuman, and the hater of unrighteousness will persecute 
the righteous. Then, when he is elevated to his kingdom, 
he will marshal war; and in his wrath he will smite three 
mighty kings, — those, namely, of Egypt, Libya, and Ethiopia. 
And after that he will build the temple in Jerusalem, and 
will restore it again speedily, and give it over to the Jews. 
And then he will be lifted up in heart against every man ; 
yea, he will speak blasphemy also against God, thinking in his 
deceit that he shall be king upon the earth hereafter for ever ; 
not knowing, miserable wretch, that his kingdom is to be 
quickly brought to naught, and that he will quickly have to 
meet the fire which is prepared for him, along with all who 
trust him and serve him. For when Daniel said, " I shall 
make my covenant for one week," ^ he indicated seven years ; 
and the one half of the week is for the preaching of the 
prophets, and for the other half of the week — that is to say, 
for three years and a half — Antichrist will reign upon the 
earth. And after this his kingdom and his glory shall be 
taken away. Behold, ye who love God, what manner of 
tribulation there shall rise in those days, such as has not 
been from the foundation of the world, no, nor ever shall 
be, except in those days alone. Then the lawless one, being 
lifted up in heart, will gather together his demons in man's 
form, and will abominate those who call him to the king- 
dom, and will pollute many souls. 


For he will appoint princes over them from among the de- 
mons. And he will no longer seem to be pious, but altogether 
and in all things he will be harsh, severe, passionate, wrath- 
ful, terrible, inconstant, dread, morose, hateful, abominable, 
savage, vengeful, iniquitous. And, bent on casting the whole 
race of men into the pit of perdition, he will multiply false 
signs. For when all the people greet him with their accla- 
mations at his displays, he will shout with a strong voice, so 
^ Dan. ix, 27. 


that the place shall be shaken in ^Yhicl^ the multitudes stand 
by him : " Ye peoples, and tribes, and nations, acquaint your- 
selves with my mighty authority and power, and the strength 
of my kingdom. What prince is there so great as I am? 
What great God is there but I ? Who will stand up against 
my authority?" Under the eye of the spectators he will 
remove mountains from their places, he will walk on the sea 
with dry feet, he will bring down fire from heaven, he will 
turn the day into darkness and the night into day, he W'ill 
turn the sun about wdieresoever he pleases ; and, in short:, 
in presence of those who behold him, he will show all the 
elements of earth and sea to be subject to him in the power 
of his specious manifestation. For if, while as yet he 
does not exhibit himself as the son of perdition, he raises 
and excites against us open war even to battles and slaugh- 
ters, at that time when he shall come in his own proper 
person, and men shall see him as he is in reality, what 
machinations and deceits and delusions will he not bring 
into play, w'ith the purpose of seducing all men, and leading 
them off from the way of truth, and from the gate of the 
kingdom ? 


Then, after all these things, the heavens will not give their 
dew, the clouds will not give their rain, the earth will refuse 
to yield its fruits;, the sea shall be filled with stench, the 
rivers shall be dried up, the fish of the sea shall die, men 
shall perish of hunger and thirst ; and father embracing son, 
and mother embracing daughter, will die together, and there 
will be none to bury them. But the whole earth will be 
filled with the stench arising from the dead bodies cast forth. 
And the sea, not receiving the floods of the rivers, will 
become like mire, and will be filled with an unlimited smell 
and stench. Then there will be a mighty pestilence upon 
the whole earth, and then, too, inconsolable lamentation, and 
measureless weeping, and unceasing mourning. Then men 
will deem those happy who are dead before them, and will say 
to them, " Open your sepulchres, and take us miserable beings 


in ; open your receptacles for the reception of yonr wretched 
kinsmen and acquaintances. Happy are ye, in that ye have 
not seen our days. Plappy are ye, in that ye have not had to 
witness this painful life of ours, nor this irremediable pesti- 
lence, nor these straits that possess our souls." 


Then that ahominable one will send his commands through- 
out every government by the hand at once of demons and of 
visible men, who shall say, " A mighty king has arisen upon 
the earth ; come ye all to worship him ; come ye all to see 
the strength of his kingdom : for, behold, he will give you 
corn ; and he will bestow upon you wine, and great riches, 
and lofty honours. For the whole earth and sea obeys his com- 
mand. Come ye all to him." And by reason of the scarcity 
of food, all will go to him and worship him ; and he will put 
his mark on their right hand and on their forehead, that 
no one may put the sign of the honourable cross upon his 
forehead with his right hand ; but his hand is bound. And 
from that time he shall not have pov^^er to seal any one of his 
members, but he shall be attached to the deceiver, and shall 
serve him ; and in him there is no repentance. 'But such an 
one is lost at once to God and to men, and the deceiver will 
give them scanty food by reason of his abominable seal. 
And his seal upon the forehead and upon the right hand is 
the number, " Six hundred three score and six." ^ And I 
have an opinion as to this number, though I do not know 
the matter for certain ; for many names have been found in 
this number when it is expressed in writing (eV t?; fypa<prj). 
Still we say that perhaps the scription of this same seal will 
give us the word I deny {dpvov/j,at^). For even in recent 
days, by means of his ministers — tiiat is to say, the idolaters — 
that bitter adversary took up the word deny, when the lawless 

1 Eev. xiii. 18. 

2 The letters of the word dpyov/icxi in their numerical value ■will not 
give the number 666 unless it is written dpuovfcs. See Haynio on the 
Apocalypse, book iv. 


pressed upon the witnesses of Christ, with the adjuration, 
"Deny thy God, the crucified One."^ 


Of such kind, in the time of that hater of all good, will be 
the seal, the tenor of which will be this : I deny the Maker 
of heaven and earth, I deny the baptism, I deny my (former) 
service, and attach myself to thee, and I believe in thee. 
For this is what the prophets Enoch and Elias will preach : 
Believe not the enemy who is to come and be seen ; for he 
is an adversary" and corrupter and son of perdition, and 
deceives you;^ and for this reason he will kill you, and smite 
them with the sword. Behold the deceit of the enemy, 
know the machinations of the beguiler, how he seeks to darken 
the mind of men utterly. For he will show fortli his 
demons brilliant like angels, and he will bring in hosts of the 
incorporeal without number. And in the presence of all he 
exhibits himself as taken up into heaven with trumpets and 
sounds, and the mighty shouting of those who hail him with 
indescribable hymns ; the heir of darkness himself shining 
like lisht, and at one time soarlnii; to the heavens, and at 
another descending to the earth with great glory, and again 
charging the demons, like angels, to execute his behests witli 
much fear and trembling. Then will he send the cohorts 
of the demons among mountains and caves and dens of the 
earth, to track out those who have been concealed from his 
eyes, and to bring them forward to worship him. And those 
who yield to him he will seal with his seal ; but those who 
refuse to submit to him he will consume with incomparable 
pains and bitterest torments and machinations, such as never 
have been, nor have reached the ear of man, nor have been 
seen by the eye of mortals. 

^ The text is in confusion : tTnthvi y.ctl -Jipuviv tia. ruu vTrnpiTuv cuvtov 6 
uvrf^tKOg ix^pos, «j youu ruv iiou7\o'KxTpuv, roli (.cocprvai rou XpiaTOi/ -rrpoi- 
rps'^ov oi oivo^iioi, etc. 

- oi'jTioiico;. In B, xA:iyo$- = deceiver. 

3 B reads rov Kirrcav, the worlJ. 



Blessed shall they be who overcome the tyrant then. For 
they shall be set forth as more illustrious and loftier than the 
first witnesses ; for the former witnesses overcame his minions 
only, but these overthrow and conquer the accuser himself, 
the son of perdition. With what eulogies and crowns, there- 
fore, will they not be adorned by our King, Jesus Christ ! 


But let us revert to the matter in hand. Wlien men have 
received the seal, then, and find neither food nor water, they 
[will] approach him with a voice of anguish, saying. Give 
us to eat and drink, for we all faint with hunger and all 
manner of straits;^ and bid the heavens yield us water, and 
drive off from us the beasts that devour men. Then will that 
crafty one make answer, mocking them with absolute inhu- 
manity, and saying, The heavens refuse to give rain, the earth 
yields not again its fruits ; whence then can I give you food ? 
Then, on hearing the words of this deceiver, these miserable 
men will perceive that this is the wicked accuser, and will 
mourn in anguish, and weep vehemently, and beat their face 
with their hands, and tear their hair, and lacerate their cheeks 
with their nails, while they say to each other : Woe for the 
calamity ! woe for the bitter contract ! woe for the deceitful 
covenant ! woe for the mighty mischance ! How have we 
been beguiled by the deceiver ! how have we been joined to 
him ! how have we been caught in his toils ! how have we 
been taken in his abominable net ! how have we heard the 
Scriptures, and understood them not ! For truly those who 
are engrossed with the affairs of life, and with the lust of this 
Vk'orld, will be easily brought over to the accuser then, and 
sealed by him. 


But many who are hearers of the divine Scriptures, and 
have them in their hand, and keep them in mind with under- 
1 B reads ohvv/i;, pain. 


standing, will escape liis imposture. For they will see clearly 
through his insidious appearance and his deceitful imposture, 
and will flee from his hands, and betake themselves to the 
mountains, and hide themselves in the caves of the earth ; and 
they will seek after the Friend of man with tears and a con- 
trite heart; and He will deliver them out of his toils, and with 
His right hand He will save those from his snares who in a 
worthy and righteous manner make their supplication to Him. 


You see in what manner of fasting and prayer the saints 
will exercise themselves at that time. Observe, also, how 
hard the season and the times will be that are to come upon 
those in city and country alike. At that time they will be 
brought from the east even unto the west ; and they will 
come up from the w^est even unto the east, and will weep 
greatly and wail vehementl3\ And when the day begins to 
dawn they will long for the night, in order that they may 
find rest from their labours ; and when the night descends 
upon them, by reason of the continuous earthquakes and the 
tempests in the air, they will desire even to behold the light 
of the day, and will seek how they may hereafter meet a 
hitter death. At that time the whole earth will bewail the 
life of anguish, and the sea and air in like manner vnW 
bewail it ; and the sun, too, will wail ; and the wild beasts, 
together with the fowls, will wail : mountains and hills, and 
the trees of the plain, will wail on account of the race of 
man, because all have turned aside from the holy God, and 
obeyed the deceiver, and received the mark of that abominable 
one, the enemy of God, instead of the quickening cross of 
the Saviour. 


And the churches, too, will wail with a mighty lamenta- 
tion, because neither oblation nor incense is attended to, nor 
a service acceptable to God ; but the sanctuaries of the 
churches will become like a garden-watcher's hut, and the 
holy body and blood of Christ will not be shown in those 


days. The public service of God shall be extinguished, 
psalmody shall cease, the reading of the Scriptures shall not 
be heard ; but for men there shall be darkness, and lamenta- 
tion on lamentation, and woe on woe. At that time silver 
and gold shall be cast out in the streets, and none shall gather 
them ; but all things shall be held an offence. For all shall 
be eager to escape and to hide themselves, and they shall not 
be able anywhere to find concealment from the woes^ of the 
adversary ; but as they carry his mark about them, they shall 
be readily recognised and declared to be his. Without there 
shall be fear, and within trembling, both by night and by day. 
In the street and in the houses there shall be the dead ; in 
the streets and in the houses there shall be hunger and thirst; 
in the streets there shall be tumults, and in the houses lamen- 
tations. And beauty of countenance shall be withered, for 
their forms shall be like those of the dead ; and the beauty of 
women shall fade, and the desire of all men shall vanish. 


Notwithstanding, not even then will the merciful and be- 
nignant God leave the race of men without all comfort ; but 
He will shorten .even those days and the period of three 
years and a half, and He will curtail those times on account 
of the remnant of those who hide themselves in the mountains 
and caves, that the phalanx of all those saints fail not utterly. 
But these days shall run their course rapidly ; and the king- 
dom of the deceiver and Antichrist shall be speedily removed. 
And then, in fine, in the glance of an eye shall the fashion of 
this world pass away, and the power of men^ shall be brought 
to nauiiht, and all these visible thinirs shall be destroved. 


As these things, therefore, of which we have spoken before 
are in the future, beloved, when the one week is divided 
into parts, and the abomination of desolation has arisen then, 
and the forerunners of the Lord have finished their proper 
course, and the whole world, in fine, comes to the consumma- 

^ -TToidui). B reads ^ray/Ba», snares. ^ B reads oxtfAovuv, demons. 


tion, what remains but the manifestation (eTrKJ^uveia) of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, the Son of God, from heaven, 
for whom we have hoped ; who shall bring forth fire and all 
just judgment against those who have refused to believe in 
Him? For the Lord says, "For as the lightning cometh out 
of the east, and shineth even unto the west, so shall also the 
coming of the Son of man be ; for wheresoever the carcase 
is, there will the eagles be gathered together." ^ For the sign 
of the cross ^ shall arise from the east even unto the west, in 
brightness exceeding that of the sun, and shall announce the 
advent and manifestation of the Judge, to give to every one 
according to his works. For concerning the general resur- 
rection and the kingdom of the saints, Daniel says : " And 
many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, 
some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting 
contempt." " And Isaiah says : " The dead shall rise, and 
those in the tombs shall awake, and those in the earth shall 
rejoice."^ And our Lord says: " Many^ in that day shall 
hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall 


For at that time the trumpet shall sound," and awake those 
that sleep from the lowest parts of the earth, righteous and 
sinners alike. And every kindred, and tongue, and nation, 
and tribe shall be raised in the twinkling of an eye ;^ and 
they shall stand upon the face of the earth, waiting for the 
coming of the righteous and terrible Judge, in fear and 
tremblino; unutterable. For the river of fire shall come forth 
in fury like an angry sea, and shall burn up mountains and 
hills, and shall make the sea vanish, and shall dissolve the 
atmospliere with its heat like wax.^ The stars of heaven 
shall fall,^° the sun shall be turned into darkness, and the 

1 Jtlatt. xxiv. 27, 28. - See Jo. Voss, Theses Theolog. p. 228. 

" Dan. xii. 2. * Isa. xxvi. 19. 

^ •^oAXo/, for the received o/ vsKpoi. ^ John v. 25. 

7 1 Thess. iv. 16. ^ i Cor. xv. 52. ^ 2 Pet. iii. 12. 

" Matt. xxiv. 29 


moon into blood.^ The heaven shall be rolled together like 
a scroll:"" the whole earth shall be burnt up by reason of the 
deeds done in it, which men did corruptly,^ in fornications, 
in adulteries, and in lies and nncleanness, and in idolatries, 
and in murders, and in battles. For there shall be the new 
heaven and the new earth.* 


Then shall the holy angels run on their commission to 
gather together all the nations, whom that terrible voice of 
the trumpet shall awake out of sleep. And before the judg- 
ment-seat of Christ shall stand those who once were kings 
and rulers, chief priests and priests ; and they shall give an 
account of their administration, and of the fold, whoever of 
tliem through their negligence have lost one sheep out of 
tlie flock. And then shall be brought forward soldiers who 
were not content with their provision,^ but oppressed widows 
and orphans and beggars. Then shall be arraigned the 
collectors of tribute, who despoil the poor man of more than 
is ordered, and who make real gold like adulterate, in order to 
mulct the needy, in fields and in houses and in the churches. 
Then shall rise up the lewd with shame, who have not kept 
their bed undefiled, but have been ensnared by all manner 
of fleshly beauty, and have gone in the way of their own 
lusts. Then shall rise up those who have not kept the love 
of the Lord, mute and gloomy, because they contemned the 
light commandment of the Saviour, which says. Thou shalt 
love thy neighbour as thyself. Then they, too, shall weep 
who have possessed the unjust balance, and unjust weights 
and measures, and dry measures, as they wait for the righteous 


And why should we add many words concerning those who 
are sisted before the bar? Then the righteous shall shine 

1 Acts ii. 20. " Rev. vi. 14. 

* ^ii<pdiipciu. B reads iKpx^xu, did. * Rev. xxi. 1. 

^ Luke iii. 14. 


forth like the sun, while the wicked shall be shown to be 
mute and gloomy. For both the righteous and the Aviched raised incorruptible: the righteous, to be honoured 
eternall}'', and to taste immortal joys ; and the wicked, to be 
punished in judgment eternally. Each ponders' tlie question 
as to what answer he shall give to the righteous Judge for his 
deeds, whether good or bad. With all men each one's actions 
shall environ him, whether he be good or evil. For the 
powers of the heavens shall be shaken,'^ and fear and trembling 
shall consume all things, both heaven and earth and things 
under the earth. And every tongue shall confess Him openly,^ 
and shall confess Him who comes to judge righteous judg- 
ment, the mighty God and Maker of all things. Then with 
fear and astonishment shall come angels, thrones, powers, 
principalities, dominions,* and the cherubim and seraphim 
with their many eyes and six wings, all crying aloud with a 
mighty voice, " Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts, omni- 
potent; the heaven and the earth are full of Thy glory ."^ 
And the King of kings and Lord of lords, the Judge who 
accepts no man's person, and the Jurist who distributes 
justice to every man, shall be revealed upon His dread and 
lofty throne; and all the flesh of mortals shall see His face with 
great fear and trembling, both the righteous and the sinner. 


Then shall the son of perdition be brought forward, to 
wit the accuser, with his demons and with his servants, by 
angels stern and inexorable. And they shall be given over 
to the fire that is never quenched, and to the worm that 
never sleepeth, and to the outer darkness. For the people 
of the Plebrews shall see Him in human form, as He ap- 
peared to them [when He came] by the holy Virgin in the 
flesh, and as they crucified Him. And He Avill show them 
the [prints of the] nails in His hands and feet, and His side 
pierced with the spear, and His head crowned with thorns, 

^ The text gives iv6vfir,du te, for wliich B reads h^vfulrett. 
' Matt. xxiv. 29. ^ phn. n. n. 

* Col. i. 16. * Isa. vi. 3. 


and His honourable cross. And once for all shall the people 
of the Hebrews see all these things, and they shall mourn and 
weep, as the prophet exclaims, "They shall look on Him whom 
they have pierced;"^ and there shall be none to help them or 
to pity them, because they repented not, neither turned aside 
from the wicked way. And these shall go away into ever- 
lasting punishment with the demons and the accuser. 


Then He shall gather together all nations, as the holy 
Gospel so strikingly declares. For what says- Matthew the 
evangelist, or rather the Lord Himself, in the Gospel? "When 
the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels 
with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory : 
and before Him shall be gathered all nations ; and He shall 
separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his 
sheep from the goats : and He shall set the sheep on His 
right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King 
say unto them on His right hand, Come, ye blessed of my 
Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for yo\x from the foun- 
dation of the world." ^ Come, ye prophets, who were cast 
out for my name's sake. Come, ye patriarchs, who before 
my advent were obedient to me^ and longed for my kingdom. 
Come, ye apostles, who were my fellows in my sufferings in 
my incarnation, [and suffered with me] in the Gospel. Come, 
ye martyrs, who confessed me before despots, and endured 
many torments and pains. Come, ye hierarchs, who did 
me sacred service blamelessly day and night, and made the 
oblation of my honourable body and blood daily. 


Come, ye saints, who disciplined yourselves in mountains 
and caves and dens of the earth, who honoured my name by 
continence and prayer and virginity. Come, ye maidens, 
who desired my bride-chamber, and loved no other bride- 
groom than me, who by your testimony and habit of life 
were wedded to me, the immortal and incorruptible Bride- 
^ Zech, xii. 10 ; John six. 37. ^ jfatt. xxv. 31-3-4. 


groom. Come, ye friends of the poor and the stranger. 
Come, ye who kept my love, as I am love. Come, ye who 
possess peace, for I own that peace. Come, ye blessed of my 
Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you, ye who esteemed 
not riches, ye who had compassion on the poor, who aided 
the orphans, who helped the widows, who gave drink to the 
thirsty, who fed the hungry, who received strangers, who 
clothed the naked, who visited the sick, who comforted those 
in prison, who helped the blind, who kept the seal of the 
faith inviolate, who assembled yourselves together in the 
churches, who listened to my Scriptures, who longed for my 
words, who observed my law day and night, who endured 
hardness with me like good soldiers, seeking to please me, 
your heavenly King. Come, inherit the kingdom prepared 
for you from the foundation of the world. Behold, my king- 
dom is made ready : behold, paradise is opened ; behold, my 
immortality is shown in its beauty («e/caWcoTTtcrTat). Come 
all, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the founda- 
tion of the world. 


Then shall the righteous answer, astonished at the mighty 
and wondrous fact that lie, whom the hosts of angels cannot 
look upon openly, addresses them as friends, and shall cry 
out to Him, Lord, when saw we Thee an hungered, and fed 
Thee? Master (SeaTrora), when saw we Thee thirsty, and 
gave Thee drink ? Thou Terrible One {^o^epe), when saw 
we Thee naked, and clothed Thee? Immortal (dOdvare), when 
saw we Thee a stranger, and took Thee in ? Thou Friend of 
man (^iXdvOpcoire), when saw we Thee sick or in prison, and 
came unto Thee? ^ Thou art the ever-living One. Thou art 
without beginning, like the Father {cTvvdvap-)(o<;), and co- 
eternal with the Spirit. Thou art He who made all things 
out of nothing. Thou art the prince of the angels. Thou 
art He at whom the depths tremble.' Thou art He who is 
covered with liMit as with a jr^niient." Thou art He who 
made us, and fashioned us of earth. Thou art He who 
1 Matt. XXV. 37, etc. ^ ^ Y.s,(h. iii. 8. ^ y&. civ. 2. 


formed {^ruiiovp^riaai) things invisible.^ From Thy presence 
the whole earth fleeth away,^ and how have we received 
hospitably Thy kingly power and lordship ? 


Then shall the King of kings make answer again, and say 
to them. Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the; least 
of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. Inasmuch 
as ye have received those of whom I have already spoken to 
you, and clothed them, and fed them, and gave them to 
drink, I mean the poor who are my members, ye have done 
it unto me. But come ye into the kingdom prepared for you 
from the foundation of the world ; enjoy for ever and ever 
that which is given you by my Father in heaven, and the 
holy and quickening Spirit. And what mouth then will 
be able to tell out those blessings which eye hath not seen, 
nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, 
the things which God hath prepared for them that love 


Ye have heard of the ceaseless Joy, ye have heard of the 
immoveable kingdom, ye have heard of the feast of blessings 
without end. Learn now, then, also the address of anguish 
with which the just Judge and the benignant God shall 
speak to those on the left hand in unmeasured anger and 
wrath. Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, pre- 
pared for the devil and his angels. Ye have prepared these 
things for yourselves ; take to yourselves also the enjoyment 
of them. Depart from me, ye cursed, into the outer darkness, 
and into the unquenchable fire, prepared for the devil and his 
angels. I made you, and ye gave yourselves to another. I 
am He who brought you forth from your mother's womb, 
and ye rejected me. I am He who fashioned you of earth 
by my word of command, and ye gave yourselves to another. 
I am He who nurtured you, and ye served another. I 
ordained the earth and the sea for your maintenance and the 

i Col. i. 16. - Rev. xx. 11. 3 jga. ixiv. 4 ; 1 Cor. ii. 9. 


bound (avjjiirepacriia) of your life, and ye listened not to my 
commandments. I made the light for you, that ye might 
enjoy the day, and the night also, that ye might have rest ; 
and ye vexed me, and set me at naught with your wicked 
words, and opened the door to the passions. Depart from 
me, ye workers of iniquity, I know you not, I recognise you 
not : ye made yourselves the workmen of another lord — 
namely, the devil. With him inherit ye the darkness, and 
the fire that is not quenched, and the worm that sleepcth 
not, and the gnashing of teeth. 


For I was an hungered, and ye gave me no meat : I was 
thirsty, and ye gave me no drink : I was a stranger, and ye 
took me not in; naked, and ye clothed me not; sick, and ye 
visited me not : I was in prison, and ye came not unto me. 
I made your ears that ye might hear the Scriptures ; and ye 
prepared them for the songs of demons, and lyres, and jest- 
ing. I made your eyes that you might see the light of my 
commandments, and keep them ; and ye called in fornication 
and wantonness, and opened them to all other manner of 
uncleanness. I prepared your mouth for the utterance of 
adoration, and praise, and psalms, and spiritual odes, and for 
the exercise of continuous reading ; and ye fitted it to railing, 
and swearing, and blasphemies, while ye sat and spake evil 
of your neighbours. I made your hands that ye might stretch 
them forth in prayers and supplications, and ye put them 
forth to robberies, and murders, and the killing of each other. 
I ordained your feet to walk in the preparation of the Gospel 
of peace, both in the churches and the houses of my saints ; 
and ye tauglit them to run to adulteries, and fornications, and 
theatres, and dancings, and elevations (tossings, /jueTeoypia-fiov^)' 


At last the assembly is dissolved, the spectacle of this life 
ceaseth: its deceit and its semblance are passed away. Cleave 
to me, to whom every knee boweth, of things in heaven, and 
things on earth, and things under the earth. For all who 


liave been negligent, and have not shown pit}'' in well-doing 
there, have nothing else due them than the unquenchable 
fire. For I am the friend of man, but yet also a righteous 
Judge to all. For I shall award the recompense according 
to desert ; I shall give the reward to all, according to each 
man's labour ; I shall make return to all, according to each 
man's conflict. I wish to have pity, but I see no oil in your 
vessels. I desire to have mercy, but ye have passed through 
life entirely without mercy. I long to have compassion, but 
your lamps are dark by reason of your hardness of heart. 
Depart from me. For judgment is without mercy to him 
that hath showed no mercy.^ 


Then shall they also make answer to the dread Judge, who 
accepteth no man's person : Lord, when saw we Thee an 
hungered, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in 
])rison, and ministered not unto Thee "? Lord, dost Thou 
know us not'^ Thou didst form us. Thou didst fashion us^ 
Thou didst make us of four elements. Thou didst give us 
spirit and soul. On Thee we believed; Thy seal we received, 
Thy baptism we obtained ; we acknowledged Thee to be God, 
we knew Thee to be Creator ; in Thee we wrought signs, 
through Thee we cast out demons, for Thee we mortified the 
flesh, for Thee we preserved virginity, for Thee we practised 
chastity, for Thee we became strangers on the earth ; and 
Thou sayest, I know you not, depart from me! Then shall 
He make answer to them, and say, Ye acknowledged me as 
Lord, but ye kept not my words. Ye were marked with the 
seal of my cross, but ye deleted it by your hardness of heart. 
Ye obtained my baptism, but ye observed not my command- 
ments. Ye subdued your body to virginity, but ye kept not 
mercy, but ye did not cast the hatred of your brother out of 
your souls. For not every one that saith to me. Lord, Lord, 
shall be saved, but he that doeth my will.^ And these shall 
go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into 
life eternal.^ 

1 Jas. ii. 13. 2 Matt. vii. 23. « Matt. xxv. 4G. 




Ye have heard, beloved, the answer of the Lord ; ye have 
learned the sentence of the Judge ; ye have been given to 
understand what kind of awful scrutiny awaits us, and what 
day and what hour are before us. Let us therefore ponder 
this every day ; kt us meditate on this both day and night, 
both in the house, and by the way, and in the churches, that 
we may not stand forth at that dread and impartial judg- 
ment condemned, abased, and sad, but with purity of action, 
life, conversation, and confession ; so that to us also the 
merciful and benignant God may say, " Thy faith hath 
saved thee, go in peace ;"^ and again, " Well done, good and 
faithful servant ; thou hast been faithful over a few things, 
I will make thee ruler over many things : enter thou into the 
joy of thy Lord."' Which joy may it be ours to reach, by 
the grace and kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom 
pertain glory, honour, and adoration, with His Father, who is 
without beginning, and His holy, and good, and quickening 
Spirit, now and ever, and to the ages of the ages. Amen. 

"Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee the 

crown of life" (Apoc. ii.). 



Peter preached the gospel in Pontus, and Galatia, and 
Cappadocia, and Betania, and Italy, and Asia, and was after- 
wards crucified by Nero in Rome with his head downward, 
as he had himself desired to suffer in that manner. 

Andrew preached to the Scythians and Thracians, and was 
crucified, suspended on an olive tree, at Patra3, [a town] of 
Achaia ; and there too he was buried. 

John, again, in Asia, was banished by Domitian the king 
to the isle of Patmos, in which also he wrote his Gospel and 
1 Luke vii. 50. ^ Matt. xxy. 23. 


saw the apocalyptic vision ; and in Trajan's time he fell asleep 
at Ephesus, where his remains were sought for, but could not 
be found. 

James, his brother, when preaching in Judea, was cut off 
with the sword by Herod the tetrarch, and was buried there. 

Philip preached in Phrygia, and was crucified in Hiera- 
polis with his head downward in the time of Domitian, and 
was buried there. 

Bartholomew, again, [preached] to the Indians, to whom 
also he gave the Gospel according to Matthew, [and] was 
crucified with his head downward, and was buried in Alla- 
num (or Albanum), [a town] of the great Ai'menia. 

And Matthew wrote the Gospel in the Hebrew tongue, and 
published it at Jerusalem, and fell asleep at Hierees, [a town] 
of Parthia. 

And Thomas preached to the Parthians, Medes, Persians, 
Hyrcanians, Bactrians, and Margians,^ and was thrust through 
in the four members of his body with a pine spear ^ at Cala- 
mene,^ the city of India, and was buried there. 

And James the son of Alphasus, when preaching in Jeru- 
salem, was stoned to death by the Jews, and was buried there 
beside the temple. 

Judas, who is also [called] Lebba^us, preached to the people 
of Edessa (^tSecrti/oi?), and to all Mesopotamia, and fell 
asleep at Berytus, and was buried there. 

Simon the Zealot (6 KavavLTri<i), the son of Clopas, who is 
also [called] Judas, became bishop of Jerusalem after James 
the Just, and fell asleep and was buried there at the age of 
120 yeai's. 

And Matthias, who was one of the seventy, was numbered 
along with the eleven apostles, and preached in Jerusalem, 
and fell asleep and was buried there. 

And Paul entered into the apostleship a year after the 
assumption of Christ ; and beginning at Jerusalem, he ad- 
vanced as far as Illyricum, and Italy, and Spain, preaching 

^ 'Mde.pyotg. Combefisius proposes 't.loi.paon;. Jerome has "' Jfagis." 
- The text is lA«t;c'-;3>5 iKayY^ikad'/i^ \\e*.-/.'/^-/\ being probably for iTixrt}. 
2 KaA«(K-<v55. Stepl). le Moyne reads Kxpuccyii/ij. 


the gospel for five-and-tliirty years. And in tlie time of 
Nero he was beheaded at Rome, and was buried there. 

Ill the Codex Bai'occian. 20G. 

[This is found also, along with the former piece, On tlie Twelve Apostles, 
in two codices of the Coislinian or Seguierian Library, as Mont- 
faucon states in his recension of the Greek manuscripts of that 
library. He mentions also a third codex of Hippolytus, On the 
Twelve Apostles.'] 

1. James the Lord's brother (aoeX,(^o^eo9), bishop of Jeru- 


2. Cleopas, bishop of Jerusalem. 

3. Matthias, who supplied the vacant place in the number 

of the twelve apostles. 

4. Thaddeus, who conveyed the epistle to Augarus. 

5. Ananias, who baptized Paul, [and was] bishop of Da- 


6. Stephen, the first martyr. 

7. Philip, who baptized the eunuch. 

8. Prochorus, bishop of Nicomedia, who also was tlie first 

that departed (^i^eXOcov), believing together with his 

9. Nicanor died when Stephen was martyred. 

10. Timon, bishop of Bostra. 

11. Parmenas, bishop of Soli. 

12. Nicolaus, bishop of Samaria. 

13. Barnabas, bishop of Milan. 

14. Mark the evangelist, bishop of Alexandria. 

15. Luke the evangelist. 

These two belonged to the seventy disciples who were 
scattered^ by the offence of the word which Christ 
spake, "Except a man cat my flesh, and drink my 

^ The text is, ovroi oi /3' ruu 6 rvyx^uovTcov It may be 
meant for, "these two of the seventy were scattered," etc. 


blood, he is not wortliy of inc." ^ But the one being 
induced to return to the Lord by Peter's instrumen- 
tahty, and the other by Paul's, they were honoured 
to preach that gospel ^ on account of which they also 
suffered martyrdom, the one being burned, and the 
other being crucified on an olive tree. 

16. Silas, bishop of Corinth. 

17. Silvanus, bishop of Thessalonica. 

18. Crisces (Crescens), bishop of Carchedon in Gaul. 

19. Epa^netus, bishop of Carthage. 

20. Andronicus, bishop of Pannonia. 

21. Amplias, bishop of Odyssus. 

22. Urban, bishop of Macedonia. 

23. Stachys, bishop of Byzantium 

24. Barnabas, bishop of Ileraclea. 

25. Phygellus, bishop of Ephesus. lie was of the party also 

of Simon [Magus]. 

26. Ilermogenes. lie, too, was of the same mind with the 


27. Demas, who also became a priest of idols. 

28. Apelles, bishop of Smyrna. 

29. Aristobulus, bishop of Britain. 

30. Narcissus, bishop of Athens. 

31. Herod ion, bishop of Tarsus. 

32. Agabus the prophet. 

33. Rufus, bishop of Thebes. 

34. Asyncritus, bishop of Hyrcania. 

35. Phlegon, bishop of Marathon. 

36. Hermes, bishop of Dalmatia. 

37. Patrobulus,'' bishop of Puteoli. 

38. Hennas, bishop of Philippi. 

39. Linus, bishop of Rome. 

40. Cains, bishop of Ephesus. 

41. Philologus, bishop of Sinope. 

^ John vi. 53, G6. 

- £y«7ysAi'i^tc7^«i, perhaps = icrite of that gospel, as the Latin version 
puts it. 

2 Rom. svi. 14, nocT(5c/73«?. 


42, 43. Olympus and Khodion were martyred in Eomo. 

44. Lucius, bisliop of Laodicea in Syria. 

45. Jason, bishop of Tarsus. 

46. Sosipater, bishop of Iconium. 

47. Tertius, bishop of Iconium. 

48. Erastus, bishop of Panellas. 

49. Quartus, bishop of Berytus. 

50. Apollo, bishop of Csesarea. 

51. Cephas. (In the manuscript tliere is a lacuna here.) 

52. Sosthenes, bishop of Colophonia. 

53. T^xhicus, bishop of Colophonia. 

54. Epaphroditus, bishop of Andriace. 

55. Ca3sar, bis^hop of Dyrrachium. 

5G. Marlv, cousin to Barnabas, bishop of Apollonia. 

57. Justus, bishop of Eleutheropolis. 

58. Artemas, bishop of Lystra. 

59. Clement, bishop of Sardinia. 

60. Onesiphorus, bishop of Corone. 

61. Tychicus, bishop of Chalcedon. 

62. Carpus, bishop of Berytus in Thrace. 

63. Evodus, bishop of Antioch. 

64. Aristarchus, bishop of Apamea. 

65. Mark, who is also John, bishop of Bibloupolis. 

66. Zenas, bishop of Diospolis. 

67. Philemon, bishop of Gaza. 

68. 69. Aristarchus and Pudes. 

70. Trophimus, who was martyred along with Paul. 




[These were lii'st pnblislied in French by Jo. IMicliael Wanslebins in bis 
book De Ecdesia Alezandrina, Paris 1677, p. 12 ; then in Latin, 
by Job Ludolfus, in his Commentar. ad Mstoriam JEthiopicam, 
Frankfort IGOl, p. 333 ; and by William Whiston, in vol. iii. of 
Lis Primitive Christianity Revived, published in English at London, 
1711, p. 543. He has also noted the passages in the Constitutiones 
Apostolicx, treating the same matters.] 

1. Of the holy faith of Jesus Christ/ 

2. Of bishops.2 

3. Of prayers spoken on the ordination of bishops, and of 

the order of the Mass.^ 

4. Of the ordination of presbyters. 

5. Of the ordination of deacons. 

6. Of those who suffer persecution for the faith.* 

7. Of the election of reader and sub-deacon.^ 

8. Of the gift of healing.' 

9. Of the presbyter who abides in a place inconvenient for 

his office.^ 

10. Of those who are converted to the Christian religion. 

11. Of him who makes idols.^ 

12. Various pursuits (siudia) are enumerated, the followers 

of which are not to be admitted to the Christian reli- 
gion until repentance is exhibited.^ 

13. Of the place wdiich the highest kings or princes shall 

occupy in the temple.^^ 

14. That it is not meet for Christians to bear arms.^^ 

15. Of works which are unlawful to Christians.^^ 

16. Of the Christian who marries a slave-woman.^^ 

^ Consiit. Apostol. lib. vi. ch. 11, etc. - Lib. vii. ch. 41. 

^ Lib. vii. ch. 4, 5, 10. 

4 Lib. viii. ch. 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 45. '- Lib. viii. ch. 21, 22. 

c Lib. viii. ch. 1, 2. ' Lib. viii. ch. 46, 32. 

8 Lib. viii. ch. 46, 32. 9 Lib. viii. ch. 46, 32. 

^0 TTanting. ii Lib. viii. ch. 32. 

^- Lib. viii. ch. 32. i- Lib. viii. ch. 32. 















Of tlie free woman,^ 

Of the midwife ; and that the women ought to be sepa- 
rate from the men in prayer.'"^ 
Of the catechumen who suffers martyrdom before 

Of the fast of the fourth and sixth holiday ; and of 

That presbyters shoukl assemble daily with the people in 

Of the week of the Jews' passover ; and of him who 

knows not passover (Easter).*' 
That every one be held to learn doctrine.^ 
Of the care of the bishop over the sick.^ 
Of him on whom the care of the sick is enjoined ; and 

of the time at which prayers are to be made.^ 
Of the time at which exhortations are to be heard.^° 
Of him who frequents the temple every day.^^ 
That the faithful ought to eat nothing before the holy 

Tliat care is to be well taken that nothin£f fall from the 

chalice to the ground.^'' 
Of catechumens.^^ 
That a deacon may dispense the Eucharist to the people 

with permission of a bishop or presbyter.^'' 
That widows and virgins ought to pray constantly.^'' 
That commemoration should be made of the faithful 

dead every day, with the exception of the Lord's 

Of the sober behaviour of the secular [laymen] \n 


1 Lib. viii. ch. 32. 

^ Lib. V. ch. 6. 

^ Lib. ii. ch. 3G. 

7 Lib. vii. ch. 39, 40, 41. 

^ Lib. iii. ch. 19, viii. ch. 34. 
" Lib. ii. ch. 59. 
'^^ Wanting. 
^^ Lib. viii. ch. 28. 
^'^ Lib. iv. ch. 14, viii. ch. 41-44. 

2 Lib. ii. ch. 67. 

^ Lib. V. ch. 13, 15. 

" Lib. V. ch. 15, etc. 

'^ Lib. iv. ch. 2. 
1" Lib. viii. ch. 32. 
^- Wanting. 
" Lib. vii. ch. 39, etc. 
^c Lib. iii. ch. 6, 7, 13. 
^^ Lib. ii. ch. 57. 


35. That deacons may pronounce the benediction and thanks- 
giving at the love-feasts when a bishop is not present/ 
3G. Of the first-fruits of the earth, and of vows " (or offerings). 

37. When a bishop celebrates the holy communion (Syaiaxis), 

the presbyters who stand by him should be clothed in 

38. That no one ought to sleep on the night of the resurrec- 

tion of our Lord Jesus Christ.* 



\J)e Magistris, Acta Martyrum ad Ostia Tibei'ina, Roir.e 1795, fol. 
Append, p. 478.] 

In the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy 
Spirit, Amen. Those are the canons of the church, 
ordinances Avhich Hippolytus wrote, by whom [the churcli] 
speaketh ; and the number of them is thirty-eight canons. 
Greeting from the Lord. 

Canon First. Of the Catholic faith. Before all things 
should we speak of the faith, holy and right, regard- 
ing our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the living God ; 
and we have [consequently] placed that canon in the 
faith (the symbol) ; and we agree in this Avith all rea- 
sonable certitude, that the Trinity is equal perfectly 
in honour, and equal in glory, and has neither begin- 
ning nor end. The Word [is] the Son of God, and is 
Himself the Creator of every creature, of things visible 
and invisible. This we lay down with one accord, in 
opposition to those who have said boldly, that it is 
not right [to speak] of the Word of God as our Lord 
Jesus Christ spake. We come together chiefly to 
bring out the holy truth (ad proferendum sancte) re- 
garding God ; and we have separated them, because 

^ Wanting. ^ Lib. ii. cli. 25. 

3 Lib. vii. ch. 29, viii. 30, 31. * Lib. viii. ch. 12, v. ch. 19. 


tliey do not agree with the churcli in theology, nor 
with lis the sons of the Scriptures. On this account 
■\ve have sundered them from the church, and have 
left what concerns them to God, who will judge His 
creatures with justice. To those, moreover, who are 
not cognisant of them, we make this known without 
ill-will, in order that they may not rush into an evil 
death, like heretics, but may gain eternal life, and 
teach their sons and their posterity this one true faith. 

Canon Second. Of bishops. A bishop should be elected 
by all the people, and he should be unimpeachable, as 
it is written of him in the apostle ; in the week in 
which he is ordained, the whole people should also say, 
We desire him ; and there should be silence in the 
whole hall, and they should all pray in his behalf, and 
sa}^, O God, stablish him whom Thou hast prepared 
for us, etc. 

Canon Third. Prayer in behalf of him who is made 
bishop, and the ordinance of the Mass (ordinatio missce). 
O God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father 
of mercies, and the God of all consolation, etc. 

Canon Fourth. Of the ordination of a presbyter. 

Canon Fifth. Of the constituting a deacon. 

Canon Sixth. Of those who have suffered for the faith. 

Canon Seventh. Of him who is elected reader and sub- 

Canon Eighth. Of the gift of healings. 

Canon Ninth. That a presbyter should not dwell in 
unbefitting places ; and of the honour of widows. 

Canon Tenth. Of those who wish to become Nazarenes 

Canon Eleventh. Of him who makes idols and images, 
or the artificer. 

Canon Twelfth. Of the prohibition of those works, the 
authors of which are not to be received but on the 
exhibition of repentance. 

Canon Thirteenth. Of a prince or a soldier, that they be 
not received indiscriminately. 


Canon Fourteenth. That a Nazarene may not become a 
soldier unless by order. 

Canon Fifteenth. Enumeration of works ^Yhich are 

Canon Sixteenth. Of him who has a lawful wife, and 
takes another beside her. 

Canon Seventeenth. Of a free-born woman, and her 
duties. Of midwives, and of the separation of men 
from women. Of virgins, that they should cover their 
faces and their heads. 

Canon Eighteenth. Of women in childbed, and of mid- 
wives again. 

Canon Nineteenth, Of catechumens, and the ordinance 
of Baptism and the Mass. 

Canon Twentieth. Of the fast [the six days], and of that 
of Lent. 

Canon Twenty-first. Of the daily assembling of priests 
and people in the church. 

Canon Twenty-second. Of the week of the Jev^-s' pass- 
over, wherein joy shall be put away, and of what is 
eaten therein ; and of him who, being brought up 
abroad, is ignorant of the connection {texium, Calen- 

Canon Twenty-third. Of doctrine, that it should be con- 
tinuous (greater than the sea), and that its words 
ought to be fulfilled by deeds. 

Canon Twenty-fourth. Of the bishop's visitation of the 
sick ; and that if an infirm man has prayed in the 
church, and has a house, he should go to him. 

Canon Twenty-fifth. Of the procurator appointed for the 
sick, and of the bishop, and the times of prayer. 

Canon Twenty-sixth. Of the hearing of the word in 
church, and of praying in it. 

Canon Twenty-seventh. Of him who does not come to 
church daily, — let him read books ; and of prayer at 
midnight and cock-crowing, and of the washing of 
hands at the time of any prayer. 

Canon, Twenty-eighth. That none of the believers should 


taste anytliing, but after he lias taken the sacred 
mysterieSj especially in the days of fasting. 

Canon Twenty-ninth. Of the keeping of oblations which 
are laid upon the altar, — that nothing fall into the 
sacred chalice, and that nothing fall from the priests, 
nor from the boys when they take communion ; that an 
evil spirit rule them not, and that no one speak in the 
protection (sanctuary), except in prayer ; and when the 
oblations of the people cease, let psalms be read with all 
attention, even to the signal of the bell ; and of the 
sign of the cross, and the casting of the dust of the 
altar into the pool. 

Canon Thirtieth. Of catechumens and the like. 

Canon Thirty-first. Of the bishop and presbyter bidding 
the deacons present the communion. 

Canon Thirty-second. Of virgins and widows, that they 
should pray and fast in the church. Let those Avho 
are given to the clerical order pray according to their 
judgment. Let not a bishop be bound to fasting but 
with the clergy. And on account of a feast or supper, 
let him prepare for the poor (and of the preparing a 
table for the poor). 

Canon Thirty-third. Of the Atalmsas (the oblation), 
which they shall present for those who are dead, that 
it be not done on the Lord's day. 

Canon Thirty-fourth. That no one speak much, nor make 
a clamour ; and of the entrance of the saints into the 
mansions of the faithful. 

Canon Thirty-fifth. Of a deacon present at a feast at 
which there is a presbyter present, — let him do his part 
in prayer and the breaking of bread for a blessing, and 
not for the body ; and of the discharge of widows. 

Canon Thirty-sixth. Of the first-fruits of the earth, and 
the first dedication of them ; and of presses, oil, honey, 
milk, wool, and the like, which may be offered to the 
bishop for his blessing. 

Canon Thirty-seventh. As often as a bishop takes of the 
sacred mysteries, let tlie deacons and presbyters bo 


gathered together, clothed in white robes, brilliant in 
the view of all the people ; and in like manner with a 
Canon Thirty-eighth. Of the night on which our Lord 
Jesus Christ rose. That no one shall sleep on that 
night, and wash himself with water ; and a declaration 
concerning such an one ; and a declaration concerning 
him who sins after baptism, and of things lawful and 

The sacred canons of the holy patriarch Hippolytus, the 
first patriarch of the great city of Rome, which he composed, 
are ended ; and the number of them is thirty-eight canons. 
May the Lord help us to keep them. And to God be glory 
for ever, and on us be His mercy for ever. Amen. 





The little that is known of Zepliyrinus is derived from 
Eusebius. That historian states that Zephyrinus succeeded 
Victor in the presidency of the Eoman Church "about the 
ninth year of the reign of Severus" ^ (a.d. 201), and that he 
died in the first year of the reign of Antoninus ^ (Helioga- 
balus, A.D. 218). He is several times alluded to in the frag- 
ments ascribed to Caius, or in connection with them. 

The two letters bearing his name are forgeries. They be- 
loncp to the famous collection- of False Decretals foro;ed in the 
ninth century. In regard to these Decretals, Dean Milman 
says: " Up to this period the Decretals, the letters or edicts of 
the Bishops of Rome, according to the authorized or common 
collection of Dionysius, commenced with Pope Siricius, to- 
M'ards the close of the fourth century. To the collection of 
Dionysius was added that of the authentic councils, which 
bore the name of Isidore of Seville. On a sudden was pro- 
mulgated, unannounced, without preparation, not absolutely 
unquestioned, but apparently overawing at once all doubt, a 
new code, which to the former authentic documents added 
fifty-nine letters and decrees of the twenty oldest popes from 
Clement to Melchiades, and the donation of Constantino ; 
and in the third part, among the decrees of the popes and of 
the councils from Sylvester to Gregory ii,, thirty-nine false 
decrees, and the acts of several unauthentic councils." " 

In regard to the authorship and date of the False Decretals, 
Dean Milman says : " The author or authors of this most 

1 Hist. Ecd. V. 28. ^ /j/^.;, j^ccl. vi. I'l. 

^ History of Latin Christianity^ vol. iii. p. 191. 


audacious and elaborate of pious frauds are unknown ; the 
date and place of its compilation are driven into such narrow- 
limits that they may be determined within a few years, and 
within a very circumscribed region. The False Decretals 
came not from Eome ; the time of their arrival at Rome, 
after they were known beyond the Alps, appears almost 
certain. In one year Nicolas i. is apparently ignorant of 
their existence ; the next he speaks of them with full know- 
ledge. They contain words manifestly used at the Council 
of Paris, A.D. 829, consequently are of later date. They were 
known to the Levite Benedict of Mentz, who composed a 
supplement to the collection of capitularies by Ansegise, be- 
tween A.D. 840-847. The city of Mentz is designated with 
nearly equal certainty as the place in which, if not actually 
composed, they were first promulgated as the canon law of 
Christendom." ^ 


Of the Final Decision of the Trials of Bishops, and graver 
Ecclesiastical Cases in the Seat of the Ajyostles. 

ZEPHYRINUS, archbishop of the city of Rome, to all 
the bishops settled in Sicily, in the Lord, greeting. 
We ought to be mindful of the grace of God to us, which 
in His own merciful regard has raised us for this purpose to 
the summit of priestly honour, that, abiding by His command- 
ments, and appointed in a certain supervision of His priests, 
we may prohibit things unlawful, and teach those that are to 
be followed. As night does not extinguish the stars of heaven, 
so the unrighteousness of the world does not blind the minds 
of the faithful that hold by the sure support of Scripture. 
Therefore we ought to consider well and attend carefully to 
the Scriptures, and the divine precepts which are contained 
^ History of Latin Christianity, vol. iii. p. 193. 


in these Scriptures, in order that we may show ourselves not 
transgressors, but fulfillers of the law of God. 

Now patriarchs and primates, in investigating the case of 
an accused bishop, should not pronounce a final decision until, 
supported by the authority of the apostles, they find that 
the person either confesses himself guilty, or is proved so by 
witnesses trustworthy and regularly examined, who should 
not be fewer in number than were those disciples whom the 
Lord directed to be chosen for the help of the apostles — that 
is, seventy-two. Detractors also, who are to be rooted out by 
divine authority, and the advisers of enemies {auctores inimi- 
corum), we do not admit in the indictment of bishops or in 
evidence against them ; nor should any one of superior rank 
be indicted or condemned on the accusations of inferiors. 
Nor in a doubtful case should a decisive judgment be pro- 
nounced ; nor should any trial be held valid unless it has 
been conducted according to order. No one, moreover, should 
be judged in his absence, l)ecause both divine and human 
laws forbid that. The accusers of those persons should also 
be free of all suspicion, because the Lord has chosen that 
His pillars should stand firm, and not be shaken by any one 
who will. For a sentence should not bind any of them if 
it is not given by their proper judge, because even the laws 
of the world ordain that that be done. For any accused 
bishop may, if it be necessary, choose twelve judges by 
whom his case may be justly judged. Nor should he be 
heard or excommunicated or judged until these be chosen 
by him ; and on his being regularly summoned at first to a 
council of his own bishops, his case should be justly heard 
by them, and investigated on sound principles. The end 
of his case, however, should be remitted to the seat of the 
apostles, that it may be finally decided there. Nor should 
it be finished, as has been decreed of old by the apostles or 
their successors, until it is sustained by its authority. To 
it also all, and especially the oppressed, should appeal and. 
have recourse as to a mother, that they may be nourished 
by her breasts, defended by her authority, and relieved of 
their oppressions, because "a mother cannot," and should 


not, "forget lier son."^ For the trials of bishops and 
graver ecclesiastical cases, as the apostles and their holy 
successors have decreed, are to be finally decided along with 
other bishops^ b}' the seat of the apostles, and by no other; 
because, although they may be transferred to other bishops, 
it was yet to the blessed Apostle Peter these terms were 
addressed: "Whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be 
bound in heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth 
shall be loosed in heaven.""^ And the other privileges which 
have been granted to this holy seat alone are found embodied 
both ia the constitutions of the apostles'^ and their successors, 
and in very many others in harmony with these. For the 
apostles have prefixed seventy" decrees, together with very 
many other bishops, and have appointed them to be kept. For 
to judge rashly of the secrets of another's heart is sin ; and it 
is unjust to reprove him on suspicion whose works seem not 
other than good, since God alone is Judge of those things which 
are unknown to men. He, however, " knoweth the secrets of 
the heart," *^ and not another. For unjust judgments are to 
be guarded against by all, especially however by the servants 
of God. " And the servant of the Lord must not strive," ' 
nor harm any one. For bishops are to be borne by laity and 
clergy, and masters by servants, in order that, under the 
exercise of endurance, things temporal may be maintained, 
and things eternal hoped for. For that increases the worth of 
virtue, which does not violate the purpose of religion. You 
should be earnestly intent that none of your brothers be 

^ Isa. xlix. 15. ^ The word " bishops" is omitted in Jis. 

3 .Alatt. xvi. 19. 

* He means the seventy-third apostolic canon, in which it is ordained 
that episcopal cases be not decided but by superior bLshops, councils, or 
the Koman pontiff. 

•'' Another reading has sixty, and another fifty. Whatever be the 
reading, it is true that by these decrees he means the apostolic canons ; 
and although their number was only fifty, yet, because sometimes 
several decrees are comprehended in one canon, there would be no 
inconsistency between the number of sixty or seventy apostolic decrees 
and the number of fifty apostolic canons (Sev. Bin.). 

6 Ps. xliv. 21. '2 Tim. ii. 24. 


grievously injured or undone. Therefore you ought to 
succour the oppressed, and deliver them from the hand of 
their persecutors, in order that ■with the blessed Job you may 
say: "The blessing of him that was ready to perish will 
come upon me, and I consoled the widow's heart. I put on 
ri2;hteousness, and clothed myself with a robe and a diadem, 
my judgment. I was eye to the blind, and foot to the lame. 
I was a father to the pooj', and the cause which I knew not 
I searched out most carefully. I bra'ce the grindei's of the 
wicked, and plucked the spoil out of his teeth ;"^ and so 
forth. You, therefore, who have been placed in eminence 
by God, ought with all your power to check and repel those 
who prepare snares for brethren, or raise seditions and 
offences against them. For it is easy by word to deceive 
man, not however God. Therefore you ought to keep these 
off, and be on your guard against them, until such darkness 
is done away utterly, and the morning star shines upon them, 
and gladness arises, most holy brethren. Given on the 20th 
September, in the consulship of the most illustrious Satur- 
ninus and Gallicanus.^ 


Zephyrinus, archbishop of the city of Rome, to the most 
beloved brethren who serve the Lord in Egypt. 

So great trust have we received from the Lord, the 
Founder of this holy seat and of the apostolic church, and 
from the blessed Peter, chief of the apostles, that wc may 
labour with unwearied affection^ for the universal church 
which has been redeemed by the blood of Christ, and aid all 
who serve the Lord, and give help to all who live piously by 
apostolic autliority. All who will live'* piously in Christ must 

1 Job xxix. 13-17, according to the Vulgate version. 

2 Or, Gallus. Saturninus and Gallus were consuls in the year 19S, 
while Victor was yet alive. 

s Or, diHgeuce. * 2 Tim. u. 24. 


needs endure reproaches from the impious and aliens, and be 
despised as fools and madmen, that they may be made better 
and purer who lose the good things of time that they may 
gain those of eternity. But the contempt and ridicule of 
those who afflict and scorn them will be cast back upon 
themselves, when their abundance shall change to want, and 
their pride to confusion. 


On the Spoliation or Expulsion of certain Bishops. 

It has been reported at the sea^t of the apostles by your 
delegates,^ that certain of our brethren, bishops to wit, are 
being expelled from their churches and seats, and deprived of 
their goods, and summoned, thus destitute and spoiled, to 
trial ; a thing which is void of all reason, since the constitu- 
tions of the apostles and their successors, and the statutes of 
emperors, and the regulations of laws, prohibit it, and the 
authority of the seat of the apostles forbids it to be done. 
It has been ordained, indeed, in the ancient statutes, that 
bishops who have been ejected and spoiled of their property 
should recover their churches, and, in the first place, have all 
their property restored to them ; and then, in the second 
place, that if any one may desire to accuse them justly, he 
should do so at the like risk ; that the judges should be dis- 
creet, the bishops right-minded and harmonious in the church, 
where they should be witnesses for every one who seemed to 
be oppressed ; and that they should not answer till all that 
belonged to them was restored to them, and to their churches 
by law without detriment. Nor is it strange, brethren, if 
they persecute you, when they persecuted even to death your 
Head, Christ our Lord. Yet even persecutions are to be 
endured patiently, that ye may be known to be His disciples, 

^ By these apocrisarii are meant the deputies of tlie bishops, and their 
locum tenentes, as it were, who mauage the affairs of the church, hear the 
cases of individuals, and refer them to the bishops. Tliey are therefore 
called apocrisarii, i.e. responders, from dTroKpivo/aai, to respond. Mea- 
tion is made of them in Justinian Novell. Quomodo oporteat Episcopos, 
chap. xii. Albericus understands by them the legates of the Pope. 


for whom also ye suffer. Whence, too, he says Himself, 
" Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' 
sake."^ Sustained by these testimonies, we ought not greatly 
to fear the reproach of men, nor be overcome by their up- 
braidings, since the Lord gives us this command by Isaiah 
the prophet, saying, " Hearken unto me, ye that know right- 
eousness, my people, in whose heart is my law ; fear ye not 
the reproach of men, neither be ye afraid of their revilings ;"" 
considering what is written in the Psalm, " Shall not God 
search this out '? for He knoweth the secrets of the heart,^ and 
the thoughts of such men, that they are vanity." ^ "They spoke 
vanity every one with his neighbour : with deceitful lips in 
their heart, and with an evil heart they spoke. But the Lord 
shall cut off all deceitful lips, and the tongue that speaketh 
proud things ; who have said. Our lips are our own ; who is 
Lord over us?"^ For if they kept these things in memory, 
they would by no means break forth into so great wickedness. 
For they do not this by laudable and paternal instruction 
{prohahili et pater7ia doctrina\ but that they may wreak their 
vengeful feeling against the servants of God. For it is 
written, "The way of a fool is right in his eyes;'"^ and, 
" There are ways which seem right unto a man, but the end 
thereof leads to death." '^ Now we who suffer these things 
ought to leave them to the judgment of God, who will render 
to every man according to his works ;^ who also has thun- 
dered through Plis servants, saying, " Vengeance is mine, I 
will repay." '' Assist ye, therefore, one another in good faith, 
and by deed and with a hearty will ; nor let any one remove 
his hand from the help of a brother, since " by this," saith 
the Lord, " shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if 
ye have love one to another." ^'^ Whence, too. He speaks by 
the prophet, saying, " Behold how good and how pleasant it 
is for brethren to dwell together in unity !"^^ Li a spiritual 
dwelling, I interpret it, and in a concord which is in God, 

1 I^ratt. V. 10. 2 isa. li. 7. s pg. xliv. 21. 

* Prt. xciv. 11. •' Ps. xii. 2-4. « Prov. xii. 15. 

" Prov. xiv. 12. « Matt. xvi. 27. ^ Rom. xii. 19. 

'" John xiii. 135, ^' Ps. cxxxiii. 1, 


and in the rinity of the faith which distinguishes this pleasant 
dwelling according to truth, which indeed was more beau- 
teously illustrated in Aaron and the priests^ clothed with 
honour, as ointment upon the head, nurturing the highest 
understanding, and leading even to the end of wisdom. For 
in this dwelling the Lord has promised blessing and eternal 
life. Apprehending, therefore, the importance of this utter- 
ance of the prophet, we have spoken this present brotherly 
word for love's sake, and by no means seeking, or meaning to 
seek, our own things. For it is not good to repay detraction 
with detraction, or (according to the common proverb) to 
cast out a beam with a beam {excutere paZum j^alo). Be it 
far from us. Such manners are not ours. May the God- 
head indeed forbid it. By the just judgment of God, power 
is given sometimes to sinners to persecute His saints, in order 
that they who are aided and borne on by the Spirit of God 
may become more glorious through the discipline of sufferings. 
But to those very persons who persecute, and reproach, and 
injure them, there will doubtless be woe. Woe, woe to those 
who injure the servants of God; for injury done to them con- 
cerns Him whose service they discharge, and whose function 
they execute. But we pray that a door of enclosure be 
placed ujion their mouths, as we desire that no one perish or 
be defiled by their lips, and that they think or publish with 
their mouth no hurtful word. Whence also the Lord speaks 
by the prophet, " I said I will take heed to my ways, that I 
sin not with my tongue."^ May the Lord Almighty, and His 
only-begotten Son and our Saviour Jesus Christ, give you 
this incitement, that with all means in your power you aid all 
the brethren under whatsoever tribulations they labour, and 
esteem, as is meet, their sufferings your own. Afford them 
the utmost assistance by word and deed, that ye may be 
found His true disciples, who enjoined all to love the brethren 
as themselves. 

^ The MS. reads, " aud those wearing the priestly dignity." 
2 Ps. xxxix. 1. 



On the Ordination of Presbyters and Deacons. 

Ordinations of presbyters and Levites, moreover, solemnly 
perform on a suitable occasion, and in the presence of many 
witnesses ; and to this duty advance tried and learned men, 
that ye may be greatly gladdened by their fellowship and 
help. Place the confidence of your hearts without ceasing 
on the goodness of God, and declare these and the other 
divine words to succeeding generations : " For this is our 
God for ever and ever, and He will guide us to eternity." ^ 
Given on the 7th November, in the consulship of the most 
.illustrious Saturninus and Gallicanus." 

1 Ps. xlviii. 14. - Or, GaUus. 




EuSEBius states that Caius lived in the time of Zephyrinus.-^ 
He speaks of him as a member of the Catholic Church 
(i/cK\r]ai,aarLKo<; avqp), and as being most learned. And he 
mentions that a dialogne of his was extant in his time, in 
which he argued with Proclus, the leader of the Cataphrvgian 
heresy; and that Caius in this dialogue spoke of only thirteen 
epistles of the Apostle Paul, " not counting the Epistle to the 
Hebrews with the rest." ^ 

Eusebius mentions no other work of Caius. He makes 
extracts from a work against the heresy of Artemon in the 
fifth book of his Ecclesiastical History, but he states distinctly 
that the work was anonymous. He evidently did not know 
who was the author. TheodoreJ; and Nicephorus affirm that the 
work from which Eusebius made these extracts bore the title 
of The Little Labyrinth. Photius has the following notice 
of Caius : " Eead the work of Josephus on the universe, 
bearing in some manuscripts the inscription On the Cause of 
the Universe, and in others, On the Substance of the Universe. 
. . . But I found that this treatise is not the work of Josephus, 
but of one Gains a presbyter, who lived in Rome, who they 
say composed The Labyrinth also, and whose dialogue with. 
Proclus, the champion of the Montanistic hei'esy, is in circu- 
lation. . . . They say also that he composed another treatise 
specially directed against the heresy of Artemon."^ Photius 
here ascribes four works to Caius : 1. On the Universe ; 2. The 
1 Hist. Eccl. ii. 25, vi. 20. - Hist. Eccl. yi. 20. = Cod. 48. 



Lahyrinlh ; 3. The Dialogue between himself and Proclus ; 
4. The Treatise against the Heresy of Artemon. He does not 
say that he read any of them but the first. This treatise is 
now assigned to Hippolytus. The information of Photius in 
regard to the other three, derived as it is from the statements 
of others, cannot be trusted. 

The very important fragment, called Canon Ifiiratorius, 
was discovered by Muratori in the Ambrosian Library at 
Milan, and published by him in his Antiquitates Italicoe in 
1740. This manuscript belongs to the seventh or eighth 
century. Muratori ascribed it to Caius, Bunsen to Hege- 
sippus ; but there is no clue whatever to the authorship. 
From internal evidence the writer of the fragment is believed 
to belouo; to the latter half of the second centurv. The frag- 
ment has been much discussed. For a full account of it, see 
Westcott's General Survey of the History of the Canon of the 
New Testament, 2d ed. p. 184 ff., and Tregelles' Canon 



[Preserved in EuscLius' Ecclts. Hist. ii. 25.] 

ND I can show the trophies of the apostles.^ For 
if you clioose to go to the Vatican or to the 
Ostian Road,- you will find the trophies of those 
who founded this church. 

^ So Jerome, in the Epistle to Marcellus, says : " There, too, is a holy 
cluu-ch ; there are the trophies of the apostles and martyrs." 

^ The MSS. and the Chronicon of Georgius Syncellus read Vasican, 
Yjciaiy.Mov. The reference is to the Vatican as the traditional burial 
place of Peter, and to the Ostian Road as that of Paul. 



[In the same, iii. 28.] 

But Cerlnthus, too, tlirougli revelations written, as he 
would have us believe, by a great apostle, brings before us 
marvellous things, which he pretends were shown him by 
angels ; alleging that after the resurrection the kingdom of 
Christ is to be on earth, and that the flesh ^ dwelling in Jeru- 
salem is again to be subject to desires and pleasures. And 
being an enemy to the Scriptures of God, wishing to deceive 
men, he says that there is to be a space of a thousand years 
for marriage festivals. 


[In the same, iii. ol.] 

And after this there were four prophetesses, daughters of 
Philip, at Hierapolis in Asia. Their tomb is there, and that, 
too, of their father.' 


[In Eusebius' Ecd. Hist. v. 28.] 

For they say that all those of the first age, and the apostles 
themselves, both received and taught those things which these 
now maintain ; ^ and that the truth of gospel preaching was 
preserved until the times of Victor, who was the thirteenth 
bishop in E.ome from Peter, and that from his successor 
Zephyrinus the truth was falsified. And perhaps what they 

^ i.e. men. 

2 This extract is taken from the Dispntation of Caius, but the words 
are those of Prochis, as is shown by the citation in Eiisebius. 

" Artemon and his followers maintained that Christ was mere (\///Ac/>) 


allege might be credible, did not the holy Scriptures, in the 
first place, contradict them. And then, besides, there are 
writings of certain brethren older than the times of Victor, 
which they wrote against the heathen in defence of the truth, 
and against the heresies of their time : I mean Justin and 
Miltiades, and Tatian and Clement, and many others, in all 
which divinity is ascribed to Christ. For who is ignorant of 
the books of Irenssus and Melito, and the rest, which declare 
Christ to be God and man ? All the psalms, too, and hymns ^ 
of brethren, which have been written from the beginning by 
the faithful, celebrate Christ the Word of God, ascribing 
divinity to Him. Since the doctrine of the church, then, has 
been proclaimed so many years ago, how is it possible that 
men have preached, up to the time of Victor, in the manner 
asserted by these ? And how are they not ashamed to utter 
these calumnies against Victor, knowing well that Victor ex- 
communicated Theodotus the tanner, the leader and father of 
this God-denying apostasy, who first affirmed that Christ was 
a mere man ? For if, as they allege, Victor entertained the 
very opinions which their blasphemy teaches, how should he 
have cast off Theodotus, the author of this heresy ? 


[In Eusebius, as above] 

1 shall, at any rate, remind many of the brethren of an 
affair that took place in our own time, — an affair which, had 
it taken place in Sodom, might, I think, have been a warning 
even to them. There was a certain confessor, Natalius,^ who 

^ From this it appears that it was a very ancient custom in the church 
to compose hymns and psalms in honour of Christ. Pliny, in his letter 
to Trajan, also states that the Christians Avere accustomed to meet 
together and sing hymns to Christ. Hippolytus also may be understood 
to refer to these hymns and psalms towards the close of his oration on 
the end of the world, where he says : " Your mouth I made to give 
glory and praise, and to utter psalms and spiritual songs." A hymn of 
this kind in honour of Jesus Christ, composed by Clement of Alexandria, 
is extant at the end of his books entitled Pxdatjogi. 

2 This may, perhaps, be the Csecilius Natalis who appears in the 


lived not in distant times, but in our own day. He was 
deluded once by Asclepiodotus, and another Theodotus, a 
banker. And these were both disciples of Theodotus the 
tanner, the first who was cut off from communion on account 
of this sentiment, or rather senselessness, by Victor, as I said, 
the bishop of the time. Now Natalius was persuaded by 
them to let himself be chosen ^ bishop of this heresy, on the 
understanding that he should receive from them a salary of 
150 denarii a month. Connecting himself, therefore, with 
them, he was on many occasions admonished by the Lord 
in visions. For our merciful God and Lord Jesus Christ 
was not willing that a witness of His own sufferin£i;s should 
perish, being without the church. But as he gave little heed 
to the visions, being ensnared by the dignity of presiding 
among them, and by that sordid lust of gain which ruins very 
many, he was at last scourged by holy angels, and severely 
beaten through a whole night, so that he rose early in the 
morning, and threw himself, clothed with sackcloth and 
covered with ashes, before Zephyrinus the bishop, with great 
haste and many tears, rolling beneath the feet not only of 
the clergy, but even of the laity, and moving the pity of the 
compassionate church of the merciful Christ by his weeping. 
And after trying many a prayer, and showing the weals left 
by the blows which he had received, he was at length with 
difficulty admitted to communion. 


[In Eusebius, as above.] 

The sacred Scriptures they have boldly falsified, and the 
canons of the ancient faith they have rejected, and Christ 
they have ignored, not inquiring what the sacred Scriptures 
say, but laboriously seeking to discover what form of syllo- 

Ociavius of Minucius Felix, as maintaining the cause of paganism 
against Octavius Januarius, and becoming a convert to the truth 
through the discussion. Name, time, and profession at least suit. 

1 There is another reading — named (Khyid^vtui) instead of chosen or 
elected (^KXnpadTivxi). 


gism might be contrived to establish their impiety. And 
should any one lay before them a word of divine Scripture, 
they examine whether it will make a connected or disjoined 
form of syllogism ; ^ and leaving the holy Scriptures of God, 
they study geometry, as men who are of the earth, and speak 
of the earth, and are ignorant of Him who cometh from 
above. Euclid, indeed, is laboriously measured'^ by some of 
them, and Aristotle and Theophrastus are admired ; and 
Galen,'" forsooth, is perhaps even worshipped by some of 
them. But as to those men who abuse the arts of the unbe- 
lievers to establish their own heretical doctrine, and by the 
craft of the impious adulterate the simple faith of the divine 
Scriptures, what need is there to say that these are not near 
the faith? For this reason is it they have boldly laid their 
hands upon the divine Scriptures, alleging that they have 
corrected them. And that I do not state this against them 
falsely, any one who pleases may ascertain. For if any one 
should choose to collect and compare all their copies together, 
he would find many discrepancies among them. The copies 
of Asclepiades,'^ at any rate, will be found at variance with 
those of Theodotus. And many such copies are to be had, 
because their disciples were very zealous in inserting the 
corrections, as they call them, i.e. the corruptions made by 
each of them. And again, the copies of Ilermophilus do not 
agree with these ; and as for those of Apollonius,'' they are 
not consistent even with themselves. For one may compare 

^ The connected form here is the hypothetical, as e.g., " If it is day, it 
is light." The disjoined is the disjunctive, as e.g., " It is either day or 
night." The words admit another rendering, viz., "Whether it, when 
connected or disjoined, wiU make the form of a syllogism." 

- There is a play in the original on the word geometry. 

2 Galen composed treatises on the figures of syllogisms, and on philo- 
sophy in general. This is also a notable testimony, as proceeding from 
a very ancient author, almost contemporary with Galen himself. And 
from a great number of other writers, as well as this one, it is evident 
that Galen was ranked as the equal of Aristotle, Theophrastus, and even 

* In Nicephorus it is Asclepiodotus, which is also the reading of Kufinus. 

5 It appears from Theodoret {lixret. Fab. book ii. ch. v.), as well as from 
^'icephorus and Rufiuus, that we should read Apollonides for ApoUonius. 


those which were formerly prepared by them^ with those 
which have been afterwards corrupted with a special object, 
and many discrepancies will be found. And as to the great 
audacity implied in this offence, it is not likely that even they 
themselves can be ignorant of that. For either they do not 
believe that the divine Scriptures were dictated by the Holy 
Spirit, and are thus infidels ; or they think themselves wiser 
than the Holy Spirit, and what are they then but demoniacs? 
Nor can they deny that the crime is theirs, when the copies 
have been Avritten with their own hand ; nor" did they re- 
ceive such copies of the Scriptures from those by whom they 
were first instructed in the faith, and they cannot produce 
copies from which these were transcribed. And some of 
them did not even think it worth while to corrupt them ; but 
simply denying the law and the prophets for the sake of 
their lawless and impious doctrine, under pretext of grace, 
they sunk down to the lowest abyss of perdition. 


[In Muratori, V. C. Antiq. Itnl. Med. psv. vol. iii. col. S5-i.] 

1 those things at which he was present he placed 

thus.^ The third book of the Gospel, that according to 
Luke, the well-known physician Luke wrote in his own 
name* in order after the ascension of Christ, and when 

^ There is auother reading — hy him. 

~ This paragraph, down to the word " transcribed," is wanting in the 
Codex Regius. 

2 The text is, " quibus taiuen interfuit et ita posuit." "Westcott omits 
the"et." Bunsen proposes '■'■ipse nnn interfuit." The reference pro- 
bably is to the statement of Papias (Euseb. Histor. Eccles. iii. 39) as to 
Mark's Gospel being a narrative not of what he himself witnessed, but 
of what he heard from Peter. 

* The text gives "numine sue ex opinione concriset," for which we 
read "nomine sue ex ordine conscripsit " with AYestcott. 


Paul had associated liim with himself^ as one studious of 
rio-ht.^ Nor did he himself see the Lord in the flesh; and 
he, according as he was able to accomplish it, began ^ his 
narrative with the nativity of John. The fourth Gospel is 
that of John, one of the disciples. When his fellow-disciples 
and bishops entreated him, he said, " Fast ye now with me 
for the space of three daj^s, and let us I'ecount to each other 
whatever may be revealed to each of us." On the same 
night it was revealed to Andrew, one of the apostles, that 
John should narrate all things in his own name as they called 
them to mind (or as they revised them, recognoscentihus). 
And hence, although different points (prmcipia) are taught 
us in the several books of the Gospels, there is no difference 
as regards the faith of believers, inasmuch as in all of them 
all things are related under one imperial {principalis leading) 
spirit, which concern the [Lord's] nativity, His passion, His 
resurrection. His conversation with His disciples, and His 
twofold advent, — the first in the humiliation of rejection, 
which is now past, and the second in the glory of royal 
power, which is yet in the future. What marvel is it, then, 
that John brings forward these several things (singula) so 
constantly in his epistles also, saying in his own person, 
" What we have seen with our eyes, and heard with our ears, 
and our hands have handled, that have we written." * For 
thus he professes himself to be not only the eye-witness, but 
also the hearer; and besides that, the historian of all the 
wondrous facts concerning the Lord in their order. 

2. Moreover, the acts of all the apostles are comprised by 
Luke in one book, and addressed to the most excellent Theo- 
philus, because these different events took place when he Avas 
present himself ; and he shows this clearly (i.e. that the prin- 
ciple on which he wrote was to give only what fell under his 

^ Reading " secum " for " secundum." 

2 The text gives " quasi ut juris studiosum," for which "quasi et vir- 
tutis studiosum," = " as one devoted to virtue," has been proposed. 
Bunsen reads " itineris socium " = " as his companion in the way." 

^ " Incepit" for " incipet." 

* 1 John i. 1. 


own notice) by the omission ^ of the passion of Peter, and 
also of the journey of Paul, when he went from the city 
(Rome) to Spain. 

o. As to the epistles^ of Paul, again, to those who will 
understand the matter, they indicate of themselves what they 
are, and from what place or with what object they were 
directed. He wrote first of all, and at considerable length, to 
the Corinthians, to check the schism of heresy ; and then to 
the Galatians, to forbid circumcision; and then to the Romans 
on the rule of the [Old Testament] Scriptures, and also to 
show them that Christ is the first object (principium) in 
these ; — which it is needful for us to discuss severally,^ as 
the blessed Apostle Paul, following the rule of his predecessor 
John, writes to no more than seven churches by name, in this 
order : the first to the Corinthians, the second to the Ephe- 
slans, the third to the Philippians, the fourth to the Colos- 
sians, the fifth to the Galatians, the sixth to the Thessalonians, 
the seventh to the Romans. Moreover, though he writes 
twice to the Corinthians and Thessalonians for their correc- 
tion, it is yet shown (i.e. by this sevenfold writing) that there 
is one church spread abroad through the whole world. And 
John too, indeed, in the Apocalypse, although he writes only 
to seven churches, yet addresses all. He wrote, besides these, 
one to Philemon, and one to Titus, and two to Timothy, in 
simple personal affection and love indeed ; but yet these are 
hallowed in the esteem of the catholic church, [and] in the 
regulation of ecclesiastical discipline. There are also in cir- 
culation one to the Laodiceans, and another to the Alexan- 
drians, forged under the name of Paul, [and] addressed 
against the heresy of Marcion ; and there are also several 
others which cannot be received into the catholic church, 
for it is not suitable for gall to be mingled with honey. 

1 The text is, " semote passioncm Petri," etc., for wliicli Westcott reads 

"Reading " epistolse " and "directte" instead of "epistola" and 
" directe," and "volentibus" for " voluntatibus." 

^ The text is, " de quibus singulis uecesse est a nobis disputari cum," 
etc. Bunsen reads, "de quibus non necesse est a nobis disputari cur " 
= " on which we need not discuss the reason why." 



4. The Epistle of Jude, indeed (sane), and two belonging 
to the above-named John (or bearing the name of John), are 
reckoned among the catholic [epistles].^ And the [book of] 
Wisdom, written by the friends of Solomon in his honour, [is 
admitted]. We receive also the Apocalypse of John and 
[that of] Peter, though some amongst us- will not have this 
latter read in the church. The Pastor, moreover, did Hermas 
write very recently in our times in the city of Rome, while 
his brother bishop Pius sat in the chair of the church of Rome. 
And therefore it also ought to be read; but it cannot be 
made public^ in the church to the people, nor [placed] among 
the prophets, as their number is complete, nor among the 
apostles to the end of time. Of [the writings of] Arsinous, 
called also Valentinus, or of Miltiades, we receive nothing 
at all. Those too who wrote the new Booh of Psalms for 
Marcion, together with Basilides and the founder of the 
Asian Cataphrygians, [are rejected]. 

1 The text is "in catholica," wliich may be "in the catholic church." 
Bunsen, Westcott, etc., read "in catholicis." 

2 Reading " sed publicari " for " se pubhcare." 



The principal facts known to us in the life of Africanus are 
derived from himself and the Chronicon of Eusebius. He 
says of himself that he went to Alexandria on account of the 
fame of Heraclas. In the Chronicon, under the year 226, it 
is stated that " NicopoHs in Palestine, which formerly bore the 
name of Emmaus, was built, Africanus, the author of the 
Chronology, acting as ambassador on behalf of it, and having 
the charge of it." Dionysius Bar-Salibi speaks of Africanus 
as bishop of Emmaus. 

Eusebius describes Africanus as being the author of a 
work called Keajoi} Suidas says that this book detailed 
various kinds of cures, consisting of charms and written 
forms, and such like. Some have supposed that such a work 
is not likely to have been written by a Christian writer : 
they appeal also to the fact that no notice is taken of the 
Kea-TOL by Jerome in his notice of Africanus, nor by Rufinus 
in his translation of Eusebius. They therefore deem the 
clause in Eusebius an interpolation, and they suppose that 
two bore the name of Africanus, — one the author of the 
K6(TT0L, the other the Christian writer. Suidas identifies 
them, says that he was surnamed Sextus, and that he was a 
Libyan philosopher. 

The works ascribed to Africanus, beside the Cesti, are the 
following : 

1. Five Booh of Chronology. Photius^ says of this work, 
that it was concise, but omitted nothing of importance. It 
1 Hist. Ecd. vi. 31. 2 Cod. 34. 



began with the cosmogony of Moses, and went down to the 
advent of Christ. It summarized also the events from the 
time of Christ to the reign of the Emperor Macrinvis. 

2. A very famous letter to Aristides, in which he endea- 
voured to reconcile the apparent discrepancies in the genea- 
logies of Christ given by Matthew and Luke. 

3. A letter to Origen, in which he endeavoured to prove 
that the story of Susanna in Daniel was a forgery. A trans- 
lation of this letter will be given in the Works of Origen. 

4. The Acts of Symphorosa and Iter Seven Sons are attri- 
buted in the MSS. to Africanus ; but no ancient writer speaks 
of him as the author of this work. 


[This letter, as given by Eusebius, is aceplialous. A large portion of 
it is supplied by Cardinal Angelo ^Mai in the BibKotheca nova 
Patrum, vol. iv. pp. 231 and 273. We enclose in brackets the 
parts wanting in Gallandi, who copied Eusebius (^Hist. Eccl. i. 7).] 

IFKICANUS ON THE Genealogy in the Holt 
Gospels.^ — Some indeed incorrectly allege that 
this discrepant enumeration and mixing of the 
names both of priestly men, as they think, and 
royal, was made properly (ScKaio)^), in order that Christ 
might be shown rightfully to be both Priest and King ; as 
if any one disbelieved this, or had any other hope than this, 
that Christ is the High Priest of His Father, who presents 
our prayers to Him, and a supramundane King, who rules 
by the Spirit those whom He has delivered, a co-operator in 
the government of all things. And this is announced to us 
not by the catalogue of the tribes, nor by the mixing of the 
registered generations, but by the patriarchs aud prophets. 

^ On this celebrated letter of Africanus to Aristides, consult especially 
Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. i. 7) ; also Jerome, comm. on Matt. i. 16 ; Augus- 
tine, Retract, ii. 7 ; Photius, cod. xxxiv. p. 22 ; and in addition to these, 
Zacharias Clu-ysopol. in Bibl. P. P. Lvrjd. vol. xix. p. 751. 


Let us not therefore descend to such reh'gioiis trlflhig as to 
estabhsh the kingship and priesthood of Christ by the inter- 
changes of the names. For the priestly tribe of Levi, too, 
was alhed with the kingly tribe of Juda, through the circum- 
stance that Aaron married Elizabeth the sister of Naasson/ 
and that Eleazar again married the daughter of Phatiel,^ and 
begat children. The evangelists, therefore, would thus have 
spoken falsely, affirming what was not truth, but a fictitious 
commendation. And for this reason the one traced the 
pedigree of Jacob the father of Joseph from David through 
Solomon ; the other traced that of Heli also, though in a 
different way, the father of Joseph, from Nathan the son of 
David. And they ought not indeed to have been ignorant 
that both orders of the ancestors enumerated are the genera- 
tion of David, the royal tribe of Juda. For if Nathan was 
a prophet, so also was Solomon, and so too the father of both 
of them ; and there were prophets belonging to many of the 
tribes, but priests belonging to none of the tribes, save the 
Levites only. To no purpose, then, is this fabrication of 
theirs. Nor shall an assertion of this kind prevail in the 
church of Christ against the exact truth, so as that a lie 
should be contrived for the praise and glory of Christ. For 
who does not know that most holy word of the apostle also, 
Avho, when he was preaching and proclaiming the resurrection 
of our Saviour, and confidently affirming the truth, said with 
great fear, " If any say that Christ is not risen, and we assert 
and have believed this, and both hope for and preach that 
very thing, we are false witnesses of God, in alleging that He 
raised up Christ, whom He raised not up?"^ And if he who 
glorifies God the Father is thus afraid lest he should seem a 
false witness in narrating a marvellous fact, how should not 
he be justly afraid, who tries to establish the truth by a false 
statement, preparing an untrue opinion ? For if the genera- 
tions are different, and trace down no genuine seed to Joseph, 
and if all has been stated only with the view of establishing 
the position of Him who was to be born — to confirm the truth, 
namely, that He who was to be would be king and pries^ 
1 Ex. vi. 23. 2 Es. vi. 25. ^ i Cor. xv. 12, etc. 


there being at the same time no proof given, but the dignity 
of the words being brought down to a feeble hymn, — it is 
evident that no praise accrues to God from that, since it is a 
falsehood, but rather judgment returns on him who asserts it, 
because he vaunts an unreality as though it w^ere reality. 
Therefore, that we may expose the ignorance also of him 
who speaks thus, and prevent any one from stumbling at this 
folly, I shall set forth the true history of these matters.] 


For^ whereas in Israel the names of their generations 
were enumerated either according to nature or according to 
law, — according to nature, indeed, by the succession of legiti- 
mate offspring, and according to law whenever another raised 
up children to the name of a brother dying childless ; for 
because no clear hope of resurrection was yet given them, 
they had a representation of the future promise in a kind of 
mortal resurrection, with the view of perpetuating the name 
of one deceased; — whereas, then, of those entered in this 
genealogy, some succeeded by legitimate descent as son to 
father, while others begotten in one family were introduced 
to another in name, mention is therefore made of both — of 
those who were progenitors in fact, and of those who were so 
only in name. Thus neither of the evangelists is in error, as 
the one reckons by nature and the other by law. For the 
several generations, viz. those descending from Solomon and 
those from Nathan, were so intermingled^ by the raising up 
of children to the childless,^ and by second marriages, and 
the raising up of seed, that the same persons are quite justly 
reckoned to belong at one time to the one, and at another to 
the other, i.e. to their reputed or to their actual fathers. And 

^ Here wliat is given in Eusebius begins. 

- Eeading avvi'iriTr'Ka.Kvi. Migne would make it equivalent to " supcr- 
implexum est." Eufinus renders it, " Reconjiuactum namque est sibi 
invicem genus, et illud per Salomoneni et illud quod per Nathan 
dedncitur," etc. 

"' d'jccaTocdiatu driicuuv. Rufinus and Dauiascenus omit these words in 
their versions of the passage. 


hence it is that both these accounts are true, and come down 
to Joseph, with considerable intricacy indeed, but yet quite 


But in order that what I have said may be made evident, 
I shall explain the interchange^ of the generations. If we 
reckon the generations from David through Solomon, Matthan 
is found to be the third from the end, who begat Jacob the 
father of Joseph. But if, with Luke, we reckon them from 
Nathan the son of David, in like manner the third from the 
end is Melchi, whose son was Heli the father of Joseph. 
For Joseph was the son of Heli, the son of Melchi.' As 
Joseph, therefore, is the object proposed to us, we have to 
show how it is that each is represented as his father, both 
Jacob as descending from Solomon, and Heli as descending 
from Nathan : first, how these two, Jacob and Heli, were 
brothers ; and then also how the fathers of these, Matthan 
and Melchi, being of different families, are shown to be the 
grandfathers of Joseph. Well, then, Matthan and Melchi, 
having taken the same woman to wife in succession, begat 
children who were uterine brothers, as the law did not prevent 
a widow,^ whether such by divorce or by the death of her 
husband, from marrying another. By Estha, then — for such 
is her name accordmg to tradition — Matthan first, the de- 
scendant of Solomon, begets Jacob ; and on Matthan's death, 
Melchi, who traces his descent back to Nathan, being of the 
same tribe but of another family, having married her, as has 
been already said, had a son Heli. Thus, then, we shall find 
Jacob and Heli uterine brothers, though of different families. 
And of these, the one Jacob having taken the wife of his 

^ The reading of the Codex Regius is dx.o'hovdia.v, i.e. succession ; the 
other leading mss. give iTrotAXctyj^y, i.e. interchange or confusion. 

^ But in our text in Luke iii. 23, 24, and so, too, in the Vulgate, 
Matthat and Levi are mserted between Heli and Melchi. It may be that 
these two names were not found in the copy used by Africanus. 

^ Here Africanus applies the term " widow " {x'^oivovaa.v) to one 
divorced as well as to one bereaved. 


brother Heli, who died childless, begat by her the third, 
Joseph — his son by nature and by account {kuto, \6yov). 
Whence also it is written, " And Jacob begat Joseph." But 
according to law he was the son of Heli, for Jacob his brother 
raised up seed to him. Wherefore also the genealogy deduced 
through him will not be made void, which the Evangelist 
Matthew in his enumeration gives thus : " And Jacob begat 
Joseph." But Luke, on the other hand, says, " Who was 
the son, as was supposed^ (for this, too, he adds), of Joseph, 
the son of Heli, the son of Melchi." For it was not possible 
more distinctly to state the generation according to law ; and 
thus in this mode of generation he has entirely omitted the 
word " begat" to the very end, carrying back the genealogy 
by way of conclusion to Adam and to God.^' 


Nor indeed is this incapable of proof, neither is it a rasli 
conjecture. For the kinsmen of the Saviour after the flesh, 
whether to magnify their own origin or simply to state the fact, 
but at all events speaking truth, have also handed down the 
following account : Some Idumean robbers attacking Ascalon, 
a city of Palestine, besides other spoils which they took from a 
temple of Apollo, which was built near the walls, carried off 
captive one Antipater, son of a certain Herod, a servant of 
the temple. And as the priest^ was not able to pay the 
ransom for his son, Antipater Avas brought up in the customs 

^ Two things may be remarked here : first, that Africamis refers ths 
phrase " as was supposed" not only to the words " son of Joseph," but 
also to those that follow, " the son of Heli ; " so that Christ would be the 
son of Joseph by legal adoption, just in the same way as Joseph was the 
son of Heli, which would lead to the absurd and impious conclusion that 
Christ was the son of ]\iary and a brother of Joseph married by her after 
the death of the latter. And second, that in the genealogy here assigned 
to Luke, Melchi holds the iliird place ; whence it would seem either 
that Africanus's memory had failed him, or that in his copy of the 
Gospel Melchi stood in place of Matthat, as Bede conjectures (Migne). 

^ Other MSS. read, " Adam the son of God." 

^ The word " priest" is used here perhaps improi:)er]y for " servant of 
the temple," i.e. lepsv; for ispolov'hos. 


of the Idimieans, and afterwards enjoyed the friendship of 
Hyrcanus, the high priest of Judea. And being sent on an 
embassy to Pompey on behalf of Hyrcanus, and having 
restored to him the kingdom which was being w^asted by 
Aristobulus his brother, he was so fortunate as to obtain the 
title of procurator of Palestine.^ And when Antipater was 
treacherously slain through envy of his great good fortune, 
his son Herod succeeded him, who was afterwards appointed 
king of Judea under Antony and Augustus by a decree of 
the senate. His sons were Herod and the other tetrarchs. 
These accounts are given also in the histories of the Greeks." 


But as up to that time the genealogies of tlie Hebrews had 
been registered in the public archives, and tliose, too, which 
were traced back to the proselytes'^ — as, for example, to Achior 
the Ammanite, and Ruth the Moabitess, and those who left 
Egypt along with the Israelites, and intermarried with them — 
Herod, knowing that the lineage of the Israelites contributed 
nothing to him, and goaded by the consciousness of his 
ignoble birth, burned the registers of their families. This 
he did, thinking that he would appear to be of noble birth, if 
no one else could trace back his descent by the public register 
to the patriarchs or proselytes, and to that mixed race called 
georce.^ A few, however, of the studious, having private 

^ So Josephus styles him "procurator of Judea, and viceroy" (scr/- 
y.s'AYiT'/}? TYii lovociix;, and iTrirpoTrof). 

^ This whole story about Antipater is fictitious. Antipater's father 
was not Herod, a servant in the temple of Apollo, but Antipater an 
Idumean, as we leai-n from Josephus (xiv. 2). This Antipater was made 
prefect of Idumea by Alexander king of the Jews, and laid the founda- 
tion of the power to which his descendants rose. He acquired great 
wealth, and was on terms of friendship with Ascalou, Gaza, and the 

^ Several Mss. read clpxi7rpoa-/i7^vrav for cl^pi Tpoa-zi'hvTay, whence some 
conjecture that the correct reading should be oixpi toju dpxi'7rpo(!-/i'KvTCJv, 
i.e. back to the "cliief proselytes," — these being, as it were, patriarchs 
among the proselytes, like Achior, and those who joined the Israelites 
on their flight from Egypt. 

■* This word occurs in the Septuagint version of Ex. xii. 19, and 


records of their own, either by remembering the names or by 
getting at them in some other way from the archives, pride 
themselves in preserving the memory of their noble descent ; 
and among these happen to be those already mentioned, 
called desposyni^ on account of their connection with the 
family of the Saviour. And these coming from Nazara and 
Cochaba, Judean villages, to other parts of the country, set 
forth the above-named genealogy^ as accurately as possible 
from the Book of Days.'^ Whether, then, the case stand 
thus or not, no one could discover a more obvious expla- 
nation, according to my own opinion and that of any sound 
judge. And let this suffice us for, the matter, although it is 
not supported by testimony, because we have nothing more 
satisfactory or true to allege upon it. The Gospel, however, 
in any case states the truth. 

refers to the sUxmgers wlio left Egypt along with the Israelites. For 
Israel was accompanied by a mixed body, consisting on the one hand of 
native Egyptians, who are named avrox^ovig in that passage of Exodus, 
and by the resident aliens, who are called ysiupai. Justin Martyr has 
the form ytiipav in Dialogue xo'ith TrypJio, ch. cxxii. The root of the 
term is evidently the Hebrew ij, "stranger." 

1 The word hsTroavvoi was employed to indicate the Lord's relatives, 
as being His according to the flesh. The term means literally, " those 
who belong to a master," and thence it was used also to signify " one's 

^ "Trpoitpm^iVAv. Nicephorus reads Trpozuf-cir/iv. 

^ ix. n TJj? /3//3Xot< rZ)v '/ly^ipuu. By this "Book of Days" Africanus 
understands those "day-books" which he has named, a little before this, 
ioio-iKci; d'^o'/pBi(pci^. For among the Jews, most persons setting a 
high value on their lineage were in the habit of keeping by them private 
records of their descent copied from the public archives, as we see it 
done also by nobles among ourselves. Besides, by the insertion of the 
particle ts, which is found in all our codices, and also in Nicephorus, it 
appears that something is wanting in this passage. Wherefore it seems 
necessary to supply these words, x,tx.l dvo /xv/i^u-zig eg oauv sS,i>ivovvro, 
" and from memory," etc. Thus at least Rufinus seems to have read 
the passage, for he renders it : Ordinem supradictse generationis partim 
memoriter, partim etiam ex dierum libris, in quantum erat possibile, 
perdocebant (Migne). 



Mattlian, descended from Solomon, begat Jacob. Mattlian 
dying, Melchi, descended from Nathan, begat Heli by the 
same wife. Therefore Heli and Jacob are nterine brothers. 
Heli dying childless, Jacob raised up seed to him and begat 
Joseph, his own son by nature, but the son of Heli by law. 
Thus Joseph was the son of both. 



[Iq Georgius Syncellus, Cliron, p. 17, ed. Paris, 14 Yenet.] 

On the ]\Iythical Chronology of the Egyptians and Chaldeans. 

The Egyptians, indeed, with their boastful notions of their 
own antiquity, have put forth a sort of account of it by the 
hand of their astrologers in cycles and myriads of years ; 
which some of those who have had the repute of studying 
such subjects profoundly have in a summary way called 
lunar years ; and inclining no less than others to the mythi- 
cal, [they think they] fall in with the eight or nine thousands 
of years which the Egyptian priests in Plato falsely reckon 
up to Solon. ^ 

(^And after some other matter :) 

For why should I speak of the three myriad years of the 
Phoenicians, or of the follies of the Chaldeans, their forty- 
eight myriads ? For the Jews, deriving their origin from 
them as descendants of Abraham, having been taught a 
modest mind, and one such as becomes men, together with 
the truth by the spirit of ]\Ioses, have handed down to us, by 

^ The test is : . . . cvccTri-^TTOvat mlg oktu x.oi.1 kvjicc. x^Xixan/ sroju, «V 
AiyvTTrtav oi wupoc. TLT^c/.Tavt ispilg d; '^oKava. KCiTOipiS['jTi; o-j:i d>.Yi- 


tlieir extant Hebrew histories, the number of 5500 years as 
the period up to the advent of the Word of salvation, that 
was announced to the world in the time of the sway of the 


[In the same, p. 19, al. 15.] 

When men multiphed on the eartli, the angels of heaven 
came together with the daughters of men. In some copies I 
found " the sous of God." What is meant by the Spirit, in 
my opinion, is that the descendants of Seth are called the sons 
of God on account of the righteous men and patriarchs who 
have sprung from him, even down to the Saviour Himself ; 
but that the descendants of Cain are named the seed of men, 
as having nothing divine in them, on account of the wicked- 
ness of their race and the inequality of their nature, being 
a mixed people, and having stirred the indignation of God.^ 
But if it is thought that these refer to angels, we must take 
them to be those who deal with magic and jugglery, who 
tauo-ht the women the motions of the stars and the knowledtre 
of things celestial, by whose power they conceived the giants 
as their children, by whom wickedness came to its height on 
the earth, until God decreed that the whole race of the living 
should perish in their impiety by the deluge. 


[Ill the same, p. 81, al. C5.] 

Adam, when 230 years old, begets Seth ; and after living 
other 700 years he died, that is, a second death. 

Seth, when 205 years old, begat Enos ; from Adam there- 
fore to the birth of Enos there are 435 years in all. 

Enos, when 190 years old, begets Cainan. 

Cainan again, when 170 years old, begts INIalaleel ; 

And Malaleel, when 165 years old, begets Jared; 

^ The text here is manifestly corrupt : iT7iu.r/,6ivruv al-c^v, rv,v 


And Jared, when 162 years old, begets Enoch ; 

And Enoch, when 165 years old, begets Mathusala ; and 
having pleased God, after a life of other 200 years, he was 
not found. 

Mathusala, when 187 years old, begat Lamech. 

Lamech, when 188 years old, begets Noe. 


[lu tlie same, p. 21, al. 17.] 
On the Deluge. 

God decreed to destroy the whole race of the living by a 
flood, having threatened that men should not survive beyond 
120 years. Nor let it be deemed a matter of difficulty, because 
some lived afterwards a longer period than that. For the 
space of time meant was 100 years up to the flood in the case 
of the sinners of that time ; for they were 20 years old. God 
instructed Noe, who pleased him on account of his righteous- 
ness, to prepare an ark ; and when it was finished, there 
entered it Noe himself and his sons, his wife and his daugh- 
ters-in-law, and firstlings of every living creature, with a 
view to the duration of the race. And Noe was 600 years 
old when the flood came on. And when the water abated, 
the ark settled on the mountains of Ararat, which we know 
to be in Parthia;^ but some say that they are at Cela3nge"" 
of Phrygia, and I have seen both places. And the flood 
prevailed for a year, and then the earth became dry. And 
they came out of the ark in pairs, as may be found, and not 
in the manner in which they had entered, viz. distinguished 
according to their species, and were blessed by God. And 
each of these things indicates something useful to us. 

^ That is, in Armenia. 

^ For there -was a hill Ararat in Phrygia, from which the Marsyas 
issued, and the ark was declared to have rested there by the Sibylline 


[In tlie same, p. 83, al. 67.] 

Noe was 600 years old when the flood came on. From 
Adam, therefore, to Noe and the flood, are 2262 years. 


[In the same, p. 86, al. 68.] 

And after the flood, Sem begat Arphaxad. 

Arphaxad, when 135 years old, begets Sala in the year 

Sala, when 130 years old, begets Heber in the year 2527. 

Heber, when 134 years old, begets Phalec in the year 
2661, so called because the earth was divided in his days. 

Phalec, when 130 years old, begat Eagan, and after living 
other 209 years died. 


[In the same, p. 93, al. 74.] 

In the year of the world 3277, Abraham entered the pro- 
mised land of Canaan. 


[In the same, p. 99, al. 79.] 
Of Abraham, 
From this rises the appellation of the Hehreivs. For the 
word Hebrews is interpreted to mean tliose ivho migrate across, 
viz. who crossed the Euphrates with Abraham ; and it is 
not derived, as some think, from the fore-mentioned Heber. 
From the flood and Noe, therefore, to Abraham's entrance 
into the promised land, there are in all 1015 years ; and from 
Adam, in 20 generations, 3277 years. 



[In the same, p. 100, al. 80.] 
Of Abraham and Lot. 

When a famine pressed the land of Canaan, Abraham 
came down to Egypt ; and fearing lest he should be put out 
of the way on account of the beauty of his wife, he pretended 
that he was her brother. But Pharaoh took her to liimself 
Avhen she was commended to him ; for this is the name the 
Egyptians give their kings. And he was punished by God ; 
and Abraham, along with all pertaining to him, was dis- 
missed enriched. In Canaan, Abraham's shepherds and 
Lot's contended with each other ; and Avith mutual consent 
they separated. Lot choosing to dwell in Sodom on account 
of the fertility and beauty of the land, which had five cities, 
Sodom, Gomorrah, Adama, Seboim, Segor, and as many 
kings. On these their neighbours the four Syrian kings 
made war, whose leader was Chodollogomor king of iElam. 
And they met by the Salt Sea, which is now called the Dead 
Sea. In it I have seen very many wonderful things. For 
that water sustains no living thing, and dead bodies are 
carried beneath its depths, while the living do not readily 
even dip under it. Lighted torches are borne upon it, but 
when extinguished they sink. And there are the springs of 
bitumen ; and it yields alum and salt a little different from 
the common kinds, for they are pungent and transparent. 
And wherever fruit is found about it, it is found full of 
a thick, foul smoke. And the water acts as a cure to those 
who use it, and it is drained in a manner contrary to any 
other water.^ And if it had not the river Jordan feeding 
it like a shell,^ and to a great extent withstanding its 
tendency, it would have failed more rapidly than appears. 
There is also by it a great quantity of the balsam plant ; but 
it is supposed to have been destroyed by God on account of 
the impiety of the neighbouring people. 

^ /.\'- rrr\n(T]'inrfM 



[In the same, p. 107, al. 86.] 
Of the Patriarch Jacob. 

1. The shepherd's tent belonging to Jacob, which was 
preserved at Edessa to the time of Antonine Emperor of 
the Romans, was destroyed by a thunderbolt.^ 

2. Jacob, being displeased at what had been done by 
Symeon and Levi at Shecera against the people of the 
country, on account of the violation of their sister, buried at 
Shecem the gods which he had with him near a rock under 
the wonderful terebinth,^ which up to this day is reverenced 
by the neighbouring people in honour of the patriarchs, and 
removed thence to Bethel. By the trunk of this terebinth 
there was an altar on which the inhabitants of the country 
offered ectencB " in their general assemblies ; and though it 
seemed to be burned, it was not consumed. Near it is the 
tomb of Abraham and Isaac. And some say that the staff 
of one of the angels who were entertained by Abraham was 
planted there. 


[In the same, p. 106, al. 85.] 

From Adam, therefore, to the death of Joseph, according 
to this book, are 23 generations, and 3563 years. 

1 Hehogabahis is probably intended, in whose time Africanus flourished. 
At least so thinks Syncellus. 

^ On this terebinth, see Scaliger {ad Grxca Euseh. p. 414) ; Francis- 
ens Quaresimus, in Elucid. terra} sanctse ; Eugenius Eogerius, etc. ; and 
also Valesius, ad Euseb. De Vit. Constant, iii. 53, notes 3 and 5. 

^ Scaliger acknowledges himself ignorant of this word sktivx;. In 
the Eastern Church it is used to denote protracted prayers (preces pro- 
tensiores) offered by the deacon on behalf of all classes of men, and the 
various necessities of hmnan life. See Suicer, suh voce. Allatins thinks 
the text corrupt, and would read, s^' ov t» rs 67^o>cot,vra!/,oirx kxI rx; 
i>cxroii(ix; u,vi(pipov = on which they offered both holocausts and heca- 



[In the same, p. 148, al. 118, from tlie Third Book of the Chron. 
of Africamis.] 

From this record {crvvTdy/jbaTo<;), therefore, we affirm that 
Ogygus/ from whom the first flood [in Attica] derived its 
name/ and who was saved when many perished, lived at the 
time of the exodus of the people from Egypt along with 
Moses.'^ {After a break) : And after Ogygus, on account of 
the vast destruction caused by the flood, the present land 
of Attica remained without a king till the time of Cecrops, 
189 years.* Philochorus, however, affirms that Ogygus, 
Actseus, or whatever other fictitious name is adduced, never 
existed. (After another hreah) : From Ogygus to Cyrus, as 
from Moses to his time, are 1235 years. 


[From the same Third Book. In Euseb. Prxpar. x. 40.] 

1. Up to the time of the Olympiads there is no certain 
history among the Greeks, all things before that date being 
confused, and in no way consistent with each other. But 
these [Olympiads] were thoroughly investigated (fjKpi/Swvro) 
by many, as the Greeks made up the records of their history 
not according to long spaces, but in periods of four years. 
For which reason I shall select the most remarkable of the 
mythical narratives before the time of the first Olympiad, 
and rapidly run over them. But those after that period, at 
least those that are notable, I shall take together, Hebrew 

1 Others write Ogyges. Josephus (in Ajnonem), Euseb. (de Priepar.), 
Tatian {Orat. adv. gent.), Clemens (Sti-om.), and others, -write Ogygus. 

- The text is, oV rou irponw y^tx.ra.x.'kvay^ov ykyoviv iTiuvvftog. The word 
I'TTc.iuvf.t.og is susceptible of two meanings, either "taking the name from" 
or " giving the name to." ' riyvyict xat-yA was a proverbial expression 
for primeval ills. 

^ The text is here, y.cAra, t%v M'yvT^rou rov 'haotJ y^ira. Mavaia; 'i^ohav 
yiviadcti, for which we may read kutx. r'^v l| A/yii^rroi/, etc. 

*"D,yvyoi/ ^AKraJov »j t« "K'Kctaaoy.ina. rcou ovoyaruv. Compare xiii. 6, 
where we have to» yoip y,na." Vlyvyov ^KTcrulov, etc. 



events in connection with Greek, according to their dates, 
examining carefully the affairs of the Hebrews, and touching 
more cursorily on those of the Greeks ; and my plan will be 
as follows : Taking up some single event in Hebrew history 
synchronous with another in Greek history, and keeping by 
it as the main subject, subtracting or adding as may seem 
needful in the narrative, I shall note what Greek or Persian 
of note, or remarkable personage of any other nationality, 
flourished at the date of that event in Hebrew history ; and 
thus I may perhaps attain tlje object which I propose to 

2. The most famous exile that befell the Hebrews, then — 
to wit, when they were led captive by Nabuchodonosor king 
of Babylon — lasted 70 years, as Jeremias had prophesied. 
Berosus the Babylonian, moreover, makes mention of Nabu- 
chodonosor. And after the 70 years of captivity, Cyrus 
became kins; of the Persians at the time of the 55th Olvm- 
piad, as may be ascertained from the BihliotheccB of Diodorus 
and the histories of Thallus and Castor, and also from 
Polybius and Phlegon, and others besides these, who have 
made the Olympiads a subject of study. For the date is a 
matter of agreement among them all. And Cyrus then, in 
the first year of his reign, which was the first j-ear of the 
55th Olympiad, effected the first partial restoration of the 
people by the hand of Zorobabel, with whom also was Jesus 
the son of Josedec, since the period of 70 years was now 
fulfilled, as is narrated in Esdra the Hebrew historian. The 
narratives of the beginning of the sovereignty of Cyrus 
and the end of the captivity accordingly coincide. And thus, 
according to the reckoning of the Olympiads, there will be 
found a like harmony of events even to our time. And by 
following this, we shall also make the other narratives fit in 
with each other in the same manner. 

3. But if the Attic time-reckoning is taken as the stan- 
dard for affairs prior to these, then from Ogygus, who was 
believed by them to be an autochthon, in whose time also the 
first great flood took place in Attica, while Phoroneus reigned 
over the Argives, as Acusilaus relates, up to the date of the 


first Olympiad, from which period the Greeks thought they 
could fix dates accurately, there are altogether 1020 years ; 
which number both coincides with the above-mentioned, and 
will be established by what follows. For these things are 
also recorded by the Athenian ^ historians Plellanicus and 
Philochorus, who record Attic affairs; and by Castor and 
Thallus, who record Syrian affairs ; and by Diodorus, who 
writes a universal history in his Bibliotheca' ; and by Alexan- 
der Polyliistor, and by some of our own time, yet more care- 
fully, and" by all the Attic writers. Whatever narrative of 
note, therefore, meets us in these 1020 years, shall be given 
in its proper place. 

4. In accordance with this writing, therefore, we affirm 
that Ogygus, who gave his name to the first flood, and was 
saved when many perished, lived at the time of the exodus of 
the people from Egypt along with Moses.^ And this we 
make out in the following manner. From Ogygus up to the 
first Olympiad already mentioned, it will be shown that there 
are 1020 years; and from the first Olympiad to the first year 
of the 55th, that is the first year of King Cyrus, which was 
also the end of the captivity, are 217 years. From Ogygus, 
therefore, to Cyrus are 1237. And if one carries the calcu- 
lation backwards from the end of the captivity, there are 1237 
years. Thus, by analysis, the same period, is found to the 
first year of the exodus of Israel under Moses from Egypt, 
as from the 55th Olympiad to Ogygus, who founded Eleusis. 
And from this point we get a more notable beginning for 
Attic chronography. 

5. So much, then, for the period prior to Ogygus. And 
at his time Moses left Egypt. And we demonstrate in the 
following manner how reliable is the statement that this 
happened at that date. From the exodus of Moses up to 

^ There is a diiSculty in the text ; Viger omits " Athenian." 

- The Latin translator expunges the "and" (/««/), and makes it = 

more careful tlian all the Attic writers. 

2 The original here, as in the same passage above, is corrupt. It gives 

x«T56 rriu AiyvTv-ov, •which Migne would either omit entirely or replace 

by «tt' AiyiiTiTTOV. 


Cyrus, who reigned after the captivity, are 1237 years. For 
the remaining years of Moses are 40. The years of Jesus, 
who led the people after him, are 25 ; those of the elders, 
who were judges after Jesus, are 30 ; those of the judges, 
whose history is given in the book of Judges, are 490 ; those 
of the priests Eli and Samuel are 90 ; those of the successive 
kings of the Hebi'ews are 490. (Then come the 70 years of 
the captivity^), the last year of which was the first year of 
the reign of Cyrus, as we have already said. 

6. And from Moses, then, to the first Olympiad there are 
1020 years, as to the first year of the 55th Olympiad from 
the same are 1237, in which enumeration the reckoning of 
the Greeks coincides with us. And after Ogygus, by reason 
of the vast destruction caused by the flood, the present land of 
Attica remained without a king up to Cecrops, a period of 189 
years. For Philochorus asserts that the Actgeus who is said 
to have succeeded Ogygus, or whatever other fictitious names 
are adduced, never existed. And again : From Ogygus, 
therefore, to Cyrus, says lie, the same period is reckoned as 
from Moses to the same date, viz. 1237 years ; and some of 
the Greeks also record that Moses lived at that same time. 
Polemo, for instance, in the first book of his Greek History, 
says : In the time of Apis, son of Phoroneus, a division of 
the army of the Egyptians left Egypt, and settled in the 
Palestine called Syrian, not far from Arabia : these are evi- 
dently those who were with Moses. And Apion the son of 
Poseidonius, the most laborious of grammarians, in his book 
Against the Jeivs, and in the fourth book of his History, says 
that in the time of Inachus king of Argos, when Amosis 
reigned over Egypt, the Jews revolted under the leadership 
of Moses. And Herodotus also makes mention of this revolt, 
and of Amosis, in his second book, and in a certain way also 
of the Jews themselves, reckoning them among the circum- 
cised, and calling them the Assyrians of Palestine, perhaps 
through Abraham. And Ptolemy the Mendesian, who nar- 
rates the history of the Egyptians from the earliest times, gives 

1 The -words in parentliesis are inserted according to Viger's proposal, 
as there is a manifest omission in the text. 


the same account of all these things ; so that among them in 
general there is no difference worth notice in the chronology. 
7. It should be observed, further, that 'all the legendary 
accounts which are deemed specially remarkable by the Greeks 
by reason of their antiquity, are found to belong to a period 
posterior to Moses ; such as their floods and conflagrations, 
Prometheus, lo, Europa, the Sparti, the abduction of Proser- 
pine, their mysteries, their legislations, the deeds of Dionysus, 
Perseus, the Argonauts, the Centaurs, the Minotaur, the 
affairs of Troy, the labours of Hercules, the return of the 
Heraclidre, the Ionian migration and the Olympiads. And 
it seemed good to me to give an account especially of the 
before-noted period of the Attic sovereignty, as I intend to 
narrate the history of the Greeks side by side with that of 
the Hebrews. For any one will be able, if he only start 
from my position, to make out the reckoning equally well 
with me. Now, in the first year of that period of 1020 years, 
stretching from Moses and Ogygus to the first Olympiad, 
the passover and the exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt 
took place, and also in Attica the flood of Ogygus. And 
that is according to reason. For when the Egyptians were 
being smitten in the anger of God with hail and storms, it 
was only to be expected that certain parts of the earth should 
suffer with them ; and, in especial, it was but to be expected 
that the Athenians should participate in such calamity with 
the Egyptians, since they were supposed to be a colony from 
them, as Theopompus alleges in his Tricarenus, and others 
besides him. The intervening period has been passed by, as 
no remarkable event is recorded during it among the Greeks. 
But after 94 years Prometheus arose, according to some, who 
was fabulously reported to have formed men ; for being a 
wise man, he transformed them from the state of extreme 
rudeness to culture. 


[From the same Third Book. In the Chron. Paschal, p. 104, ed. 
Paris, 84 Venet.] 

-^schylus, the son of Agamestor, ruled the Athenians 


twenty-three years, in whose thne Joatham reigned in 

And our canon brings Joatham kino; of Juda within the 
first Olympiad. 


[From the same, Book in., and from Book iv. In Svncellus, p. 197, 

al. 158.] 

And Africaniis, in the third book of his History, lorites : 
Now the first Olympiad recorded — which, however, was really 
the fourteenth — was the period when Coroebus was victor;^ 
at that time Ahaz was in the first year of his reign in Jeru- 
salem. Then in the fourth hook he says: It is therefore with 
the first year of the reign of Ahaz that we have shown the 
first Olympiad to fall in. 


[From Book v. In Eusebius, Demonst. Ecancj. Book viir. 
ch. ii. p. 389, etc.^] 

On the Seventy Weeks of DanieL 

1. This passage, therefore, as it stands thus, touches on 
many marvellous things. At present, however, I shall speak 
only of those things in it which bear upon chronology, and 
matters connected therewith. That the passage speaks then 
of the advent of Christ, who Avas to manifest Himself after 
seventy weeks, is evident. For in the Saviour's time, or 
from Him, are transgressions abrogated, and sins brought 
to an end. And through remission, moreover, are iniquities, 
along with offences, blotted out by expiation ; and an ever- 
lasting righteousness is preached, different from that which is 
by the law, and visions and prophecies [are] until John, and 
the Most Holy is anointed. For before the advent of the 

^ The text is, dvoiypcccpriuiiti H '^rpurviv tviv r£(j(Tcips(7KxiosKii.Tyiy, etc. 

- The Latin version of this section is by Bernardinus Donatiis of 
Verona. There is also a version by Jerome given in his commentary on 
Dan. ix. 24. 


Saviour these things were not yet, and were therefore only 
looked for. And the beginning of the numbers, that is, of 
the seventy weeks, which make up 490 years, the angel in- 
structs us to take from the going forth of the commandment 
to answer and to buikl Jerusalem. And this happened in 
the twentieth year of the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia. 
For Nehemiah his cup-bearer besought him, and received the 
answer that Jerusalem should be built. And the word went. 
forth commanding these things ; for up to that time the city 
was desolate. For when Cj-rus, after the seventy years' 
captivity, gave free permission to all to return who desired it, 
some of them under the leadership of Jesus the high priest 
and Zorobabel, and others after these under the leadership 
of Esdra, returned, but were prevented at first from build- 
ing the temple, and from surrounding the city with a wall, 
on the plea that that had not been commanded. 

2. It remained in this position, accordingly, until Nehemiah 
and the reign of Artaxerxes, and the 115th year of the sove- 
reignty of the Persians. And from the capture of Jerusalem 
that makes 185 years. And at that time King Artaxerxes 
gave order that the city should be built ; and Nehemiah 
being despatched, superintended the work, and the street and 
the surrounding wall were built, as had been prophesied. 
And reckoning from that point, we make up seventy weeks 
to the time of Christ. For if we begin to reckon from any 
other point, and not from this, the periods will not correspond, 
and very many odd results Avill meet us. For if we begin 
the calculation of the seventy weeks from Cyrus and the first 
restoration, there will be upwards of one hundred years too 
many, and there will be a larger number if we begin from the 
day on which the angel gave the prophecy to Daniel, and a 
much larger number still if we begin from the commence- 
ment of the captivity. For we find the sovereignty of the 
Persians comprising a period of 230 years, and that of the 
Macedonians extending over 370 years, and from that to the 
16th^ year of Tiberius Cajsar is a period of about 60 years. 

o. It is by calculating from Artaxerxes, therefore, up to the 
1 Jerome in Ids version gives the 15th (qitintum decimwn). 


time of Christ that the seventy weeks are made up, accord- 
ing to the numeration of the Jews. For from Nehemiah, 
who was despatched by Artaxerxes to build Jerusalem in the 
115th year of the Persian empire, and the 20th year of the 
reign of Artaxerxes himself, and the 4th year of the 83d 
Olympiad, up to this date, which was the second year of the 
202d Olympiad, and the 16th year of the reign of Tiberius 
Osesar, there are reckoned 475 years, which make 490 ac- 
cording to the Hebrew numeration, as they measure the 
years by the course of the moon ; so that, as is easy to show, 
their year consists of 354 days, while the solar year has SGS^- 
days. For the latter exceeds the period of twelve months, 
according to the moon's course, by 11^ days. Hence the 
Greeks and the Jews insert three intercalary months every 
8 years. For 8 times ll^- days makes up 3 months. There- 
fore 475 years make 59 periods of 8 years each, and 3 
months besides. But since thus there are 3 intercalary 
months every 8 years, we get thus 15 years minus a few 
days ; and these being added to the 475 years, make up in 
all the 70 weeks. 


[In Syncellus, p. 307, al. 244.] 

On the Fortunes of Hyrcauus and Antigonus, and on Herod, Augustus, 
Antony, and Cleopatra, in abstract. 

1. Octavius Sebastus, or, as the Eomans call him, Augustus, 
the adopted son of Caius, on returning to Eome from Apol- 
lonias in Epirus, where he was educated, possessed himself of 
the first place in the government. And Antony afterwards 
obtained the rule of Asia and the districts beyond. In his 
time the Jews accused Herod ; but he put the deputies to 
death, and restored Herod to his government. Afterwards, 
however, along with Hyrcanus and Phas^elus his brother, he 
was driven out, and betook himself in flight to Antony. And 
as the Jews would not receive him, an obstinate battle took 
place ; and in a short time after, as he had conquered in 
battle, he also drove out Antigonus, who had returned. And 


Antigonus fled to Herod tlie Parthian king, and was restored 
by the help of his son Pacorus, which help was given on his 
promising to pay 1000 talents of gold. And Herod then in 
his turn had to flee, while Phasaalus was slain in battle, and 
Hyrcanus was surrendered alive to Antigonus. And after 
cutting off his ears, that he might be disqualified for the 
priesthood, he gave him to the Parthians to lead into capti- 
vity; for he scrupled to put him to death, as he was a relation 
of his own. And Herod, on his expulsion, betook himself 
first to Malichus king of the Arabians ; and when he did not 
receive him, through fear of the Parthians, he went away to 
Alexandria to Cleopatra. That was in the 185th Olympiad. 
Cleopatra having put to death her brother, who was her 
consort in the government, and being then summoned by 
Antony to Cilicia to make her defence, committed the care 
of the sovereignty to Herod ; and as he requested that he 
should not be entrusted with anything until he was restored 
to his own government,^ she took him with her and went to 
Antony. And as he was smitten with love for the princess, 
they despatched Herod to Rome to Octavius Augustus, who, 
on behalf of Antipater, Herod's father, and on behalf of 
Herod himself, and also because Antigonus was established as 
king by the help of the Parthians, gave a commission to the 
generals in Palestine and Syria to restore him to his govern- 
ment. And in concert with Sosius he waged war against 
Antigonus for a long time, and in manifold engagements. 
At that time also, Josephus, Herod's brother, died in his 
command. And Herod coming to Antony^ . . . 

2. For three years they besieged Antigonus, and then 
brought him alive to Antony. And Antony himself also 
proclaimed Herod as king, and gave him, in addition, the 
cities Hippus, Gadara, Gaza, Joppa, Anthedon, and a part 
of Arabia, Trachonitis, and Auranitis, and Sacia, and Gaul- 
anitis ; ^ and besides these, also the procuratorship of Syria. 

^ The sense is doubtful here : y,a,i u; ovoiu ij^iov TriaryJuTSai IW «;y 
xXT»X^fi ^'V ■J'''?f iavrou dpx'^v, etc. 

- There is a break here in the original. 

^ This is according to the rendering of the Latin version. 


Herod was declared king of the Jews by the senate and 
Octavius Augustus, and reigned 34 years. Antony, when 
about to go on an expedition against the Parthians, slew 
Antigonus the king of the Jews, and gave Arabia to Cleo- 
patra ; and passing over into the territory of the Parthians, 
sustained a severe defeat, losing the greater part of his army. 
That was in the 186th Olympiad. Octavius Augustus led 
the forces of Italy and all the West against Antony, who 
refused to return to Kome through fear, on account of his 
failure in Parthia, and through his love for Cleopatra. And 
Antony met him with the forces of Asia. Herod, however, 
like a shrewd fellow, and one who waits upon the powerful, 
sent a double set of letters, and despatched his army to sea, 
charging his generals to watch the issue of events. And 
when the victory was decided, and when Antony, after sus- 
taining two naval defeats, had fled to Egypt along with Cleo- 
patra, they who bore the letters delivered to Augustus those 
which they had been keeping secretly for Antony. And on 
Herod falls ^ . . . 

3. Cleopatra shut herself up in a mausoleum," and made 
away with herself, employing the wild asp as the instrument 
of death. At that time Augustus captured Cleopatra's sons, 
Helios and Selene,^ on their flight to the Thebaid. Nicopolis 
was founded opposite Actium, and the games called Actia 
were instituted. On the capture of Alexandria, Cornelius 
Gallus was sent as first governor of Egypt, and he destroyed 
the cities of the Egyptians that refused obedience. Up to 
this time the Lagidte ruled ; and the whole duration of the 
Macedonian empire after the subversion of the Persian power 
was 298 years. Thus is made up the whole period from tlii" 
foundation of the Macedonian empire to its subversion in the 
time of the Ptolemies, and under Cleopatra, the last of these, 
the date of which event is the 11th year of the monarchy 

^ Here again there is a blank in the original. 

2 The text is corrupt here. It gives, iu ru f^'hUy, a word unknown 
in Greek. Scaliger reads ]\I«;ff«i&A<o». Goarus proposes 'MavauKuhv, 
which we adopt in the translation. 

^ i.e. sun and moon. 


and empire of the Eoinans, and the 4th year of the 187th 
Olympiad. Altogether, from Adam 5472 years are reckoned. 

4. After the taking of Alexandria the 188th Olympiad 
began. Herod founded anew the city of the Gabinii/ the 
ancient Samaria, and called it Sebaste ; and having erected 
its seaport, the tower of Strato, into a city, he named it 
CiBsarea after the same, and raised in each a temple in honour 
of Octavius. And afterwards he founded Antipatris in the 
Lydian plain, so naming it after his father, and settled in it 
the people about Sebaste, Avliom he had disposessed of their 
land. He founded also other cities ; and to the Jews he was 
severe, but to other nations most urbane. 

It was now the 189tli Olympiad, which [Olympiad] in the 
year that had the bissextile day, the 6th day before the 
Calends of March {i.e. the 24tli of February), corresponded 
with the 24th year of the era of Antioch, whereby the year 
was determined in its proper limits.' 


[In the same, p. 322 or 256.] 

On tlie Circumstances connected with oixr Saviour's Passion and His 
Life-giving Resurrection. 

1. As to His works severally, and His cures effected upon 
body and soul, and the mysteries of His doctrine, and the 
resurrection from the dead, these have been most authori- 

^ Samaria was so named in reference to its restoration by Gabinias, 
the proconsul of Syria. See Josephus (Antiq. book xiv. ch. x.), who 
states that Gabmius traversed Judea, and gave orders for the rebuilding 
of such towns as he found destroyed ; and that in this way Samaria, 
Azotus, Scythopolis, Antedon, Raphia, Dora, Marissa, and not a few 
others, Avere restored. 

2 The text is: tju ^OTw/httix; p^rff, 'Jirig -Trpo t' ■/.ot.Aciuloiv ^lciprioiv kclto. 
'' h.uriOY,iii; yJi! srst vixdn., ^i ilS ^'^^ fi^u ihiav opluv 'icrn o kutxvros. In every 
fourth year the 24th day of February (= vi. Cal. Mart.) was reckoned 
twice. There were three different eras of Antioch, of which the one 
most commonly used began in November 49 B.C. j\Iigne refers the reader 
to the notes of Goarus on the passage, which we have not seen. The 
sense of this obscure passage seems to be, that that period formed another 
fixed point in chronology. 


tatively set forth by His disciples and apostles before us. On 
the whole world there pressed a most fearful darkness ; and 
the rocks were rent by an earthquake, and many places in 
Judea and other districts were thrown down. This darkness 
Thallus, in the third book of his History, calls, as appears 
to me without reason, an eclipse of the sun. For the Hebrews 
celebrate the passover on the 14th day according to the 
moon, and the passion of our Saviour falls on the day before 
the passover ; but an eclipse of the sun takes place only when 
the moon comes under the sun. And it cannot happen at 
any other time but in the interval between the first day 
of the new moon and the last of the old, that is, at their 
junction : how then should an eclipse be supposed to happen 
when the moon is almost diametrically opposite the sun? 
Let that opinion pass however; let it carry the majority with 
it ; and let this portent of the world be deemed an eclipse of 
the sun, like others a portent only to the eye (eV ta Kara t^-jv 
6-^iv). Phlegon records that, in the time of Tiberius Cfesar, 
at full moon, there was a full eclipse of the sun from the sixth 
hour to the ninth — manifestly that one of which we speak. 
But what has an eclipse in common with an earthquake, the 
rending rocks, and the resurrection of the dead, and so great 
a perturbation throughout the universe? Surely no such event 
as this is recorded for a long period. But it was a darkness 
induced by God,, because the Lord happened then to suffer. 
And calculation makes out that tlie period of 70 weeks, as 
noted in Daniel, is completed at this time. 

2. From Artaxerxes, moreover, 70 weeks are reckoned up 
to the time of Christ, according to the numeration of the 
Jews. For from Nehemiah, who was sent by Artaxerxes to 
people Jerusalem, about the 120th year of the Persian empire, 
and in the 20th year of Artaxerxes himself, and the 4th year 
of the 83d Olympiad, up to this time, which Avas the 2d year 
of the 102d Olympiad, and the 16th year of the reign of 
Tiberius Csesar, there are given 475 years, which make 490 
Hebrew years, since they measure the years by the lunar 
month of 29^ days, as may easily be explained, the annual 
period according to the sun consisting of 365^ days, while 


the lunar period of 12 months has 11^ days less. For 
■\vhicli reason the Greeks and the Jews insert three intercalary 
months every eiglit years. For 8 times 11 ^ days make 3 
months. The 475 years, therefore, contain 59 periods of 8 
years and three months over : thus, the three intercalary 
months for every 8 years being added, we get 15 years, and 
these together with the 475 years make 70 weeks. Let no 
one now think us unskilled in the calculations of astronomy, 
when we fix without further ado the number of days at 365j. 
For it is not in ignorance of the truth, but rather by reason 
of exact study (Sid. ttjv XeirToXoyLav), that we have stated our 
opinion so shortly. But let what follows also be presented 
as in outline (or in a table, £09 iv jpa^r}) to those who endea- 
vour to inquire minutely into all things. 

3. Each year in the general consists of 365 days ; and the 
space of a day and night being divided into nineteen parts, 
we have also five of these. And in saying that the year 
consists of 365^ days, and there being the five nineteenth 
parts .... to the 475 there are 6^ days. Furthermore, we 
find, according to exact computation, that the lunar month 
has 29^ days . . . } And these come to {KaraylveTat) a little 
time. Now it happens that from the 20th year of the reign 
of Artaxei'xes (as it is given in Ezra among the Hebrews), 
which, according to the Greeks, was the 4th year of the 80th 
Olympiad, to the 16th year of Tiberius Cjesar, which was 
the second year of the 102d Olympiad, there are in all the 
475 years already noted, which in the Hebrew system make 
490 years, as has been previously stated, that is, 70 weeks, 
by which period the time of Christ's advent was measured in 
the announcement made to Daniel by Gabriel. And if any 

^ The text in the beginning of this section is hopelessly corrupt. 
Scaliger declares that neither could he foUo-w these things, nor did the 
man that dreamt them understand them. We may subjoin the Greek 
text as it stands in Migne : M£T«|y Bs toS Xsysiv rov iutavrou i}f^epuv r^i, 
y,ct,l nrpxy^opiov, y,xi rZiv utto id' TJjf vvx^Yijuipov, fcspuv e .... sis Toe voe, 
'/Ifispoii TO ■Koi.poc'KhiiKav iWi r, tfzpa.y.opiav. "Et/ yi [A'/^v tov rvig ash^vrig 
f^iivx xxrei r'/jv dx-piBvi T^iTrroT^oylctu ivpiax-ofisu x,6\ x,a,l '^y^iasixg ijpcipxs scotl 
iivx,rog ^ioe,ipiSsia;is sig yApvi ae, Tovrcdv tcc o , kou 7jfii(TU . . . « yhsrai IvusvYi- 
KOaTOTiTecpTa rpim. 


one thinks that tlie 15 Hebrew years added to the others 
involve us in an error of 10, nothing at least which cannot be 
accounted for has been introduced. And the 1^ week which 
we suppose must be added to make the whole number, meets 
the question about the 15 years, and removes the difficulty 
about the time; and that the prophecies are usually put forth 
in a somewhat symbolic form, is quite evident. 

4. As far, then, as is in our power, we have taken the Scrip- 
ture, I think, correctly ; especially seeing that the preceding 
section about the vision seems to state the whole matter 
shortly, its first words being, " In the third year of the reign 
of Belshazzar," ^ where he prophesies of the subversion of the 
Persian power by the Greeks, which empires are symbolized 
in the prophecy under the figures of the ram and the goat 
respectively.^ " The sacrifice," he says, " shall be abolished, 
and the holy places shall be made desolate, so as to be trodden 
under foot; which things shall be determined within 2300 
days."^ For if we take the day as a month, just as elsewhere 
in prophecy days are taken as years, and in different places are 
used in different ways, reducing the period in the same way as 
Jias been done above to Hebrew months, we shall find the period 
fully made out to the 20th year of the reign of Artaxerxes, 
from the capture of Jerusalem. For there are given thus 
185 years, and one year falls to be added to these — the year 
in which Nehemiah built the wall of the city. In 18 G years, 
therefore, we find 2300 Hebrew months, as 8 years have in 
addition 3 intercalary months. From Artaxerxes, again, in 
whose time the command went forth that Jerusalem should 
be built, there are 70 weeks. These matters, however, we 
have discussed by themselves, and with greater exactness, in 
our book On the Weelcs and this Propliecy. But I am amazed 
that the Jews deny that the Lord has yet come, and that 
the followers of Marcion refuse to admit that His coming 
was predicted in the prophecies when the Scriptures display 
the matter so openly to our view. {And after something 
else) : The period, then, to the advent of the Lord from 
Adam and the creation is 5531 years, from which epoch to 
1 Dan. viii. 1. ^ pan. viii. 13, 14. 


the 250tli Olympiad there are 192 years, as has been shown 


[Ill Basil, De Spiritii Scmclo, ch. xxix. § 73 ; TFor/c'.s-, vol. iii. p. Gl, 
edit. Paris.] 

For we who both know tlie measure of those words/ and 
are not ignorant of the grace of faith, give thanks to the 
Father," who has bestowed on us His creatures Jesus Christ 
the Saviour of all, and our Lord;^ to whom be glory and 
majesty, with the Holy Spirit, for ever. 

[Gallandi, Bibl. Patrum, vol. i. Proleg. p. Ixxi. and p. 329.] 

[The text is given from the edition of Ruinart. His 
preface, which ISIigne also cites, is as follows : " The narra- 
tive of the martyrdom of St. Symphorosa and her seven sons, 
which we here publish, is ascribed in the MSS. to Julius 
Africanus, a writer of the highest repute. And it may per- 
haps have been inserted in his books on Chronography, — a 
work which Eusebius {Hist. Eccles. vi. 31) testifies to have 
been written with the greatest care, since in these he detailed 
the chief events in history from the foundation of the world 
to the times of the Emperor Heliogabalus. As that work, 
however, is lost, that this narrative is really to be ascribed to 
Africanus, I would not venture positively to assert, although 
at the same time there seems no ground for doubting its 
genuineness. We print it, moreover, from the editions of 
Mombritius, Surius, and Cardulus, collated with two Colbert 
MSS. and one in the library of the Sorbonne. The occasion for 

^ For priju^Tcov, vroTds, three MSS. give pr,Tuv, sayings. 
- For ^^?» Uurpi there is another reading, ijfcZv ' = to Him. 
who gave to our fathers. 

3 These words, " and our Lord," are wanting in three MSS. 


the death of these saints was found in the vicinity of that 
most famous palace which was built by Adrian at his country 
seat at Tiber, according to Spartianus. For when the em- 
peror gave orders that this palace, which he had built for 
his pleasure, should be purified by some piacular ceremonies, 
the priests seized this ojjportunity for accusing Symphorosa, 
alleging that the gods would not be satisfied until Sympho- 
rosa should either sacrifice to them or be herself sacrificed ; 
which last thing was done by Hadrian, whom, from many 
others of his deeds, we know to have been exceedingly 
superstitious, about the year of Christ 120, that is, about the 
beginning of his reign, at which period indeed, as Dio 
Cassius observes, that emperor put a great number to death. 
The memory of these martyrs, moreover, is celebrated in all 
the most ancient martyrologies, although they assign different 
days for it. The Roman, along with Notker, fixes their 
festival for the 18 th July, Rabanus for the 21st of the same 
month, Usuardus and Ado for the 21st June. In the 
Tiburtine road there still exists the rubbish of an old church, 
as Aringhi states {Rom. Subter. iv. 17), which was conse- 
crated to God under their name, and which still retains the 
title. To the Seven Brothers. I have no doubt that it Avas built 
in that place to which the pontiffs in the Acta, sec. iv., gave 
the name, To the Seven Biothanati, i.e. those cut off by a 
violent death, as Baronius remarks, at the year 138." So 
far Ruinart : see also Tillemont, Mem. Eccles. ii. pp. 241 and 
595 ; and the Bollandists, Act. S.S. Junii, vol. iv. p. 350.] 

1. When Adrian had built a palace, and wished to dedicate 
it by that wicked ceremonial, and began to seek responses by 
sacrifices to idols, and to the demons that dwell in idols, they 
replied,^ and said : " The widow Symphorosa, with her seven 
sons, wounds us day by day in invoking her God. If she 
therefore, together with her sons, shall offer sacrifice, we 
promise to make good all that you ask." Tlien Adrian 
ordered her to be seized, along with her sons, and advised 
them in courteous terms to consent to offer sacrifice to the 
1 See Eusebius, Life of Constantine, ii. 50. 


idols. To lilm, however, the blessed Symphorosa answered : 
" My husband Getulius/ togetlier with his brother Amantius, 
when they were tribunes in thy service, suffered different 
punishments for the name of Christ, rather than consent to 
sacrifice to idols, and, like good athletes, they overcame thy 
demons in death. For, rather than be prevailed on, they 
chose to be beheaded, and suffered death ; which death, 
being endured for the name of Christ, gained them temporal 
ignominy indeed among men of this earth, but everlasting 
honour and glory among the angels ; and moving now among 
them, and exhibiting^ the trophies of their sufferings, they 
enjoy eternal life with the King eternal in the heavens." 

2. The Emperor Adrian said to the holy Symphorosa : 
" Either sacrifice thou along with thy sons to the omnipotent 
gods, or else I shall cause thee to be sacrificed thyself, to- 
gether with thy sons." The blessed Symphorosa answered : 
" And whence is this great good to me, that I should be deemed 
worthy along with my sons to be offered as an oblation to 
God r'^ The Emperor Adrian said : " I shall cause thee to 
be sacrificed to my gods." The blessed Symphorosa replied : 
" Thy gods cannot take me in sacrifice ; but if I am burned 
for the name of Christ, my God, I shall rather consume those 
demons of thine." The Emperor Adrian said: "Choose thou 
one of these alternatives : either sacrifice to my gods, or perish 
by an evil death." The blessed Symphorosa replied: "Thou 
thinkest that my mind can be altered by some kind of terror; 
whereas I long to rest with my husband Getulius,* whom thou 
didst put to death for Christ's name." Then the Emperor 
Adrian ordered her to be led away to the temple of Hercules, 
and there first to be beaten with blows on the cheek, and 
afterwards to be suspended by the hair. But when by no 
argument and by no terror could he divert her from her good 

^ The Martyrologies celebrate their memory on the 10th June : one of 
the Colbert mss. gives Zoticus for Getulius. 

2 A Colbert MS. gives " laudantes" = praising. 

^ This response, along with the next interrogation, is wanting in the 
Colbei't manuscript. 

* Sur., Card., and the Colbert Codex give " Zoticus." 


resolution, he ordei'ed her to be thrown into the river with a 
large stone fastened to her neck. And her brother Euo-enius, 
principal of the district of Tiber, picked up her body, and 
buried it in a suburb of the same city. 

3. Then, on another day, the Emperor Adrian ordered all 
her seven sons to be brought before him in company ; and 
when he had challenged them to sacrifice to idols, and per- 
ceived that they yielded by no means to his threats and 
terrors, he ordered seven stakes to be fixed around the 
temple of Hercules, and commanded them to be stretched on 
the blocks there. And he ordered Crescens, the first, to be 
transfixed in the throat ; and Julian, the second, to be stabbed 
in the breast ; and Nemesius, the third, to be struck through 
the heart ; and Primitivus, the fourth, to be wounded in the 
navel ; and Justin, the fifth, to be struck through in the back 
with a sword ; and Stracteus,"^ the sixth, to be wounded in the 
side ; and Eugenius, the seventh, to be cleft in twain from 
the head downwards. 

4. The next day again the Emperor Adrian came to the 
temple of Hercules, and ordered their bodies to be carried 
off together, and cast into a deep pit ; and the pontiffs gave 
to that place the name. To the Seven Biothanati? After 
these things the persecution ceased for a year and a half, 
in which period the holy bodies of all the martyrs were 
honoured, and consigned with all care to tumuli erected for 
that purpose, and their names are written in the book of life. 
The natal day, moreover, of the holy martyrs of Christ, the 
blessed Symphorosa and her seven sons, Crescens, Julian, 
Nemesius, Primitivus, Justin, Stracteus, and Eugenius, is 
held on the 18th July. Their bodies rest on the Tiburtine 
road, at the eighth mile-stone from the city, under the king- 
ship of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom is honour and glory 
for ever and ever. Amen. 

1 The Colbert Codex reads " Extacteus ;" Carduliis gives " Stacteus," 
by ■which name he is designated beneath by them all. 

2 In one of the Colbert codices, and in another from the Sorbonne, 
there is a passage inserted here about the death of Adrian, -which is said 
to have happened a little after that of these martyrs. 



[Edited from two Munich codices by J. Chr. von. Aretin, in his Beitrage 
zur Geschichte und Literutur, anno 1804, p. ii. p. 49.] 

[The best introduction to this production will be the follow- 
ing preface, as given in Migne : — Many men of learning thus 
far have been of opinion that the narrative by Africanus of 
events happening in Persia on Christ's birth, which is extant 
in two MSS. in the Electoral Library of Munich, and in one 
belonging to the Imperial Library of Vienna, is a fragment 
of that famous work which Sextus Julius Africanus, a Chris- 
tian author of the third century after Christ, composed on- 
the history of the world in the chronological order of events 
up to the reign of Macrinus, and presented in five books to 
Alexander, son of Mammsea, with the view of obtaining the 
restoration of his native town Emmaus. With the same 
expectation which I see incited Lambecius and his com- 
pendiator Nesselius, I, too, set myself with the greatest 
eagerness to go over the codices of our Electoral Library. . . . 
But, as the common proverb goes, I found coals instead of 
treasure. This narrative, so far from its being to be ascribed 
to a writer well reputed by the common voice of antiquity, does 
not contain anything worthy of the genius of the chrono- 
grapher Africanus. Wherefore, since by the unanimous testi- 
mony of the ancients he was a man of consummate learning 
and sharpest judgment, while the author of the Cesti, which 
also puts forward the name of Africanus, has been long marked 
by critics with the character either of anile credulity, or of a 
marvellous propensity to superstitious fancies, I can readily 
fall in with the opinion of those who think that he is a 
different person from the chronographer, and would ascribe 
this wretched production also to him. But, dear reader, on 
perusing these pages, if your indignation is not stirred against 
the man's rashness, you will at least join with me in laughing 
at his prodigious follies, and will learn, at the same time, that 
the testimonies of men most distinguished for learning are 


not to be rated so liiglily as to supersede personal examina- 
tion when opportunity permits.] 


Christ first of all became known from Persia. For nothing 
escapes the learned jurists of that country, who investigate all 
things with the utmost care. The facts/ therefore, which 
are inscribed upon the golden plates," and laid up in the 
royal temples, I shall record; for it is from the temples there, 
and the priests connected with them, that the name of Christ 
has been heard of. Now there is a temple there to Juno, 
surpassing even the royal palace, which temple Cyrus, that 
prince instructed in all piety, built, and in which he dedicated 
in honour of the gods golden and silver statues, and adorned 
them with precious stones, — that I may not waste words in a 
profuse description of that ornamentation. Now about that 
time (as the records on the plates testify), the king having 
entered the temple, with the view of getting an interpreta- 
tion of certain dreams, was addressed by the priest Prupupius 
thus : I congratulate thee, master : Juno has conceived. And 
the king, smiling, said to him. Has she who is dead conceived? 
And he said, Yes, she who was dead lias come to life again, 
and begets life. And the king said, What is this ? explain 
it to me. And he replied, In truth, master, the time for 
these things is at hand. For during the whole night the 
images, both of gods and goddesses, continued beating the 
ground, saying to each other, Come, let us congratulate 
Juno. And they say to me. Prophet, come forward ; con- 
gratulate Juno, for she has been embraced. And I said, 
How can she be embraced who no longer exists ? To which 
they reply. She has come to life again, and is no longer 

^ The MSS. read yup, for. 

2 The term in the original {aXyCha-piccii) is one altogether foreign to 
Greek, and seems to be of Arabic origin. The sense, however, is evident 
from the use of synonymous terms in the context. 


called Juno/ but Urania. For the miglity Sol has embraced 
her. Then the goddesses say to the gods, making the matter 
plainer, Pege'^ is she who is embraced; for did not Juno 
espouse an artificer ? And the gods say, That she is rightly 
called Pege, we admit. Her name, moreover, is Myria ; for 
she bears in her womb, as in the deep, a vessel of a myriad 
talents' burden. And as to this title Pege, let it be vinder- 
stood thus : This stream of water sends forth the perennial 
stream of spirit, — a stream containing but a single fish,^ 
taken with the hook of Divinity, and sustaining the whole 
world with its flesh as though it were in the sea. You have 
well said. She has an artificer [in espousal] ; but by that 
espousal she does not bear an artificer on an equality with 
herself. For this artificer who is born, the son of the chief 
artificer, framed by his excellent skill the roof of the third 
heavens, and established by his word this lower world, with 
its threefold sphere* of habitation. 

Thus, then, the statues disputed with each other concern- 
ing Juno and Pege, and [at length] with one voice they said: 
When the day is finished, we all, gods and goddesses, shall 
know the matter clearly. Now, therefore, master, tarry for 
the rest of the day. For the matter shall certainly come to 
jjass. For that which emerges is no common affair. 

And when the king abode there and watched the statues, 
the harpers of their own accord began to strike their harps, 
and the muses to sing; and whatsoever creatures Avere within, 
whether quadruped or fowl, in silver and gold, uttered their 
several voices. And as the king shuddered, and was filled 

' There is a play upon the words, perhaps, in the original. The 
Greek term for Juno ("llpx) may Le derived from 'ipot,, terra^ so that 
the antithesis intended is, " She is no longer called Earthly, but 

2 i.e. Fountain, Spring, or Stream. 

3 The initial letters of the Greek 'I>?o-&y? Xpi/xTo; Qiw Tiog luT'/jp., i.e. 
" Jesus Christ the Son of God the Saviour," when joined together, make 
the word lyc^vg, i.e. fish; and the fathers used the word, therefore, as 
a mystic symbol of Christ, who could live in the depth of oui" mortality 
as in the abyss of the sea. 

^ i.e. as sea, land, and sky. 


with great fear, lie was about to retire. For lie could not 
endure the spontaneous tum^t. The priest therefore said 
to him, Eemain, O king, for the full revelation is at hand 
which the God of gods has chosen to declare to us. 

And wdien these things were said, the roof was opened, and 
a bright star descended and stood above the pillar of Pege, 
and a voice was heard to this effect : Sovereign Pege, the 
mighty Sun has sent me to make the announcement to you, 
and at the same time to do you service in parturition, design- 
ing blameless nuptials with you, O mother of the chief of all 
ranks of being, bride of the triune Deity. And the child 
begotten by extraordinary generation is called the Beginning 
and the End, — the beginning of salvation, and the end of 

And when this word was spoken, all the statues fell upon 
their faces, that of Pege alone standing, on which also a royal 
diadem was found placed, having on its upper side a star set 
in a carbuncle and an emerald. And on its lower side the 
star rested. 

And the kino; forthwith o-ave orders to brino; in all the 
interpreters of prodigies, and the sages who were under his 
dominion. And when all the heralds sped with their procla- 
mations, all these assembled in the temple. And when they 
saw the star above Pege, and the diadem with the star and 
the stone, and the statues lying on the floor, they said : O 
king, a root (offspring) divine and princely has risen, bearing 
the image of the King of heaven and earth. For Pege- 
Myria is the daughter of the Bethlehemite Pege. And the 
diadem is the mark of a king, and the star is a celestial 
announcement of portents to fall on the earth. But of 
Judah has arisen a kingdom which shall subvert all the 
memorials of the Jews. And the prostration of the gods 
upon the floor prefigured the end of their honour. For he 
who comes, being of more ancient dignity, shall displace all 
the recent. Now therefore, O king, send to Jerusalem. 
For you will find the Christ of the Omnipotent God 
borne in bodily form in the bodily arms of a woman. And 
the star remained above the statue of Pege, called the 


Celestial, until the wise men came forth, and then it went 
with them. 

And then, in the depth of evening, Dionysus appeared in 
the temple, unaccompanied by the Satyrs, and said to the 
imaores : Pese is not one of us, but stands far above us, in 
that she gives birth to a man whose conception is in divine 
fashion {6eia<i tv^V^ o-vXXrjfi/jia). O priest Prupupius ! what 
dost thou tarrying here ? An action, indicated in writings 
of old (e77pa(^09), has come upon us, and we shall be con- 
victed as false by a person of power and energy (i/jUTrpaKTov). 
Wherein we have been deceivers, we have been deceivers ; 
and wherein we have ruled, we have ruled. No longer give 
we oracular responses. Gone from us is our honour. With- 
out glory and reward are we become. There is One, and 
One only, who receives again at the hands of all His proper 
honour. For the rest, be not disturbed.^ No longer shall 
the Persians exact tribute of earth and sky. For He 
who established these things is at hand, to bring practical 
tribute (irpaKTLicom (p6pov<i) to Him who sent Him, to renew 
the ancient image, and to put image with image, and bring 
the dissimilar to similarity. Heaven rejoices with earth, 
and earth itself exults at receiving matter of exultation from 
heaven. Things which have not happened above, have 
happened on earth beneath. He whom the order of the 
blessed has not seen, is seen by the order of the miserable. 
Flame threatens those ; dew attends these. To Myria is given 
the blessed lot of bearing Pege in Bethlehem, and of con- 
ceiving grace of grace. Judsea has seen its bloom, and this 
country is fading. To Gentiles and aliens, salvation is come ; 
to the wretched, relief is ministered abundantly. With 
right do women dance, and say, Lady Pege, Spring-bearer, 
thou mother of the heavenly constellation. Thou cloud 
that bringest us dew after heat, remember thy dependants, O 

The king then, without delay, sent some of the INIagi 
under his dominion with gifts, the star showing them the 
way. And when they returned, they narrated to the men of 
^ The text gives dpo/iciou, for which Migne proposes 6opviZndi. 


that time those same things which were also written on the 
plates of gold, and which were to the following effect : 

When we came to Jerusalem, the sign, together with our 
arrival, roused all the people. How is this, say they, that 
wise men of the Persians are here, and that along with them 
there is this strange stellar phenomenon ? And the chief of 
the Jews interrogated us in this way : What is this that 
attends you,^ and with what purpose are you here? And 
we said : He whom ye call Messias is born. And they were 
confounded, and dared not withstand us. But they said to 
us. By the justice of Heaven, tell us what ye know of this 
matter. And we made answer to them : Ye labour under 
unbelief ; and neither without an oath nor with an oath do 
ye believe us, but ye follow your own heedless counsel. For 
the Christ, the Son of the Most High, is born, and He is the 
subverter of your law and synagogues. And therefore is it 
that, struck with this most excellent response as with a dart," 
ye hear in bitterness this name which has come upon you 
suddenly. And they then, taking counsel together, urged us 
to accept their gifts, and tell to none that such an event had 
taken place in that land of theirs, lest, as they say, a revolt 
rise against us. But we replied : We have brought gifts in 
His honour, with the view of proclaiming those mighty things 
which we know to have happened in our country on occasion 
of His birth ; and do ye bid us take your bribes, and conceal 
the things which have been communicated to us by tlie 
Divinity who is above the heavens, and neglect the com- 
mandments of our proper King ? And after urging many 
considerations on us, they gave the matter up. And when 
the king of Judea sent for us and had some converse with 
us, and put to us certain questions as to the statements we 
made to him, we acted in the same manner, until he was 
thoroughly enraged at our replies. We left him accord- 
ingly, without giving any greater heed to him than to any 
common person. 

And we came to that place then to which we were sent, 
1 t/to i776i/.vjov, perhaps meant for, What business brings you? 


and saw the mother and the child, the star indicating to us 
the royal babe. And we said to the mother : What art thou 
named, O renowned mother? And she says : Mary, masters. 
And we said to her : Whence art thou sprung (op/xco/jbevT]) ? 
And she replies : From this district of the Bethlehemites 
(BrjOXecoTOiv). Then said we : Plast thou not had a husband ? 
And she answers : I was only betrothed with a view to the 
marriage convenant, my thoughts being far removed from 
this. For I had no mind to come to this. And while I was 
giving very little concern to it, when a certain Sabbath 
dawned, and straightway at the rising of the sun, an angel 
appeared to me bringing me suddenly the glad tidings of a 
son. And in trouble I cried out, Be it not so to me. Lord, 
for I have not a husband. And he persuaded me to believe, 
that by the will of God I should have this son. 

Then said we to her : Mother, mother, all the gods of the 
Persians have called thee blessed. Thy glory is great ; for 
thou art exalted above all women of renown, and thou art 
shown to be more queenly than all queens. 

The child, moreover, was seated on the ground, being, as 
she said, in His second year, and having in part the likeness 
of His mother. And she had long hands,^ and a body some- 
what delicate; and her colour was like that of ripe wheat 
(aiTo^pooq) ; and she was of a round face, and had her hair 
bound up. And as we had along with us a servant skilled in 
painting from the life, we brought with us to our country a 
likeness of them both ; and it was placed by our hand in the 
sacred (SioTreTel) temple, with this inscription on it : To Jo^o, 
the Sun, the mighty God, the King of Jesus, the power of 
Persia dedicated this. 

And taking the child up, each of us in turn, and bearing 
Him in our arms, we saluted Him and worshipped Him, and 
presented to Him gold, and myrrh, and frankincense, ad- 
dressing Him thus : We gift Thee with Thine own, O Jesus, 
Ruler of heaven. Ill would things unordered be ordered, 
wert Thou not at hand. In no other way could things 

^ fiXKpcc; r»s x-'^f ? according to Migne, instead of the reading of the 
manuscripts, /aencpli/ rviu x,7ipxv h^ovacx.. 


lieavenly be brought into conjunction with things earthly, 
but by Thy descent. Such service cannot be discharged, if 
only the servant is sent us, as when the Master Himself is 
present; neither can so much be achieved when the king 
sends only his satraps to war, as when the king is there 
himself. It became the wisdom of Thy system, that Thou 
shouldst deal in this manner with men.^ 

And the child leaped and laughed at our caresses and 
words. And when we had bidden the mother farewell (avv- 
Ta^dfxevoi), and when she had shown us honour, and we had 
testified to her the reverence which became us, we came again 
to the place in which we lodged. And at eventide there 
appeared to us one of a terrible and fearful countenance, 
saying : Get ye out quickly, lest ye be taken in a snare. 
And we in terror said : And who is he, O divine leader, that 
plotteth against so august an embassage ? And he replied : 
Herod ; but get you up straightway and depart in safety and 

And we made speed to depart thence in all earnestness ; 
and we reported in Jerusalem all that we had seen. Behold, 
then, the great things that we have told you regarding 
Christ; and w^e saw Christ our Saviour, who was made 
known as both God and man. To Him be the glory and 
the power unto the ages of the ages. Amen. 

^ The matmscripts give di/rapToi;, for which Migne jDroposes «.udpairavi 
or oLvripyaToig. 


Callistus succeeded Zepliyrinus in the bishopric of Eome, 
and discharged the duties of that office for five years. This 
is all the information which Eusehius^ gives us in regard to 
Callistus. Later writers make many other statements. 

The letters attributed to him form part of the False 
Decretals of the pseudo-Isidorus, mentioned in the notice of 

[Mansi, Concil. i. 737.] 



On the Fasts of the Four Seasons, and that no one should take 
up an Accusation against a Doctor (teacher^ 

ALLISTUS, archbishop of the church catholic 
in the city of Rome, to Benedictus, our brother 
and bishop, greeting in the Lord. 

By the love of the brotherhood we are bound, 
and by our apostolic rule we are constrained, to give answer 
to the inquii'ies of the brethren, according to what the Lord 
has given us, and to furnish them with the authority of the 
seal of the apostles. 


[Of the seasons for fasting.] 

Fasting, which ye have learned to hold three times in the 

year among us, we decree now to take place, as more suitable, 

in four seasons ; so that even as the year revolves through 

four seasons, we too may keep a solemn fast quarterly in 

^ In his Chronicon and Hist. Eccl. vi. 21. 



the four seasons of the year. And as we are replenished 
with corn, and wine, and oil for the nourishment of our 
bodies, so let us be replenished with fasting for the nourish- 
ment of our souls, in accordance with the word of the prophet 
Zechariah, who says, " The word of the Lord came to me, 
saying, Thus saith the Lord of hosts, As I thought to punish 
you, when your fathers provoked me to wrath, and I repented 
not ; so again have I thought in these days to do well unto 
Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah : fear ye not. These 
are the things that ye shall do : Speak ye every man the 
truth to his neighbour ; judge the truth and the judgment of 
peace in your gates ; and let none of you imagine evil in your 
hearts against his neighbour, and love no false oath : for all 
these are things that I hate, saith the Lord of hosts. And 
the word of the Lord of hosts came unto me, saying, Thus 
saith the Lord of hosts. The fast of the fourth month, and 
the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast 
of the tenth, shall be to the house of the Lord joy and glad- 
ness, and cheerful feasts ; only love the truth and peace, saith 
the Lord of hosts." ^ In this, then, we ought to be all of one 
mind, so that, according to apostolic teaching, we may all 
say the same thing, and that there be no divisions among us. 
Let us then be perfect in the same mind, and in the same 
judgment;" in ready zeal for which work we congratulate 
ourselves on having your affection as our partner. For it is 
aiot meet for the members to be at variance with the head ; 
but, according to the testimony of sacred Scripture,'" all the 
members should follow the head. It is matter of doubt, 
moreover, to no one, that the church of the apostles is the 
mother of all the churches, from whose ordinances it is not 
right that you should deviate to any extent. And as the Son 
of God came to do the Father's will, so shall ye fulfil the will 
of your mother, which is the church, the head of which, as 
has been stated already, is the church of Eome. Wherefore, 
whatsoever may be done against tlie discipline of this church, 
Avithout the decision of justice, cannot on any account be 
permitted to be held valid. 

i Zech. viii. 1-19. - 1 Pet. iu. = i Cor. xii. 



[Of accusations against doctors.] 

Moreover, let no one take up an accusation against a 
doctor (teacher), because it is not right for sons to find fault 
with fathers, nor for slaves to wOund their masters. Now, 
all those whom they instruct are sons of doctors ; and as sons 
ought to love their fathers after the flesh, so ought they to 
love their spiritual fathers. For he does not live rightly 
who does not believe rightly, or who reprehends fathers, or 
calumniates them. Doctors therefore, who are also called 
fathers, are rather to be borne with than reprehended, unless 
they err from the true faith. Let no one, consequently, 
accuse a doctor by writing (^per scripta) ; neither let him 
answer to any accuser, unless he be one who Is trustworthy 
and recognised by law, and who leads also a life and conver- 
sation free from reproach. For it is a thing unworthy that a 
doctor should reply to a foolish and ignorant person, and one 
who leads a reprehensible life, according to the man's folly ; 
as Scripture says. Answer not a fool according to his folly .^ 
He does not live rightly who does not believe rightly. He 
means nothing evil who is faithful. If any one is faithful 
(a believer), let him see to it that he make no false allega- 
tions, nor lay a snare for any man. The faithful man acts 
always in faith ; and the unfaithful man plots cunningly, and 
strives to work the ruin of those who are faithful, and who 
live in piety and righteousness, because like seeks like. Tlie 
unfaithful man is one dead in the living body. And on the 
other hand, the discourse of the man of faith guards the 
life of his hearers. For as the catholic doctor, and especially 
the priest of the Lord, ought to be involved in no error, so 
ought he to be wronged by no machination or passion. Holy 
Scripture indeed says. Go not after thy lusts, but refrain 
thyself from thine appetites;^ and we must resist many 
allurements of this world, and many vanities, in order that 
the integrity of a true continence may be obtained, whereof 
the first blemish is pride, the beginning of transgression and 
^ Prov. xxvi. 4. - Ecclus. xviii. 30. 


the origin of sin ; for the mind with lustful will knows neither 
to abstain nor to give itself to pietj. No good man has an 
enemy except in the wicked, who are permitted to be such 
only in order that the good man may be corrected or exercised 
through their means. Whatever, therefore, is faultless is 
defended by the church catholic. Neither for prince, nor 
for any one who observes piety, is it lawful to venture any- 
thing contrary to the divine injunctions. Consequently an 
unjust judgment, or an unjust decision (difjinitio), instituted 
or enforced by judges under the fear or by the command of a 
prince, or any bishop or person of influence, cannot be valid. 
The religious man ought not to hold it enough merely to re- 
frain from entering into the enmities of others, or increasing 
them by evil speech, unless he also make it his study to extin- 
guish them by good speech.^ Better is a humble confession in 
evil deeds, than a proud boasting in good deeds.^ Moreover, 
all who live the blessed life, choose rather to run that course 
in the proper estate of peace and righteousness, than to involve 
themselves in the avenging pains of our sins.^ For I am 
mindful that I preside over the church under the name of 
him whose confession was honoured by our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and whose faith ever destroys all errors. And I 
understand that I am not at liberty to act otherwise than to 
expend all my efforts on that cause in which the well-being 
of the universal church is at stake {infestatur'). I hope, too, 
that the mercy of God will so favour us, that, with the help 
of His clemency, every deadly disease may be removed, God 
Himself expelUng it, and that whatever may be done whole- 
somely, under His inspiration and help, may be accomplished 
to the praise of thy faith and devotion. For all things 
cannot otherwise be safe, unless, as far as pertains to the 
service of the divine office, sacerdotal authority upholds them. 
Given on the 21st day of November, in the consulship of 
the most illustrious Antoninus and Alexander." 

1 See Augustine's Confessions, book ix. ch. ix. 

2 See Augustine on Ps. xciii. 

3 See Ambrose, Epistle xsi. 

4 In the yccar 222. 



[Of conspiracies and other illicit pursuits, that they be not engaged 
in, and of the restoration of the lapsed after penitence.] ; 

Callistus to our most dearly beloved brethren, all tlie 
bishops settled throughout Gaul. 

By the report of very many, we learn that your love, by 
the zeal of the Holy Spirit, holds and guides the helm of the 
church so firmly in the face of all assaults, that by God's 
will it is conscious neither of shipwreck nor of the losses 
of shipwreck. Rejoicing, therefore, in such testimonies, we 
beg you not to permit anything to be done in those parts 
contrary to the apostolic statutes ; but, supported by our 
authority, do ye check what is injurious, and prohibit what is 


[Of those who conspire against bishops, or who take part with such.] 

Now we have heard that the crime of conspiracies prevails 
in your parts, and it has been shown us that the people are 
conspiring against their bishops ; of which crime the craft is 
hateful, not only among Christians, but even among the 
heathen, and it is forbidden by foreign laws. And there- 
fore the laws not only of the church, but of the world, con- 
demn those who are guilty of this crime ; and not only those 
indeed who actually conspire, but those also who take part 
with such.^ Our predecessors, moreover, together with a very 
numerous body of bishops, ordained that any (guilty of this 
offence) among those who are set in the honour of the priest- 
hood, and who belong to the clergy, should be deprived of 
the honour which they enjoy ; and they ordered that others 
should be cut off from communion, and expelled from the 
church ; and they decreed, at the same time, that all men 
of both orders should be infamous (infames) ; and that, too, 
1 Cf. Eom. i. 32. 


not only for those who did the deed, but for those also who 
took part with such. For it is but equitable that those who 
despise the divine mandates, and prove themselves disobedient 
to the ordinances of the fathers, should be chastised with 
severer penalties, in order that others may fear to do such 
things, and that all may rejoice in brotherly concord, and all 
take to themselves the example of severity and goodness. For 
if (which may God forbid) we neglect the care of the church, 
and are regardless of its strength, our slothfulness will destroy 
discipline, and injury will be done assuredly to the souls of 
the faithful. Such persons, moreover, are not to be admitted 
to accuse any one : neither can their voice, nor that of those 
who are under the ban, injure or criminate any man. 


[Of those who have intercourse with excommunicated persons, or 
with unbelievers.] 

Those, too, who are excommunicated by the priests, let no 
one receive previous to the just examination of both sides ; 
nor let him have any intercourse with such in speech, or in 
eating or drinking, or in the salutation with the kiss, nor 
let him greet such ; because, whosoever wittingly holds inter- 
course with the excommunicated in these or other prohibited 
matters, will subject himself, according to the ordinance of 
the apostles,^ to like excommunication. From these, there- 
fore, let clergy and laity keep themselves, if they would not 
have the same penalty to endure. Also do not join the 
unbelievers, neither have any fellowship with them. They 
who do such things, indeed, are judged not as believers, 
but as unbelievers. Whence the apostle says : " What part 
hath he that believeth with an infidel ? or what fellowship 
hath righteousness with unrighteousness?"^ 

1 The reference is to the 11th and 12th of the canons of the apostles. 

2 2 Cor. vi. 14, 15. 



[That no bishop should presume in anything pertaining to another's 
parish, and of the transference of bishops.] 

Let no one, again, trespass upon the boundaries of another, 
nor presume to judge or excommunicate one belonging to 
another's parish ; because such judgment or ordination, or 
excommunication or condemnation, shall neither be ratified 
nor have any virtue; since no one shall be bound by the 
decision of another judge than his own, neither shall he be 
condemned by such. Whence also the Lord speaks to this 
effect : " Pass not the ancient landmarks which thy fathers 
have set."^ Moreover, let no primate or metropolitan [in- 
vade] the church or parish of a diocesan (dioecesani), or 
presume to excommunicate or judge any one belonging to his 
parish, or do anything without his counsel or judgment ; but 
let him observe this law, Avhich has been laid down by the 
apostles^ and fathers, and our predecessors, and has been 
ratifi.ed by us : to wit, that if any metropolitan bishop, except 
in that which pertains to his own proper parish alone, shall 
attempt to do anything without the counsel and good-will 
of all the con-provincial bishops, he will do it at the risk 
of his position, and what he does in this manner shall be 
held null and void; but whatever it may be necessary to 
do or to arrange with regard to the cases of the body 
of provincial bishops, and the necessities of their churches 
and clergy and laity, this should be done by consent of all 
the pontiffs of the same province, and that too without any 
pride of lordship, but with the most humble and harmonious 
action, even as the Lord says : " I came not to be ministered 
unto, but to minister."^ And in another passage he says : 
" And whosoever of you is the greater, shall be your servant,"* 
and so forth. And in like manner the bishops of the same 
province themselves should do all tilings in counsel with him, 
except so much as pertains to their own proper parishes, in 
accordance with the statutes of the holy fathers (who, although 

^ Prov. xxii. 28. ^ Canons 35 and 36. 

3 Matt. XX. 28. 4 ^^lark x. 44. 



they liave preceded us by a certain interval of time, have yet 
drawn the hght of truth and faith from one and the same 
fountain of purity, and have sought the prosperity of the 
church of God and the common advantage of all Christians 
by the same enlightening and guiding Spirit), that with one 
mind, and one mouth, and one accord, the Holy Trinity may 
be glorified for ever. No primate, no metropolitan, nor any 
of the other bishops, is at liberty to enter the seat of another, 
or to occupy a possession which does not pertain to him, and. 
which forms part of the parish of another bishop, at the 
direction of any one, unless he is invited by him to whose 
jurisdiction it is acknowledged to belong ; nor can he set 
about any arrangement or ordinance, or judgment there, if 
he wishes to keep the honour of his station. But if he pre- 
sume to do otherwise, he shall be condemned ; and not only 
he, but those who co-operate and agree with him : for just as 
the power of making appointments {ordinatio) is interdicted 
in such circumstances, so also is the power of judging or of 
disposing of other matters. For if a man has no power to 
appoint, how shall he judge? Without doubt, he shall in no 
wise judge or have power to judge : for just as another 
man's wife cannot intermarry with any one (adulter ari), nor 
be judged or disposed of by any one but by her own hus- 
band so long as he liveth ; so neither can it in anywise be 
allowed that the wife of a bishop, by whom undoubtedly is 
meant his church or parish, should be judged or disposed of 
by another without his (the bishop's) judgment and good-will 
so long as he liveth, or enjoy another's embrace, that is, his 
ordaining. Wherefore the apostle says : " The wife is bound 
by the law so long as her husband liveth ; but if he be dead, 
she is loosed from the law of her husband."^ In like manner 
also, the spouse of a bishop (for the church is called his 
spouse and wife) is bound to him while he liveth ; but when 
he is dead she is loosed, and may be wedded to whomsoever 
she will, only in the Lord, that is, according to order. For 
if, while he is alive, she marry another, she shall be judged 
to be an adulteress. And in the same manner, he too, if he 

1 Rom. vii. 2. 


marry another of his own -will, shall be held to be an 
adulterer, and shall be deprived of the privilege of com- 
munion. If, however, he is persecuted in his own church, he 
must flee to another, and attach himself to it, as the Lord says: 
" If they persecute you in one city, flee ye into another." ^ 
If, however, the change be made for the sake of the good [of 
the church], he may not do this of himself, but only on the 
invitation of the brethren, and with the sanction of this holy 
seat, and not for ambition's sake, but for the public good. 


[Of marriages among blood-relatioiis, and of those who are born of them ; 
and of accusations which the laws reject.] 

Moreover, marriages among blood-relations are forbidden, 
since all laws, both sacred and secular, forbid such. Where- 
fore the divine laws not only expel, but even anathematize 
those who do so, and those who spring from them. Secular 
laws, again, call such persons infamous, and interdict them 
from inheriting. And we too, following our fathers, and 
keeping close by their footsteps, brand such w^ith infamy, and 
hold them to be infamous, because they are sprinkled with 
the stains of infamy. Neither ought we to admit those men or 
their accusations, that secular laws reject. (For who doubts 
that human laws, when they are not inconsistent with reason 
and honour, are to be embraced, especially when they either 
further the public good or defend the authority of the 
ecclesiastical office, and uphold it as a help ?) And we call 
those blood-relations whom divine laws, and those of the 
emperors, both Koman and Greek, name blood-relations, and 
whom they admit to the right of inheriting, and cannot 
exclude from that. Marriages, then, between such are neither 
lawful nor capable of holding good, but are to be rejected. 
(And if any such are attempted in rash daring, they come to 
be rescinded by apostolic authority.) 
1 Matt. X. 23. 



[Of those who ouglit not to be admitted to prefer an accusation, or to 
bear witness ; and that evidence is not to be given but on things 
happening in the person's presence.] 

Whosoever, therefore, has not been lawfully married, or 
has been united without the dotal title (dotali titulo) and the 
blessing of a priest, cannot by any means bring a charge 
against priests, or those who are lawfully married, or bear 
witness against them, since every one who is polluted with 
the stain of incest is infamous, and is not allowed to accuse 
the above-named. And consequently not only they, but all 
those too who agree with them, are to be rejected, and are 
rendered infamous. We hold that the same should also be 
the case with robbers, or with those who assault the elderly. 
The laws of the world, indeed, put such persons to death ; 
but we, with whom mercy has the first place, receive them 
under the mark of infamy to repentance. That infamy also 
with which they are stained, we are not able to remove ; 
but our desire is to heal their souls by public penitence, 
and by satisfaction made to the church : for public sins are 
not to be purged by secret correction. Those, again, who 
are suspected in the matter of the right faith, should by 
no means be admitted to prefer charges against priests, 
and against those of whose faith there is no doubt; and 
such persons should be held of doubtful authority in matters 
of human testimony. Their voice, consequently, should 
be reckoned invalid whose faith is doubted ; and no credit 
should be ffiven to those who are ignorant of the right faith. 
Accordingly, in judgment, inquiry should be made as to the 
conversation and faith of the person who accuses, and of him 
who is accused ; since those who are not of correct conversa- 
tion and faith, and whose life is open to impeachment, are 
not allowed to accuse their elders, neither can such permission 
be given to those -whose faith and life and liberty are un- 
known. Nor should vile persons be admitted to accuse them. 
But a clear examination is to be made as to what kind of 
persons the accusers are Qimandce sunt enucleatim personce 


accusatorum) ; ' for they are not to be admitted readily ^vitllout 
writing, and are never to be admitted (as accusers) on mere 
writing. For no one may either accuse or be accused by mere 
writing, but with the living voice ; and every one must lay his 
accusation in the presence of him whom he seeks to accuse. 
And no credit should be given to any accuser in the absence of 
him whom he seeks to accuse. In like manner, witnesses must 
not prefer their evidence by writing only ; but they must give 
their testimony truthfully in their own persons, and in matters 
which they have seen and do know. And they are not to 
give evidence in any other cases or matters but in those which 
are known to have happened in their presence. Accusers, 
moreover, of one blood, are not to bear witness against those 
who are not related to the family, nor is that to be the case 
with domestics (familiares) or those proceeding from the 
house ; but if it is their wish, and they agree among them- 
selves, the parents only should give evidence in such cases, 
and not others. Neither accusers nor witnesses should be 
admitted who are open to any suspicion ; for the feeling of 
relationship, or friendship, or lordship, is wont to impede the 
truth. Carnal love, and fear, and avarice, commonly blunt 
the perceptions of men, and pervert their opinions ; so that 
they look on gain as godliness, and on money as the reward 
of prudence. Let no one, then, speak deceitfully to his neigh- 
bour.^ The mouth of the malevolent is a deep pit. The 
innocent man, while he believes easily, falls readily; but 
though he falls, he rises ; and the shuffler, with all his arts, 
goes headlong to ruin, whence he can never rise or escape. 
Therefore let every one weigh well his words, and let him not 
say to another what he would not say to himself. Whence the 
sacred Scripture says well : " Do not that to another which 
thou wouldest not have done to thyself."" For we need time 
to do anything perfectly (maturius) ; and let us not be precipi- 
tate in our counsels or our works, neither let us violate order. 
But if any one has fallen in anything, let us not consign him 
to ruin ; but let us reprove him with brotherly affection, as 
the blessed apostle says : *' If a man be overtaken in any 
1 Ps. xxiy. 4. 2 cf, Tobit iv. 15. 


fault, ye wliich are spiritual restore such an one in the spirit 
of meekness ; considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted. 
Bear ye one another's burden, and so will ye fulfil the law of 
Christ."^ Furthermore, the sainted David had deadly crimes 
to repent of, and yet he was continued in honour. The 
blessed Peter also shed the bitterest tears when he repented 
of having denied the Lord ; but still he abode an apostle. 
And the Lord by the prophet makes this promise to the 
sinning : " In the day that the sinner is converted, and re- 
penteth, I will not mention any more against him all his 
trans£fressions." ^ 



[As to ■whether a priest may mmister after a lapse.] 

For those are in error who think that the priests of the 
Lord, after a lapse, although they may have exhibited true 
repentance, are not capable of ministering to the Lord, and 
engaging their honourable offices, though they may lead a 
good life thereafter, and keep their priesthood correctly. And 
those who hold this opinion are not only in error, but also seem 
to dispute and act in opposition to (the power of) the keys com- 
mitted to the church, whereof it is said : " Whatsoever ye shall 
loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven."^ And in short, this 
opinion either is not the Lord's, or it is true. But (be that as 
it may) m'G believe without hesitation, that both the priests 
of the Lord and other believers may return to their honours 
after a proper satisfaction for their error, as the Lord Himself 
testifies by His prophet : " Shall he who falls not also rise 
again? and shall he who turns away not return?"^ And in 
another passage the Lord says : " I desire not the death of the 
sinner, but that he may turn, and live."" And the prophet 
David, on his repentance, said : " Restore unto me the joy of 
Thy salvation, and uphold me with Thy free Spirit."^ And 
he indeed, after his repentance, taught others also, and offered 

1 Gal. vi. 1,4. 2 Y,zdk. xviii. 21, 22. - Matt, xviii. 18. 

•* Jer. viii. 4. ^ Ezek, xviii. 32 and xxxiii. 11. 

« Ps. li. ].2. 


sacrifice to God, giving thereby an example to the teachers 
of the holy church, that if they have fallen, and thereafter 
have exhibited a riglit repentance to God, they may do both 
things in like manner. For he taught when he said : " I 
will teach transgressors Thy ways, and sinners shall be con- 
verted unto Thee."^ And he offered sacrifice for himself, 
while he said : "The sacrifice for God is a broken spirit.""^ 
For the prophet, seeing his own transgressions purged by 
repentance, had no doubt as to healing those of others by 
preaching, and by making offering to God. Thus the shed- 
ding of tears moves the mind's feeling {passionem). And 
when the satisfaction is made good, the mind is turned aside 
from anger. For how does that man think that mercy will 
be shown to himself, who does not forgive his neighbour ? If 
offences abound, then, let mercy also abound ; for with the 
Lord there is mercy, and with Him is plenteous redemption.^ 
In the Lord's hand there is abundance of all things, because 
He is the Lord of powers (virtuium) and the King of glory.'* 
For the apostle says : " All have sinned, and come short of the 
glory of God ; being justified freely by His grace, through the 
redemption that is in Jesus Christ : whom God hath set forth 
to be a propitiation through faith in His blood, to declare His 
righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through 
the forbearance of God ; to declare, / sai/, at this time His 
righteousness, that He might be just, and the justifier of him 
which believeth in Jesus." ^ And David says: "Blessed 
are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are 
covered.'"' Man, therefore, is cleansed of his sin, and rises 
again by the grace of God though he has fallen, and abides 
in his first position, according to the above-cited authorities. 
Let him see to it that he sin no more, that the sentence of 
the Gospel may abide in him : " Go, and sin no more." ' 
Whence the apostle says : " Let not sin therefore reign in 
your mortal body, that ye should obey the lusts thereof : 
neither yield ye your members as instruments of unrighteous- 

1 Ps. li. 13. 2 Ps. li. 17. 3 Ps. cxxx. 7. 

* Ps. xxiv. 10. * Eom. iii. 23-2G. « Ps. xxxii. 1. 

' John viii. 11 


ness unto sin : l)ut yield yourselves unto God, as those tnat 
are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments 
of righteousness unto God. For sin shall not have dominion 
over you : for ye are not under the law, but under grace. 
What then ? shall we sin because we are not under the law, 
but under grace ? God forbid. Know ye not, that to whom 
ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to 
whom ye obey ; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience 
unto righteousness ? But God be thanked, that ye were the 
servants of sin ; but ye have obeyed from the heart that form 
of doctrine which was delivered you. Being then made free 
from sin, ye became the servants of righteousness. I speak 
after the manner of men."^ For greater is the sin of him 
who judgeth, than of him who is judged. " Thinkest thou," 
says the apostle, " O man, that judgest them that do such 
things, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the judg- 
ment of God ? or despisest thou the riches of His goodness, 
and forbearance, and long-suffering? Dost thou not know 
that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance ? But, 
after thy hardness and impenitent heart, thou treasurest up 
unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of 
the righteous judgment of God ; who will render to every man 
according to his deeds : to them who, by patient continuance 
in well-doing, seek for glory, and honour, and immortality, 
eternal life ; but unto them that are contentious, and do not 
obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and 
wrath, tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man 
that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and (also) of the Greek: 
but glory, honour, and peace, to every man that worketh 
good."^ My brethren, shun not only the holding, but even 
the hearing, of the judgment that bans mercy ; for better is 
mercy than all whole burnt-offerings and sacrifices.^ We 
have replied to your interrogations shortly, because your 
letter found us burdened overmuch, and preoccupied with 
other judgments. Given on the 8th day of October, in the 
consulship of the most illustrious Antonine and Alexander."* 

1 Rom. vi. 12-19. ^ Rom. iii. 3-10. 

s Mark xii. 33. ^ In the year 222. 



Ueban was the successor of Calllstus. The letter ascribed to 
him is one of the pseudo-Isidorian forgeries. 

•[Mansi, Condi. Collect, i. p. 748.] 

Of the cliurch's receiving only tlie property of the faithful, and not 
the price of the same, as in the times of the apostles; and as to why 
elevated seats should be prepared in the churches for the bishops ; 
and as to the fact that no one should have intercourse with those 
whom the bishops excommunicate, and that no one should receive 
those whom they have cast out in any manner whatever. 

1. Of the life in common, and of the reason why the church has begun 

to hold property. 

2. Of the persons by whom, and the uses for which, ecclesiastical pro- 

perty should be managed, and of the invaders thereof. 
.3. As to any one's attempting to take from the church the right of hold- 
ing property. 

4. Of the seats of the bishops. 

5. That no one should have intercourse with those with whom the bishop 

has no intercourse, or receive those whom he rejects. 

6. Of the engagement made in baptism, and of those who have given 

thepaselves to the life in common. 

7. Of the imposition of the bishop's hand. 

E,BAN, bishop, to all Christians, in sanctification 
of the spirit, in obedience and sprinkling of the 
blood of Jesus Christ our Lord, greeting. 

It becomes all Christians, most dearly beloved, 
to imitate Him whose name they have received. " What 
doth it profit, my brethren," says the Apostle James, "though 



a man say he hatli faith, and have not works ?"^ '^J^fy 
brethren, be not many masters, knoAving that ye receive 
(sumitis) the greater condemnation ; for in many things we 
offend all." ^ " Let him who is a wise man, and endued with 
knowledge among you, show out of a good conversation his 
works with meekness of wisdom." ^ 

"\Ye know that yon arc not ignorant of tlie fact that 
hitherto the principle of living with all things in common has 
been in vigorous operation among good Christians, and is 
still so by the grace of God ; and most of all among those 
who have been chosen to the lot of the Lord, that is to say, the 
clergy, even as we read in the Acts of the Apostles : " And 
the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of 
one soul : neither said any of them that ought of the things 
which he possessed was his own; but they had all things 
common. And with great power gave the apostles witness 
of the resurrection of Jesus Christ : and great grace was 
tipon them all. Neither was there any among them that 
lacked : for as many as were possessors of lands or houses 
sold them, and brought the prices of the things that were 
sold, and laid them down at the apostles' feet : and distribu- 
tion was made unto every man according as he had need. 
And Joseph, who by the apostles was surnamed Barnabas 
(which is, being interpreted, the son of consolation), a Levite, 
and of the country of Cyprus, having land, sold it, and 
brought the money, and laid it at the apostles' feet;"* and so 
forth. Accordingly, as the chief priests and others, and the 
Levites, and the rest of the faithful, perceived that it might 
be of more advantage if they handed over to the churches 
over which the bishops presided the heritages and fields 
which they were in the way of selling, inasmuch as they 
might furnish a larger and better maintenance for the faith- 
ful who hold the common faith, not only in present but also 
in future times, out of the revenues of such property than out 

1 Jas. ii. 14. =» Jas. iii. 1, 2. 

3 Jas. iii. 13. * Acts iv. 32-87. 


of the money for whicli tliey might at once be sold, they 
began to consign to the mother churches the property and 
lands which they were wont to sell, and got into the manner 
of living on the revenues of these. 


The property, moreover, in the possession of the several 
parishes was left in the hands of the bishops, who hold the 
place of the apostles ; and it is so to this day, and ought to 
be so in all future time. And out of those possessions the 
bishops and the faithful as their stewards ought to furnish to 
all who v.'ish to enter the life in common all necessaries as 
they best can, so that none may be found in want among 
them. For the possessions of the faithful are also called 
oblations, because they are offered to the Lord. They ought 
not therefore to be turned to any other uses than those of 
the church, and in behoof of Christian brethren before men- 
tioned, and of the poor; for they are the offerings of the 
faithful, and they are redemption moneys for sins (pretia 
peccatoruni), and the patrimony of the poor, and are given over 
to the Lord for the purpose already named. But if any one act 
otherwise (which may God forbid), let him take care lest he 
meet the condemnation of Ananias and Sapphira, and be found 
guilty of sacrilege, as those were who lied as to the price of 
the property designated, of whom we read thus in the before- 
cited passage of the Acts of the Apostles: "But a certain man 
named Ananias, with Sapphira his wife, sold land (agnim), 
and kept back part of the price, his wife also being privy to 
it, and brought a certain part, and laid it at the apostles' feet. 
But Peter said to Ananias, Why hath Satan tempted {tenia- 
vit) WnnQ heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back part 
of the price of the land ? Whiles it remained, was it not thine 
own ? and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power % 
Why hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart '? Thou 
hast not lied unto men, but unto the Lord. And Ananias, 
hearing these words, fell down, and gave up the ghost. And 
great fear came on all them that heard [these things]. And 
the young men arose, and removed him (amoverimt), and 


carried liim out, and buried liim. And it was about the space 
of three hours after, when his wife, not knowing what was 
done, came in. And Peter answered unto her, and said. 
Tell me whether ye sold the land for so much "? And she 
said. Yea, for so much. Then Peter said unto her. How is 
it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the 
Lord ? Behold, the feet of them which have buried thy 
husband are at the door, and shall carry thee out. Then fell 
she down straightway at his feet, and yielded up the ghost. 
And the young men came in, and found her dead, and, carry- 
ing her forth, buried her by her husband. And great fear 
came upon all the church, and upon as many as heard these 
things." ^ These things, brethren, are carefully to be guarded 
against, and greatly to be feared. For the property of the 
church, not being like personal, but like common property, 
and property offered to the Lord, is to be dispensed with the 
deepest fear, in the spirit of faithfulness, and for no other 
objects than the above-named, lest those should incur the 
guilt of sacrilege who divert it from the hands to which it 
was consigned, and lest they should come under the punish- 
ment and death of Ananias and Sapphira, and lest (which is 
yet worse) they should become anathema maranatha, and lest, 
though their body may not fall dead like that of Ananias and 
Sapphira, their soul, which is nobler than the body, should 
fall dead, and be cut off from the company of the faithful, 
and sink into the depths of the pit. Wherefore all must give 
heed to this matter, and watch in faithfulness, and avert the 
dishonour of such usurpation, lest possessions dedicated to the 
uses of things secret (or sacred) and heavenly be spoiled by 
any parties invading them. And if any one do so, then, after 
the sharp vengeance which is due to such a crime, and which 
is justly to be carried out against the sacrilegious, let him 
be condemned to perpetual infamy, and cast into prison or 
consigned to life-long exile. For, according to the apostle,^ 
we ought to deliver such a man to Satan, that the spirit may 
be saved in the day of the Lord. 

1 Acts V. 1-11. 2 X Cor. V. 5. 



By the increase, therefore, and the mode of life which 
have been mentioned, the churches over which the bishops 
preside have grown so greatly with the help of the Lord, and 
the greater part of them are now in possession of so much 
property, that among them there is not a man who, selecting 
the life in common, is kept in poverty ; but such an one 
receives all necessaries from the bishop and his ministers. 
Therefore, if any one in modern or in future times shall rise 
up and attempt to divert that property, let him be smitten 
with the judgment which has been already mentioned. 


Furthermore, as to the fact that in the churches of the 
bishops there are found elevated seats set up and prepared like 
a throne, they show by these that the power- of inspection and 
of judging, and the authority to loose and bind, are given to 
them by the Lord. Whence the Saviour Himself says in 
the Gospel, "Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be 
bound in heaven ; and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth 
shall be loosed in heaven."^ And elsewhere: "Receive ye 
the Holy Ghost. Whose soever sins ye remit, are remitted 
unto them ; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are 


These things, then, we have set before you, most dearly 
beloved, in order that ye may understand the power of your 
bishops, and give reverence to God in them, and love them 
as your own souls ; and in order that ye may have no com- 
munication with those with whom they have none, and that 
ye may not receive those whom they have cast out. For the 
judgment of a bishop is greatly to be feared, although he 
may bind one unjustly, which, however, he ought to guard 
against with the utmost care. 

1 Matt, xviii. 18. 2 John xx. 22, 23. 



And in exhorting you, we also admonish all who have 
embraced the faith of Christ, and who have taken from Christ 
the name of Christian, that ye make your Christianity vain 
in no respect, but keep stedfastly the engagement which ye 
took upon yourselves in baptism, so that ye maybe found not 
reprobate, but worthy in His presence. And if any one of 
vou has entered the life which has all thincfs common, and 
has taken the vow to hold no private propert}^, let him see to 
it that he make not his promise vain, but let him keep with 
all faithfulness this engagement which he has made to the 
Lord, so that he may acquire for himself not damnation, but 
a reward ; for it is better for a man not to take a vow at all, 
than not to discharge to the best of his ability the vow that 
he has made. For they who have made a vow, or taken on 
them the faith, and have not kept their vow, or have carried 
out their life in things evil, are punished more severely than 
those who have carried out their life without a vow, or have 
died without faith, but not without doing good works. For 
to this end have we received a reasonable mind by the gift 
of nature, and the renewal also of the second birth, that, 
according to the apostle, we may discern {sapiamus) rather 
things above, and not things on the earth ;^ for the wisdom 
of this world is foolishness with God.^ For to what, most 
dearly beloved, does the wisdom of this world urge us, but to 
seek things that are hurtful, and to love things that are to 
perish, and to neglect things that are healthful, and to esteem 
as of no value things that are lasting? It commends the love 
of money, of which it is said, The love of money is the root 
of all evil ; ^ and which has this evil in especial, that while it 
obtrudes the transitory, it hides from view the eternal ; and 
while it looks on things that are outside, it does not look in 
upon things that lurk within; and while it seeks after strange 
things, it is an evil that makes itself strange to him who does 
it."* Behold, to what does the wisdom of this world urge a 

1 Col. iii. 2. - 1 Cor. iii. 19. 

8 1 Tim. vi. 10. * " Sectatori," for which read " factor!." 


man ? To live in pleasures. Whence it is said : A widow 
that liveth in pleasure, is dead while she liveth.^ It urges 
a man to feed the flesh with the softest delights, with sins, 
and vices, and flames, to press the soul with intemperance in 
food and wine, and to check the life of the spirit, and to put 
into his enemy's hand the sword to be used against himself. 
Behold, what is the counsel which the wisdom of this world 
gives ? That those who are good should choose rather to be 
evil, and that in error of mind they should be zealous to be 
sinners, and should not bethink themselves of that terrible 
voice of God, when the wicked shall be burned up like grass.'"^ 


For all the faithful ought to receive the Holy Spirit after 
baptism by imposition of the hand of the bishops, so that they 
may be found to be Christians fully ; because when the Holy 
Spirit is shed upon them, the believing heart is enlarged for 
prudence and stedfastness. We receive of the Holy Spirit in 
order that we may be made spiritual ; for the natural man 
receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God.^ We receive 
of the Holy Spirit in order that we may be wise to discern 
between good and evil, to love the just, and to loathe the 
unjust, so as to withstand malice and pride, and resist luxury 
and divers allurements, and impure and unworthy lust. We 
receive of the Holy Spirit in order that, fired with the love 
of life and the ardour of glory, we may be able to raise our 
mind from things earthly to things heavenly and divine. — 
Given on the Nones of September, — that is, on the fifth day 
of the same month, in the consulship of the most illustrious 
Antonine and Alexander. 

^ 1 Tim. V. 6. -Ps. xcii. 7. s i Cor. ii. 14. 



Nothing is known of Asterius Urbanus. The name occurs 
in Fragment iv., translated in p. 228 ; and from tlie allu- 
sion made to him there, some have inferred that he was 
the author of the work against the Montanists, from which 
Eusebius has made these extracts. The inference is un- 
founded. There is no clue to the authorship. It has been 
attributed by different critics to Apollinaris, ApoUonius, and 

[Gallandi, vol. iii. p. 273, from Eusebius, Ilist. Eccl. v. ch. 16, 17.] 

lAVING now for a very long and surely a very 
sufficient period had the charge pressed upon me 
by thee, my dear Avircius^ Marcellus, to write 
some sort of treatise against the heresy that 
bears the name of Miltiades,^ I have somehow been very 

^ The manuscripts write the name ^Aovipxtog, Avii'cius ; but Nice- 
pliorus (book iv.) gives it as ^A(2ip>iio;, Abercius. 

2 Nicepliorus adds I'aov B' sl'Treh Movretvov, which seems, however, to be 
but a scholium. It may appear difficult to account for the fact that the 
name of Miltiades rather than that of Montauus is associated with the 
heresy of the Cataphrygians, and some consequently have conjectured 
that we should read here Alcibiades, as that is a name mentioned in con- 



, doubtfully disposed toward tlie task up till now ; not that I 
felt any difficulty in refuting the falsehood, and in bearing 
my testimony to the truth, but that I was apprehensive and 
fearful lest I should appear to any to be adding some new 
word or precept^ to the doctrine of the gospel of the New 
Testament, with respect to which indeed it is not possible for 
one who has chosen to have his manner of life in accordance 
with the gospel itself, either to add anything to it or to take 
away anything from it. Being recently, however, at Ancyra, 
a town of Galatia, and finding the church in Pontus " greatly 
agitated^ by this new prophecy, as they call it, but which 
should rather be called this false prophecy, as shall be shown 
presently, I discoursed to the best of my ability, with the help 
of God, for many days in the church, both on these subjects 
and on various others ^ which were brought under my notice 
by them. And this I did in such manner that the church 
rejoiced and was strengthened in the truth, while the adver- 
saries^ were forthwith routed, and the opponents put to grief. 
And the presbyters of the place accordingly requested us to 
leave behin